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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 637
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 638 - 639
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  • Line current harmonics reduction in multipulse connection of asymmetrically loaded rectifiers

    Page(s): 640 - 652
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new arrangement for the multipulse connection of asymmetrically loaded six-pulse rectifiers. This arrangement is, therefore, particularly suitable for implementing the dc voltage sources of hybrid multilevel inverters in applications with active power transfer, such as medium-voltage adjustable-speed drives. A new design methodology is proposed to determine the phase shifts among the secondaries of the isolation transformer, even when the active power levels processed by each rectifier and their input and output impedances are different. A set of phase angles is obtained to minimize, and even to eliminate, undesired low-order harmonics of the input current, in particular, the 5th harmonic, because this harmonic component presents an amplitude considerably higher than the amplitude of the other harmonics. In consequence, the proposed design methodology increases the input power factor and reduces the input current total harmonic distortion. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed structure. View full abstract»

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  • A clean four-quadrant sinusoidal power rectifier using multistage converters for subway applications

    Page(s): 653 - 661
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A special 27-level four-quadrant rectifier for subway applications is analyzed. The arrangement uses only three H-bridges per phase, common dc bus, and independent input transformers for each H-bridge. The transformers allow galvanic isolation and power escalation to obtain high-quality voltage waveforms, with total harmonic distortion of less than 1%. Some advantages of this 27-level rectifier are: 1) only one of the three H-bridges, called the main converter, manages more than 80% of the total active power in each phase and 2) it switches at fundamental frequency, reducing the switching losses at a minimum value. The rectifier analyzed in this paper is a current-controlled voltage-source type, with a conventional feedback control loop. Some simulations in a rectifier substation, including power reversal at full load are displayed (750 Vdc, 1200 A). The rectifier shows the ability to produce clean ac and dc waveforms without any ripple, and fast reversal of power. Some experimental results with a small prototype, showing voltage and current waveforms, are finally displayed. View full abstract»

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  • A new AC/AC multilevel converter family

    Page(s): 662 - 669
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    A new ac/ac modular multilevel converter (M2LC) family will be introduced. The new concept stands out due to its modularity and superior control characteristics. The stringent modularity results in a very cost-efficient and versatile converter construction. This new M2LC concept is well suited to a wide range of multiphase ac/ac converters. The basic working principle together with the static and dynamic behavior are explained in detail on a single-phase ac/ac converter enabling four-quadrant operation. It is demonstrated that this converter concept fulfils the demanding requirements for future ac-fed traction vehicles very well. View full abstract»

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  • An energy-based control for an n-H-bridges multilevel active rectifier

    Page(s): 670 - 678
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the control of a multilevel n-H-bridges front-end rectifier. This topology allows n distinct dc buses to be fed by the same ac source offering a high loading flexibility suitable for traction applications as well as for industrial automation plants. However, this flexibility can lead the system to instability if the dc buses operate at different voltage levels and with unbalanced loads. Thus, linear controllers, designed on the basis of the small-signal linearization, are not effective any longer and stability can not be ensured as large-signal disturbances occur. The use of a passivity-based control (PBC) designed via energy considerations and without small-signal linearization properly fits stability problems related to this type of converter. The system has been split into n subsystems via energy considerations in order to achieve the separate control of each dc bus and its stability in case of load changes or disturbances generated by other buses. Then, a set of n passivity-based controllers (one for each subsystem) is adopted: the controllers are linked using dynamical parameters computed through energy balance equations. Hence, the system dc buses are independent and stable as experimental results demonstrate. View full abstract»

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  • Zero-current-switched three-phase SVM-controlled buck rectifier

    Page(s): 679 - 688
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A zero-current-transition (ZCT) cell is analyzed and designed to be used with a three-phase pulsewidth-modulation buck rectifier. This rectifier was space-vector controlled and used unidirectional current switches. The proposed ZCT circuit is load independent and achieves a high noise and voltage stress reduction and provides ZCTs to almost all transitions of the rectifier's switches and to the additional auxiliary switches. Theoretical equations have been obtained for design purposes. The circuit is easy to design and the driving signals for the auxiliary switches are also easy to obtain, as demonstrated in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A novel ZCS-PWM power-factor preregulator with reduced conduction losses

    Page(s): 689 - 700
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new single-phase high-power-factor rectifier, which features regulation by conventional pulsewidth modulation (PWM), soft commutation, and instantaneous average line current control. A new zero-current-switching PWM (ZCS-PWM) auxiliary circuit is configured in the presented ZCS-PWM rectifier to perform ZCS in the active switches and zero-voltage switching in the passive switches. Furthermore, soft commutation of the main switch is achieved without additional current stress by the presented ZCS-PWM auxiliary circuit. A significant reduction in the conduction losses is achieved, since the circulating current for the soft switching flows only through the auxiliary circuit and a minimum number of switching devices are involved in the circulating current path and the proposed rectifier uses a single converter instead of the conventional configuration composed of a four-diode front-end rectifier followed by a boost converter. Nine transition states for describing the behavior of the ZCS-PWM rectifier in one switching period are described. The PWM switch model is used to predict the system performance. A prototype rated at 1 kW, operating 50 kHz, with an input ac voltage of 220 Vrms and an output voltage 400 Vdc has been implemented in laboratory. An efficiency of 97.3% and power factor over 0.99 has been measured. Analysis, design, and the control circuitry are also presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • State-of-the-art, single-phase, active power-factor-correction techniques for high-power applications - an overview

    Page(s): 701 - 708
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A review of high-performance, state-of-the-art, active power-factor-correction (PFC) techniques for high-power, single-phase applications is presented. The merits and limitations of several PFC techniques that are used in today's network-server and telecom power supplies to maximize their conversion efficiencies are discussed. These techniques include various zero-voltage-switching and zero-current-switching, active-snubber approaches employed to reduce reverse-recovery-related switching losses, as well as techniques for the minimization of the conduction losses. Finally, the effect of recent advancements in semiconductor technology, primarily silicon-carbide technology, on the performance and design considerations of PFC converters is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A high-efficiency soft-switched AC/DC converter with current-doubler synchronous rectification

    Page(s): 709 - 718
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved ac/dc converter based on asymmetrical half-bridge topology is proposed in this paper. To substantially enhance the efficiency for low-voltage/high-current output applications, a current-doubler synchronous rectifier is combined with a modified asymmetrical half-bridge converter that retains the inherent zero-voltage-switching property. The power losses in the secondary rectification stage and the primary switches can be significantly reduced. The proposed architecture exhibits extreme simplicity and lower cost while providing unity power factor, well-regulated output, and high power density. The detailed operating principles and design procedures for the proposed converter are described in this paper. Simulation and experimental results for a laboratory prototype are discussed to verify the feasibility. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced control scheme for three-phase three-level rectifiers at partial load

    Page(s): 719 - 726
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A prominent boost-type three-level topology (VIENNA Rectifier I), which proved to represent a cost-effective and highly efficient solution for switched-mode rectifiers is inspected toward its operation at discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). This mode of operation occurs not only at high input voltage in conjunction with low load currents but even at medium loading in the vicinity of mains voltage zero crossings. When this circuit is operated in DCM, additional measures are required for improved behavior to avoid conflicts with requirements on total harmonic distortion and regulations as well as safe operation in terms of voltage balancing and overvoltage protection. A detailed analysis of DCM and associated states is performed enabling determination and location of error voltages. Basic rules for the location of error voltages can be found. This leads to a novel optimized modulation and control scheme, facilitating designs without additional inductance. Selected simulation and measurement results prove the enhanced modulation scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative evaluation of three-phase high-power-factor AC-DC converter concepts for application in future More Electric Aircraft

    Page(s): 727 - 737
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A passive 12-pulse rectifier system, a two-level, and a three-level active three-phase pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) rectifier system are analyzed for supplying the dc-voltage link of a 5-kW variable-speed hydraulic pump drive of an electro-hydrostatic actuator to be employed in future More Electric Aircraft. Weight, volume, and efficiency of the concepts are compared for an input phase voltage range of 98-132 V and an input frequency range of 400-800 Hz. The 12-pulse system shows advantages concerning volume, efficiency, and complexity but is characterized by a high system weight. Accordingly, the three-level PWM rectifier is identified as the most advantageous solution. Finally, a novel extension of the 12-pulse rectifier system by turn-off power semiconductors is proposed which allows a control of the output voltage and, therefore, eliminates the dependency on the mains and load condition which constitutes a main drawback of the passive concept. View full abstract»

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  • Large current rectifiers: State of the art and future trends

    Page(s): 738 - 746
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the different technologies used in the generation of large controlled currents, in the kiloamperes range. After a brief review of processes requiring large currents, the paper discusses the working principles of thyristor phase-controlled rectifiers commonly used in these applications. Chopper-rectifiers using high-current insulated gate bipolar transistors are introduced as an alternative being considered in recent projects. The pulsewidth-modulated current-source rectifier, currently used in medium-voltage motor drives, is also analyzed as a future alternative for rectification in industrial processes. In addition, this paper presents the most important requirements and specifications to be considered in the applications of these high-power units. A system comparison is developed between thyristor and chopper-rectifiers in terms of quality of control, harmonics, power factor, losses, and efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of AC/DC converters for high-power DC arc furnace

    Page(s): 747 - 757
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    Today, dc arc furnaces are supplied by thyristor rectifiers. Because of the phase control strategy on the rectifiers, the arc voltage swings induce large reactive power variations on the power network and a static VAr compensator (SVC) or a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is always added to avoid flicker effect. In this paper, the authors present a new control strategy which suppresses the flicker effect and increases the furnace productivity. To supply the dc arc furnace, the ac/dc converter is based on diode rectifiers and choppers with a constant power control strategy. Consequently, the ac/dc converter can operate without a STATCOM or an SVC. To evaluate the gain in flicker and furnace productivity, simulations are done with Matlab software. These simulations take into account arc voltage measurements on a 100-MW dc arc furnace and allow for comparison of the different solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Active damping control of a high-power PWM current-source rectifier for line-current THD reduction

    Page(s): 758 - 764
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of active damping to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the line current for medium-voltage (2.3-7.2 kV) high-power pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) current-source rectifiers is investigated. The rectifier requires an LC filter connected at its input terminals, which constitutes an LC resonant mode. The lightly damped LC filter is prone to series and parallel resonances when tuned to a system harmonic either from the utility or from the PWM rectifier. These issues are traditionally addressed at the design stage by properly choosing the filter resonant frequency. This approach may result in a limited performance since the LC resonant frequency is a function of the power system impedance, which usually varies with power system operating conditions. In this paper, an active damping control method is proposed for the reduction in line current THD of high-power current-source rectifiers operating at a switching frequency of only 540 Hz. Two types of LC resonances are investigated: the parallel resonance excited by harmonic currents drawn by the rectifier and the series resonance caused by harmonic pollution in the source voltage. It is demonstrated through simulation and experiments that the proposed active damping control can effectively reduce the line-current THD caused by both parallel and series resonances. View full abstract»

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  • A bidirectional and isolated three-phase rectifier with soft-switching operation

    Page(s): 765 - 773
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A bidirectional-power-flow three-phase rectifier with high-frequency isolation and all-digital control, based on the matrix converter topology, is analyzed in this paper. The selected topology consists of a bidirectional three-phase-to-single-phase reduced matrix converter with power-factor correction and a bidirectional active rectifier. The inclusion of the isolation transformer at the switching frequency permits the reduction of volume and weight. By synchronizing the commutation of both converters and adding a saturable inductor and a blocking capacitor it is possible to achieve soft commutation for most of the semiconductor elements. An all-digital control based on a digital-signal-processor and a field-programmable gate array was used to implement space-vector modulation and output current regulation. This power converter is intended to feed the low-energy correction magnet of a particle accelerator. Experimental results of a 1.5-kW 20-kHz prototype are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed topology. View full abstract»

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  • New cascaded control system for current-source rectifiers

    Page(s): 774 - 784
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A control method for current-source rectifiers (CSRs), which realizes substantially sinusoidal line currents, unity displacement power factor, and a dc-link current control with excellent dynamic properties is presented. CSRs are usually operated by pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) or space-vector-modulation techniques. However, due to the mains LC filter resonant circuits when using these modulation methods the system stability has to be investigated, resulting in restrictions on the minimum PWM frequency and the minimum size of the LC filter. Furthermore most known dc-link current control loops use dc-link inductors of considerable size. This limits the dynamic performance and, therefore, reduces the attainable efficiency of CSRs. To overcome these problems, a new cascaded dc-link current control system for CSRs is presented. Its inner capacitor voltage controller is based on a time-discrete modulation method, which realizes a fundamentally stable control of the mains LC filter resonant circuits, avoiding the mentioned restrictions. The system controlled by the superimposed dc-link current controller is linearized by a new approach, allowing excellent dynamic performance and, therefore, a comparatively small dc-link inductor to be used. The paper includes guidelines on how to design the mains filter components and the dc-link inductor. The feasibility of the presented cascaded controller is confirmed by measurements taken on a 60-kVA model current-source converter and different loads. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of direct torque and rotor flux control algorithms by means of sliding-mode theory

    Page(s): 785 - 799
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is an attempt to synthesize the direct torque and rotor flux control (DTRFC) algorithms of induction motor using sliding-mode theory. The choice of the sliding-mode theory has been motivated by the presence of switches in the voltage-source inverter (VSI). Changes in the state of the switches cause the variation in the topology of the controlled system. In addition, this theory offers a mathematical process that allows rigorous procedures of analysis and synthesis. The developed voltage vector is generated by two methods: direct control of the VSI (hysteresis VSI control), and indirect control of the VSI using space-vector modulation. In addition, taking into account the complementarity of the advantages of each VSI control algorithm, the high dynamic performance of the direct control and the smoothness of the indirect control, the idea of the dynamic reconfiguration of DTRFC algorithms is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Development and testing of the torque control for the permanent-magnet synchronous motor

    Page(s): 800 - 806
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid electrical vehicles and electrical vehicles are being actively developed. A hybrid electric vehicle motor design requires high efficiency, high power/weight ratio, and reliability from low rotor speed to high rotor speed. The permanent-magnet synchronous motor is used in order to fulfill these requirements. The purpose of this paper is to develop a permanent-magnet synchronous motor control method for all rotor speeds. This method increases the torque and the efficiency at high speed when compared to the ordinary current error feedback method. A method composed of two compensators is proposed to achieve this objective. One of the compensators controls the torque using the voltage phases. The other one is the ordinary current error feedback. Several correcting methods for the voltage phase compensator have been proposed for the compensator for many control demands. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed using simulation and experimental evaluations. View full abstract»

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  • A rotor position and speed observer for permanent-magnet motors with nonsinusoidal EMF waveform

    Page(s): 807 - 813
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    A new nonlinear reduced-order observer to estimate the rotor speed and position for permanent-magnet motors, with arbitrary electromotive force (EMF) waveform, is presented. The proposed observer is suitable for the realization of a torque control with minimum torque ripple. In order to implement the observer, the EMF generated by the motor is first obtained experimentally offline. After that, it is approximated by a Fourier series in order to develop the model to be used in the online estimation. From the estimated EMF, rotor position and speed are calculated using the relationship between the EMF and the rotor variables. The proposal is validated with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic disturbances rejection controller for precise motion control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors

    Page(s): 814 - 823
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A highly robust automatic disturbances rejection controller (ADRC) is developed to implement high-precision motion control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors. The proposed ADRC consists of a tracking differentiator (TD) in the feedforward path, an extended state observer (ESO), and a nonlinear proportional derivative control in the feedback path. The TD solves the difficulties posed by low-order reference trajectories which are quantized at the sensor resolution, and the ESO provides the estimate of the unmeasured system's state and the real action of the unknown disturbances only based on a measurement output of the system. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed ADRC achieves a better position response and is robust to parameter variation and load disturbance. Furthermore, the ADRC is designed directly in discrete time with a simple structure and fast computation, which make it widely applicable to all other types of derives. View full abstract»

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  • A multilevel inverter system for an induction motor with open-end windings

    Page(s): 824 - 836
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a multilevel inverter system for an open-end winding induction motor drive is described. Multilevel inversion is achieved by feeding an open-end winding induction motor with two two-level inverters in cascade (equivalent to a three-level inverter) from one end and a single two-level inverter from the other end of the motor. The combined inverter system with open-end winding induction motor produces voltage space-vector locations identical to a six-level inverter. A total of 512 space-vector combinations are available in the proposed scheme, distributed over 91 space-vector locations. The proposed inverter drive scheme is capable of producing a multilevel pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) waveform for the phase voltage ranging from a two-level waveform to a six-level waveform depending on the modulation range. A space-vector PWM scheme for the proposed drive is implemented using a 1.5-kW induction motor with open-end winding structure. View full abstract»

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  • Robust decoupled control of direct field-oriented induction motor drive

    Page(s): 837 - 854
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1880 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the development of a decoupling mechanism and a speed control scheme based on total sliding-mode control (TSMC) theory for a direct rotor field-oriented (DRFO) induction motor (IM). First, a robust decoupling mechanism including an adaptive flux observer and a sliding-mode current estimator is investigated to decouple the complicated flux and torque dynamics of an IM. The acquired flux angle is utilized for the DRFO object such that the dynamic behavior of the IM is like that of a separately excited dc motor. However, the control performance of the IM is still influenced seriously by the system uncertainties including electrical and mechanical parameter variation, external load disturbance, nonideal field-oriented transient responses, and unmodeled dynamics in practical applications. In order to enhance the robustness of the DRFO IM drive for high-performance applications, a TSMC scheme is constructed without the reaching phase in conventional sliding-mode control (CSMC). The control strategy is derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem such that the stable tracking performance can be ensured under the occurrence of system uncertainties. In addition, numerical simulations as well as experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the developed methodologies in comparison with a model reference adaptive system flux observer and a CSMC system. View full abstract»

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  • The active NPC converter and its loss-balancing control

    Page(s): 855 - 868
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage-source converter (NPC VSC) is widely used in high-power medium-voltage applications. The unequal loss distribution among the semiconductors is one major disadvantage of this popular topology. This paper studies the loss distribution problem of the NPC VSC and proposes the active NPC VSC to overcome this drawback. The switch states and commutations of the converter are analyzed. A loss-balancing scheme is introduced, enabling a substantially increased output power and an improved performance at zero speed, compared to the conventional NPC VSC. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411