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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 3 • March 1967

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 91
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):251 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Redundancy reduction—A practical method of data compression

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):253 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2683 KB)

    Acceptance of redundancy reduction as a practical method of bandwidth and/or power conservation is a significant tread in aerospace communication and telemetry. Techniques for accomplishing data compression are discussed, examples of performance are given, and a machine design for aerospace vehicle use is described. Methods of achieving greater flexibility by combining the redundancy reduction tec... View full abstract»

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  • Application of redundancy reduction to television bandwidth compression

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):263 - 266
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB)

    Redundancy reduction processes have proven highly effective in compressing the bandwidth of pictorial data. Compression is achieved by approximating the video time function with polynomial sequences. This paper presents experimental results obtained by computer simulation, demonstrating the effectiveness of redundancy reduction when applied to different examples of pictorial material. Some of the ... View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive data compression

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):267 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1318 KB)

    Data compression techniques are classified into four categories which describe the effect a compression method has on the form of the signal transmitted. Each category is defined and examples of techniques in each category are given. Compression methods which have received previous investigation, such as the geometric aperture methods, as well as techniques which have not received much attention, ... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of some redundancy removal bandwidth compression techniques

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):278 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (853 KB)

    Three redundancy removal bandwidth compression algorithms --the floating-aperture predictor, the zero-order interpolator, and the fan interpolator--are analyzed. Theoretical expressions are found for the mean and mean-square times between output samples of these devices when the input signal is a Markov process. These expressions are evaluated for the case in which the input is a first-order Gauss... View full abstract»

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  • A bound on signal-to-quantizing noise ratios for digital encoding systems

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):287 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB)

    When an analog signal is encoded into digital form and then decoded back into an analog signal, quantizing noise is always introduced. The amount of quantizing noise which contaminates the decoded analog signal is inextricably tied to the amount of redundancy present in the signal and in the digital bit stream. Reducing the quantizing noise and, therefore, increasing the fidelity of the resulting ... View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Optimization of directivity and signal-to-noise ratio of an arbitrary antenna array"

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s): 292
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  • Study of an adaptive quantizer

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):293 - 297
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)

    An adjustable uniform quantizer dependent on observation of blocks of quantized samples is investigated. In this quantizer, the range the samples are expected to occupy within a block is predicted from observation of the previous block. Then the upper and lower saturation levels of the quantizer are adjusted independently to correspond to this predicted range. This procedure is repeated for each n... View full abstract»

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  • Linear and adaptive delta modulation

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):298 - 308
    Cited by:  Papers (85)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)

    New results are presented, offering insight into the performance and optimization of linear and adaptive delta modulation, together with a comparison with pulse code modulation. The results are applied to three cases of practical interest: television, speech, and broadband signals. The results are presented as follows: first, a characterization of the quantization noise of linear delta modulation ... View full abstract»

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  • Statistical delta modulation

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):308 - 319
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1170 KB)

    This report describes the results of a study of Statistical Delta Modulation (SDM), a new method of digital transmission of analog information [1]. In this method the system design is tailored to the statistical properties of the input data so as to provide analog reconstruction values with a minimum mean squared error. The method of system design is an iterative procedure in which conditional mea... View full abstract»

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  • Picture coding

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):320 - 330
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1613 KB)

    A critical view is presented of the development of certain picture coding systems. An attempt is made to unify the treatment of these systems by emphasizing the reaction of the observer to the types of alteration introduced into the transmitted signal, on the basis of what is known about vision. For the purpose of casting a number of apparently different techniques into similar forms, the relation... View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations in PCM transmission of low-resolution monochrome still pictures

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):331 - 335
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1563 KB)

    We present some results concerning the effects of changes in system parameters on the picture quality in PCM transmission systems. We restrict our attention to low-resolution monochrome still pictures, and discuss in particular the effects of the number of samples per frame, the number of brightness levels, the scanning pattern, and the channel noise, with a view to the optimal choice of these par... View full abstract»

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  • Image transmission by two-dimensional contour coding

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):336 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (53)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3373 KB)

    The results of a computer simulation of an image transmission system are reported. A reduction in the total number of bits required to describe a picture by a factor of 4 to 23 is possible as compared with 6-bit PCM. In this system an image is treated as a two-dimensional signal of the spatial coordinates x and y. The large changes in brightness in a picture occur at the edges of objects and are a... View full abstract»

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  • Subjective evaluation of PCM noise-feedback coder for television

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):346 - 353
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB)

    An optimization of a PCM coding system has been evaluated. The system consists of a linear signal predistortion filter, a linear network in a noise-feedback loop around the quantizer, and a linear reconstruction network. Synthesis procedures for these filters to minimize the runs weighted noise have been reported [1]. Results of a program of subjective testing show that the subjectively optimum sy... View full abstract»

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  • A pseudo-random quantizer for television signals

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):353 - 355
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB)

    A pseudo-random quantizer has been constructed to operate in a standard 405-line television system using a digital channel of only two bits per sample capacity. The "dirty window" effect on moving pictures of a synchronized dither signal has been converted to noiselike flicker equivalent to 30 dB S/N ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Results of a prototype television bandwidth compression scheme

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):356 - 364
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2025 KB)

    The transmitter/receiver system for bandwidth or data-rate compression of television signals, described herein, is a prototype model of the experimental system of Cherry et al. [1]. The system is suitable for both black-and-white or half-tone pictures, in realistic noise conditions. The system parameters my be adjusted so that an optimum run-length encoding may be found; the great advantages of ru... View full abstract»

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  • Source-receiver encoding of television signals

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):364 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2289 KB)

    The first stage of efficiently coding television signals--the nonreversible process of obtaining a discrete signal--is investigated. The process depends on the properties of the source and the receiver which in this case is the human sense of vision. Emphasis is given to the examination of the properties of the receiver and the selection of an appropriate criterion of performance. The criterion ad... View full abstract»

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  • A realistic model for visual communication systems

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):380 - 389
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1370 KB)

    In this paper Shannon's model of a communication system is extended to allow for the influence of the human viewer on the encoding and decoding processes. The extended model is shown to represent actual visual systems more realistically and to lead to the design of viewer-oriented codes which maximize the fidelity of transmission. Systematic procedures for the calculation of these codes are sugges... View full abstract»

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  • Printed english compression by dictionary encoding

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):390 - 396
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)

    The ability of a dictionary encoder to reduce the redundancy of printed English text is evaluated by simulation on a general-purpose digital computer. The dictionary encoder matches segments of the input text to entries of a stored dictionary which contains frequently occurring sequences of letters. The text is thus defined as the succession of code designations corresponding to the selected dicti... View full abstract»

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  • Bandwidth compression of speech by analytic-signal rooting

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):396 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB)

    If s(t) is a real, band-limited signal, the corresponding analytic signal is defined as s(t)+js^(t), where s^(t) is the Hilbert transform of s(t). For signals whose spectral width is due primarily to large-index frequency modulation, the "square-rooted" signal, defined as s½(t) = Re [s(t) + js^(t)]½, has approximately only half the b... View full abstract»

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  • A new type of latching switchable ferrite junction circulator

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):407 - 408
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    The letter describes a new type of extremely compact latching switchable ferrite junction circulator that is well suited for application requiring fast (approximately two microseconds), low-energy (tens of microjoules in the microwave region) switching. The letter presents results of an approximate theory and initial experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Power spectrum of a recorded sinewave

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):408 - 409
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB)

    Power spectrum and band speading of a recorded sinewave due to random flutter is analyzed for the general case, in contrast to a previous correspondence in which a rectangular flutter spectrum was assumed. Results are expressed in terms of mean-square flutter and time-base-error, which can be determined readily with proper instrumentationn. View full abstract»

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  • A method of avoiding loss of accuracy in nodal analysis

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):409 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (214 KB)

    Conventional steady-state nodal analysis may lead to inaccurate answers if some admittances in the network are very much greater than others. It is shown that this inaccuracy can be avoided by pivotal condensation of the indefinite (instead of the usual definite) admittance matrix. View full abstract»

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  • Cutoff frequencies of uniform waveguides of regular polygonal cross section

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):410 - 411
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB)

    This letter deals with the problem of calculating the cutoff frequencies of hollow piped waveguides of regular polygonal cross section. By conformally transforming the given cross section onto a unit circle, the boundary conditions can be identically satisfied; however, the transformed partial differential equation must be solved by approximate procedures. The results are considered excellent, dem... View full abstract»

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