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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 6 • Date June 1967

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 91
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 737 - 740
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Measurement accuracy at radio frequencies

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 741
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (141 KB)  

    The interdependence of science and technology and measurement capability is especially significant in measurements at radio frequencies. An example of this symbiotic relationship involves microwave spectroscopy and quantum electronics. Accuracy of measurements at radio frequencies is highly critical in satellites and similar craft. Growing international cooperation in the exploitation of satellite... View full abstract»

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  • The international scientific radio union—URSI

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 742
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    The history, purpose, and functioning of URSI, and the relationship of the United States National Committee of URSI to the IEEE, are described. A few examples demonstrating the interest of the Union in the field of this special issue of the PROCEEDINGS are given. View full abstract»

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  • The functions of commission I of the international scientific radio union

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 743 - 745
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    The distinctive task of Commission I of the International Scientific Radio Union (URSI) is to extend the ability of all radio scientists to make valid measurements as a necessary means for the international exchange of scientific and engineering results. The Commission concentrates on: improved measurement methods applicable either to new phenomena or to closer tolerances for familiar phenomena, t... View full abstract»

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  • International comparison of HF and microwave electromagnetic quantities

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 745 - 747
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB)  

    Activities to establish international agreement on measurements of high-frequency electrical quantities have been in progress since 1957 at the initiative of the International Scientific Radio Union (URSI) and the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM). Results accomplished and the overall up-to-date status are presented. View full abstract»

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  • World-wide control of industrial radio-electronic measurement accuracy

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 748 - 758
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    Economic expansion of industrial countries is dependent upon production and export of well-qualified and reliable products. National industrial controls, through a single unified Measurements System, establish compatibility of an export-nation's products with an import-nation's requirements as well as supplying internal national needs A survey was conducted in 1966 to determine the extent to which... View full abstract»

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  • Radio-frequency standardization activities

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 759 - 773
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1385 KB)  

    Adequate standards are essential to the practice of engineering. In no other fieid is this requirement more pressing than in the radio-frequency portion of the spectrum. This paper describes the organizations involved and the processes followed in the generation adoption, and dissemination of Standards Documents concerned with RF measurements. A listing of organization engaged in this activity, cu... View full abstract»

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  • Universities and RF measurement

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 774
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    RF measurement offers an excellent opportunity to university students and practitioners to advance knowledge. Progress in the field requires better RF measurements, especially for improvement of systems. View full abstract»

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  • A systems concept of electromagnetic measurements in the U. S. A.

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 775 - 778
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    A systems concept of the measurement activities in the United States is briefly reviewed. This concept is the one recently proposed (1966) by R. D. Huntoon and named the "National Mesurement System" by him. His description of the role of the Institute for Basic Standards and its parent organization, the National Bureau of Standards, as a functional element of the system is summarized. Following th... View full abstract»

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  • The role of the NBS radio standards laboratory

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 778 - 781
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    This paper describes three major roles played by the NBS Radio Standards Laboratory in the field of electromagnetic measurements. It highlights the primary technical areas of the Laboratory with specific examples of the work involved, and mentions the various services which the Laboratory provides to the nation. It also describes the dynamic character and wide range of research in radio metrology ... View full abstract»

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  • The conference on precision electromagnetic measurements

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 782
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    The character and scope of the biennial Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) are described. Some of its history is recounted and its increasing international coverage is noted. View full abstract»

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  • Quartz frequency standards

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 783 - 791
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1722 KB)  

    This paper reviews progress made over the past few years in the field of quartz crystal frequency standards. Several accomplishments which are thought to be of special importance are discussed in detail. These subjects include, among others, quartz vibrator enclosures, modes of motion including the "trapped energy" concept, and studies of quartz material. It has been demonstrated that the Q of syn... View full abstract»

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  • A historical review of atomic frequency standards

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 792 - 805
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2858 KB)  

    An attempt is made to trace the historical development of the leading contenders in the atomic frequency standards field--cesium and thallium atomic beam devices, rubidium gas cell standard, and the hydrogen maser. Many of the important experiments leading to the development of techniques basic to the various types of standards, such as the magnetic resonance method, optical pumping, buffer gases ... View full abstract»

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  • The relative merits of atomic frequency standards

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 805 - 814
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1085 KB)  

    The relative merits of atomic frequency standards based upon resonances in hydrogen, rubidium, or cesium depend upon the particular application and the specific requirement for each of several performance factors combined with physical characteristics. While the properties of an ideal atomic frequency standard may be established, practical instruments depart from the ideal as the result of comprom... View full abstract»

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  • Some characteristics of commonly used time scales

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 815 - 821
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB)  

    Various examples of ideally defined time scales are given. Realizations of these scales occur with the construction and maintanance of various clocks, and in the broadcast dissemination of the scale information. Atomic and universal time scales disseminated via standard frequency and time-signal broadcasts are compared. There is a discussion of some studies of the associated problems suggested by ... View full abstract»

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  • The development of an international atomic time scale

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 822 - 826
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB)  

    The paper reviews briefly the methods of generating atomic time and the errors inherent in the resulting scales. An atomic clock consists of an atomic frequency standard and an "integrator" to accumulate the phase of the signal. Because of noise perturbing the instantaneous frequency, an ensemble of identical atomic clocks will show a distribution of (epoch) times which is unbounded as the system ... View full abstract»

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  • Distribution of standard frequency and time signals

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 827 - 836
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB)  

    This paper reviews the present methods of distributing standard frequency and time signals (SFTS), which include the use of high-frequency, low-frequency, and very-low-frequency radio signals, portable clocks, satellites, and RF cables and lines. The range of accuracies attained with most of these systems is included along with an indication of the sources of error. Information is also included on... View full abstract»

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  • Radio frequency power measurements

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 837 - 850
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB)  

    The need for improved accuracy in and understanding of all kinds of measurements has come with the recent rapid advances in modern technology. Radio frequency power measurement is no exception to this requirement. The basic principles of bolometric, calorimetric, and certain other types of power meters are reviewed. The methods for making accurate RF power measurements are discussed in detail. Emp... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of RF peak pulse power

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 851 - 855
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB)  

    This paper is a survey of the principal methods developed during the past twenty years for the measurement of RF peak pulse power. The basic principles involved for each method are described together with accuracies attainable under normal operating conditions. General techniques for pulse power measurement and precautions to be observed are also given. View full abstract»

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  • The measurement of baseband pulse rise times of less than 10-9second

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 855 - 864
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1130 KB)  

    Tiffs is a review paper dealing with the measurement of fractional nanosecond pulse rise time in which the following subjects are discussed: oscillographic systems, pulse comparison techniques, a basic instrumentation system, and the distortion of pulses by transmission lines. Extensive references are provided. Included in the discussion is a delineation of equivalent-time oscillographic sampling ... View full abstract»

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  • Noise standards, measurements, and receiver noise definitions

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 865 - 877
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1458 KB)  

    This paper consists of four sections covering 1) basic principles of noise measurement, 2) the switching radiometer, 3) a survey of noise sources, and 4) concepts of noise factor and noise temperature. The first section presents basic formulas used in analyzing radiometers. The second discusses the switching radiometer, briefly tracing its development and usage in the standards field. The third se... View full abstract»

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  • Voltage measurement at high and microwave frequencies in coaxial systems

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 877 - 882
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1164 KB)  

    The progress and up-to-date state-of-the-art in measuring voltages at frequencies to 10 GHz and higher is briefly described. The trend towards higher frequencies in voltmeter design is indicated. Advantages of voltage measurements and standards over computation of voltages from power and impedance measurements are briefly discussed. Some pending development problems are indicated and major steps a... View full abstract»

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  • Peak pulse voltage measurement

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 882 - 885
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    Several methods are presently being used for the measurement of pulse voltage. Oscilloscopes are particularly useful because they provide information concerning the shape of the pulse, besides a measure of the peak voltage. In addition to the oscilloscope, several peak voltmeter circuits are mentioned. These include pulse stretching, sampling, and the slideback method. A standard pulse generator i... View full abstract»

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  • The measurement of current at radio frequencies

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 886 - 891
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB)  

    The state-of-the-art of radio-frequency current measurement is reviewed with emphasis on the most useful standards. In particular, thermocouple and electrodynamic ammeters are discussed in detail. Reference is made to photoammeters, air thermometer milliammeters, and other types of current-measuring apparatus, some of which deserve additional development. Extensive referencing is included for the ... View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University