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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • April 1966

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 85
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):447 - 448
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Propagation observations at 3.2 millimeters

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):449 - 454
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB)

    A millimeter-wave system for the transmission and reception of television signals has been constructed. The propagation path is 450 meters above sea level at the transmitter and traverses an 18.95-km path to the receiver, which is at an elevation of 39 meters atop a two-story building in El Segundo, Calif. The elevation angle is 1.17 degrees when corrected for curvature and refraction. Received pi... View full abstract»

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  • A large antenna array for millimeter wave propagation studies

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):454 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1219 KB)

    An antenna array has been constructed for reception of line-of-sight, ground-to-ground transmissions at 35 GHz over a 28-km path. It measures, individually, the amplitude and the relative phase of the arriving wave at each of eight antenna elements spaced horizontally over a distance of 24 m transverse to the path. Preliminary observations have shown perturbations in amplitude which appear at one ... View full abstract»

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  • Radiometric measurement of atmospheric absorption at 600 Gc/s

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):459 - 461
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB)

    Atmospheric absorption in the 600-Gc/s region was measured throughout the actual atmosphere by means of a DICKE-type superheterodyne radiometer receiver using second harmonic mixing. The average measured value of horizontal attenuation was approximately 34 dB/km/g/m3. The variation of water vapor absorption with respect to water vapor density was also indicated in the measured results. ... View full abstract»

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  • Observation of solar radiation from 50 µ to 1 mm

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):462 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)

    Solar radiation measurements in the region from 50 micrometers to one millimeter wavelength were conducted during April, 1965, at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona. The manner in which these tests were conducted and the results obtained are described in this paper. It was found that when the total precipitable water-vapor content in the atmospheric path from the sun to the telesc... View full abstract»

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  • Solar observations at millimeter wavelengths

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):471 - 477
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)

    Solar radiations at millimeter wavelengths consist of a basic component of thermal radiation from an undisturbed sun, a slowly varying component originating from active regions on the sun, and a solar burst component. Eclipse measurements of the brightness distribution have led to a quiet sun model of the chromosphere containing small jet-like spicules. High-resolution millimeter-wave measurements... View full abstract»

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  • Thermal detection radiometry at short millimeter wavelengths

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):477 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB)

    Details concerning the design, construction, and operation of thermal detection radiometers for wavelengths near one mm are given. The sensitivity of these systems greatly exceeds that of more conventional radiometers at short millimeter wavelengths. Although the present designs are shown to be far from optimum, they have made possible a considerable number of astronomical observations that were p... View full abstract»

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  • Radar astronomy at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):484 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1469 KB)

    The scant two-decade existence of radar astronomy has seen important contributions by this new technique to positional astronomy, to the metrics of the solar system, and to the study of lunar and planetary surfaces. The role of millimeter wavelengths in this new astronomy is discussed and the problems unique to these short wavelengths defined. Brief mention is made of the importance of correlation... View full abstract»

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  • A high-Q Fabry-Perot interferometer for water vapor absorption measurements in the 100 Gc/s to 300 Gc/s frequency range

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):493 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (890 KB)

    The investigation of atmospheric losses in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength regions has been pursued from both ends of the spectrum, i.e., from the infrared using IR spectroscopic techniques, and from the microwave region using coherent, high resolution spectroscopic methods. This paper describes the design of a Fabry-Perot semi-confocal interferometer, and its application to the meas... View full abstract»

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  • The microwave absorption by H2O vapor and its mixtures with other gases between 100 and 300 Gc/s

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):498 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (731 KB)

    The microwave absorption between 100 and 300 Gc/s by H2O vapor and its mixtures with N2, CO2, and O2has been measured at room temperature for intermediate and atmospheric pressures. Near the absorption lines the line shape parameters are close to those measured at low pressures by Rusk. Between the lines, very large absorption coefficients were observed,... View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter electric resonance spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):506 - 513
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1181 KB)

    A description is given of a molecular beam apparatus which extends electric resonance spectroscopy into the millimeter wavelength region. Interferometer techniques are employed to achieve high resolution of molecular rotational transitions. With the Ramsey double resonance technique, linewidths as narrow as 350 c/s have been attained for a hydrogen sulfide rotational transition at 168.7 Gc/s. Obse... View full abstract»

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  • A saturation effect spectrometer

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):514 - 519
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB)

    This paper describes a microwave spectrometer technique which utilizes the nonlinear properties of resonance saturation in gases for the detection of absorption lines. An outline of the principle of detection which relies on the automatic balance of a resonant bridge is given, and methods of measuring line widths and relative intensities are obtained from a comprehensive analysis of the spectromet... View full abstract»

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  • A quasi-optics perturbation technique for measuring dielectric constants

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):520 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)

    A method of measuring dielectric constants of materials in sheet form by insertion in a Fabry-Perot resonator is described. By tilting the dielectric sheet at a slight angle with respect to the system axis, the reflected wave can be eliminated. The working formula for determing the dielectric constant then reduces to a simple linear relation involving the ratio of the mirror motion required to res... View full abstract»

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  • Thermal microwave phonons

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):523 - 528
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)

    Thermal microwave phonons have been generated in thin resistive films deposited on X-cut quartz and sapphire crystals. The propagation characteristics of these teracycle phonons have been measured in these crystals, and the data have been analyzed using computer techniques. For this work, thin-film, superconducting bolometers were used as the phonon pulse-detecting element with apparently high sen... View full abstract»

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  • Submillimeter spectroscopy using a Froome harmonic generator (metal-plasma junction)

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):528 - 531
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)

    The rectifying properties of the cathode spot of a microscopic arc discharge (as first investigated by K. D. Froome) are used to generate high harmonics of a 37.5-kMc/s source. That these high harmonics can be used to do high resolution spectroscopy in the submillimeter range is demonstrated by a study of the pressure broadening of the J13 → 14 rotational transition of N2O at 0.85... View full abstract»

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  • High power sources at millimeter wavelengths

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):532 - 539
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2231 KB)

    Design considerations for high power millimeter-wave oscillators and amplifiers are discussed. Typical structures, electron gun and beam systems, electrode configurations, and interaction processes are described, particularly with regard to their applications in the millimeter-wave portion of the spectrum. The advantages of the linear beam approach in the design of these sources become evident. Ty... View full abstract»

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  • The millimeter-wave extended interaction oscillator

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):539 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB)

    The theory and operation of the extended interaction oscillator (EIO) are presented. Details of an initial feasibility study at X-band are given. This study proved the practicality of using a space-charge focused electron beam, and provided AM and FM noise data. A space-charge focused Ka-band EIO, which produced 25 watts at 42.5 Gc/s, is described. A prediction of the output power and e... View full abstract»

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  • Submillimeter gas laser

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):543 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB)

    The characteristics of a laser operating in the submillimeter wave region is described. The laser is capable of CW or pulse operation. View full abstract»

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  • Water vapor gas laser operating at 118-microns wavelength

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):547 - 551
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB)

    Experimental results on a water vapor gas laser operating at a wavelength of 118 microns are presented. A four-inch diameter, two-meter focal length mirror resonator system was used with a mirror spacing of 3.75 meters. Each half of the gas discharge was pulsed with a separate modulator capable of delivering up to eight kV at 300 amperes in a five-µs pulse at repetition rates from 50 to 500 p... View full abstract»

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  • Generation of millimeter waves with a racetrack microtron

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):552 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB)

    A 6-MeV racetrack microtron has been used to generate millimeter radiation with a Fabry-Perot radiator having no dielectric medium. The electron beam is injected at an angle to the axis of the Fabry-Perot in order to achieve interaction with the transverse electric field in the cavity. Radiation is coupled out of the cavity in the zero order of a reflection grating used as one end plate. Radiation... View full abstract»

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  • The two-cone open resonator

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):555 - 560
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB)

    The resonator is an open structure formed by two concave conical reflectors mounted coaxially, and it supports traveling wave resonances. In a simplified wave picture of the field, the normal modes look like a set of plane wavefronts propagating parallel to the axis in one direction and conical wavefronts propagating in the opposite direction. One of the normal modes has TM01- TM0N... View full abstract»

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  • Josephson-type superconducting tunnel junctions as generators of microwave and submillimeter wave radiation

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):560 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1729 KB)

    The use of Josephson-type superconducting tunnel junctions (two superconductors separated by a very thin insulating layer) as generators of radiation in the range 5 GHz to 1000 GHz is discussed. To this end, the results of recent experiments on the observation of X-band radiation from such junctions are presented, along with a complete discussion of the theory of such junctions. Their potential us... View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-wave point-contact and junction diodes

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):575 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1490 KB)

    Millimeter-wave "point-contact" diodes are classed as conventional point-contact diodes (and modifications on them), which depend primarily upon a point-contact metal-semiconductor junction for their rectification properties; or as junction diodes with point-contact geometry, which are small-area millimeter-wave adaptations of the p-n junction diodes, normally made for use at lower frequencies by ... View full abstract»

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  • Hot-carrier microwave detector

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):588 - 595
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB)

    A microwave detector based on the thermoelectric effect of warm carriers in bulk semiconductors is described. An analysis of device performance is presented, which is based on the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for the heated carriers. The performance of a number of experimental devices at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths is shown to be in good agreement with analytic predicti... View full abstract»

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