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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Jan. 1963

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 101
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s): c1
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  • Poles and zeros

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s): 1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Frontispiece: Ernst Weber - President, 1963

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s): 2
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  • The quantum electronics issue

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s): 3
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  • The laser

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):4 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (120)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7984 KB)

    This article is intended as a review of the field of optical masers, or lasers as they have come to be known, summarizing both theory and practice. It starts with a theoretical section in which black body radiation theory is used to introduce the concepts of spontaneous and induced transitions. This is followed by the derivation of the Schawlow-Townes instability (start-oscillation) condition and ... View full abstract»

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  • The potentialities and present status of masers and parametric amplifiers in radio astronomy

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):30 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (75978 KB)

    The paper reviews the potentialities and present status of maser and parametric radiometer systems in the whole field of radio astronomy, including radar astronomy. A short historical account of the development of the maser is followed by an outline of the objectives of radio-astronomical research, and the radiation mechanisms which arise. After an account of the requirements of the radio astronom... View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "The dielectric microwave resonator,"

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s): 45
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Characteristics of giant optical pulsations from ruby

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6784 KB)

    A method of laser modulation is described which produces fast, intense and controllable "giant" laser pulses by "Q-modulation." In experiments with ruby, pulses of peak power up to 15 MW and of duration less than 30 nsec have been studied. The principles of the technique are outlined and early experimental results reviewed. The temporal, spectral and spatial structure of giant pulses produced from... View full abstract»

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  • Holmium doped calcium fluoride as a maser material

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):53 - 56
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    A requirement for a three level microwave maser is that transitions be allowed between nonadjacent energy levels. This can be accomplished by a strong hyperfine interaction which, like a noncubic crystalline field, mixes the spin states. Moreover, an energy doublet in a cubic field would have an isotropic Zeeman effect and the material could then be used in powdered form. EPR studies have shown th... View full abstract»

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  • Uranium-doped calcium fluoride as a laser material

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):56 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB)

    Spectroscopic studies have shown that, apart from a set of absorption lines due to tetravalent uranium, U :CaF2crystals exhibit two types of U3+sites. An energy level system has been determined for the sites corresponding to "isolated" ions. These sites give rise to a maser transition at 2.51 microns. The second type of site, appearing only in more highly doped crystals, was ... View full abstract»

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  • Zeeman effects in gaseous He-Ne optical masers

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):63 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (29273 KB)

    In this paper, experimental and theoretical results of a detailed study of the Zeeman effects in a gaseous He-Ne optical maser under weak and normal excitation conditions are given. Attention is confined to the strongest maser emission line (2s2→2p4). Under weak excitation conditions, the maser emission is a doublet of right and left circularly polarized waves. These ma... View full abstract»

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  • Nonconfocal multimode resonators for masers

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):70 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB)

    The case of a resonator composed of two concave spherical reflectors separated by an arbitrary distance is examined. The general problem of the electromagnetic field distribution over the nonconfocal aperture is first formulated by means of the Huygens principle. The solution of the resulting integral equation is obtained analytically in the highly nonconfocal limit. It was found that when the ref... View full abstract»

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  • Semiclassical treatment of the optical maser

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):76 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB)

    Using the semiclassical theory of radiation, the steady-state operation of the optical maser oscillator is studied in the case where a single "cavity" mode is excited. On introducing certain simplifying assumptions, a straightforward calculation leads to concise results for the frequency and amplitude of the field oscillations. These results are either well known or readily interpreted. For exampl... View full abstract»

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  • Modes in a maser interferometer with curved and tilted mirrors

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):80 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (919 KB)

    Fabry-Perot interferometers have played an important role in the conception and realization of optical masers. The authors have previously made a study of the idealized interferometer. In this paper they present some results of a continued study of the effects of certain simple forms of aberration. The first is represented by tilted plane mirrors and the second by curved mirrors. Tilting the mirro... View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of quantum and semiclassical radiation theories with application to the beam maser

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):89 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (2700)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB)

    This paper has two purposes: 1) to clarify the relationship between the quantum theory of radiation, where the electromagnetic field-expansion coefficients satisfy commutation relations, and the semiclassical theory, where the electromagnetic field is considered as a definite function of time rather than as an operator; and 2) to apply some of the results in a study of amplitude and frequency stab... View full abstract»

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  • Parametric amplification in spatially extended media and application to the design of tuneable oscillators at optical frequencies

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):110 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB)

    A theory of travelling- and backward-wave variable parameter amplification appropriate to the amplification of a light beam is developed. It is an extension of the theory of Tien and Suhl for one-dimensional propagation to the case in which the pump wave, signal wave and idler waves have different directions of propagation. The theory is then applied to the design of a tuneable oscillator at optic... View full abstract»

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  • Masers and millimeter waves

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):115 - 119
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB)

    The characteristics of a number of different kinds of masers are reviewed to estimate their usefulness in the region between one and a tenth millimeter. An estimate of the maximum power output for these systems is made and compared with the output to be expected from mixing two optical signals in a nonlinear dielectric and on a photocathode. Additionally, the noise characteristics of maser amplifi... View full abstract»

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  • An active interference filter as an optical maser amplifier

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):120 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3567 KB)

    Approximate theoretical expressions for gain, bandwidth, and root gain-bandwidth are derived by introducing negative absorption into equations for a Fabry-Perot interference filter. Resuits of gain vs frequency calculations are given for a 10-cm maser with high single-pass gain and a 100-cm maser with low single-pass gain. Root gain-bandwidth is shown to be a constant for a given cavity as long as... View full abstract»

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  • Wave propagation in nonlinear electromagnetic media

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):124 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB)

    This brief tutorial review first discusses the physical origin of nonlinear electric and magnetic susceptibilities of electro-magnetic media, from the audio through the microwave to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Wave propagation in non-linear media can be described by a combination of Maxwell's equations and the nonlinear constitutive equations. The Manley-Rowe relationships a... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation characteristics of partially loaded two-conductor transmission line for broadband light modulators

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):132 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB)

    The characteristics of two-conductor transmission lines containing two dielectrics are derived. The results are applied to broad-band traveling-wave light modulators. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band microwave light modulation

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):137 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1229 KB)

    A method for obtaining extremely wide-band light modulation by traveling-wave interaction in electro-optic or magneto-optic materials is described. When the intrinsic velocity of microwaves in the material is appreciably less than that of light, the synchronism conditions require the light to be directed obliquely with respect to the wave vector of the microwave field. Structures are described whi... View full abstract»

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  • Demodulation of low-level broad-band optical signals with semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):140 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB)

    A simple approach to the problem of detection of optical signals with semiconductors leads to a general understanding of the performance. It shows that the low impedance level of broad-band circuits prevents high efficiency conversion of the incident power. Because of this, the envelope detector has a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which is determined by the noise of the following amplifier. As in ra... View full abstract»

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  • Gigacycle bandwidth coherent light traveling-wave phase modulator

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):147 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (22613 KB)

    A continuous duty coherent light phase modulator has been constructed which exhibits a bandwidth in the kilomega-cycles. A modulation index of unity has been obtained with a modulation peak power of about 12 watts. This power level is independent of the bandwidth of the modulation. This is contrasted with known microwave amplitude light modulators which require peak modulation power in the kilowat... View full abstract»

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  • A microwave frequency dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):153 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (8106 KB)

    A new type dynamic secondary emission electron multiplication system is described which possesses the advantages of electrostatic electron multipliers while overcoming their major disadvantage, i.e., loss of gain at high frequencies due to electron transit time dispersion. In the dynamic crossed-field electron multiplication system, electrons are multiplied in a field configuration consisting of a... View full abstract»

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  • An experimental photomixer image tube

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):162 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4111 KB)

    An experimental optical mixer for a superheterodyne receiver has been constructed for the detection of beats in the 2-4 Gc region. This phototube incorporates an image dissector with a traveling-wave tube helix structure. It can be used to search an image field by electronic scanning for optical beats. Construction details and test results are presented. View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University