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Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • [Inside front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Allocating fragments in distributed databases

    Page(s): 577 - 585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a distributed database system to function efficiently, the fragments of the database need to be located, judiciously at various sites across the relevant communications network. The problem of allocating these fragments to the most appropriate sites is a difficult one to solve, however, with most approaches available relying on heuristic techniques. Optimal approaches are usually based on mathematical programming, and formulations available for this problem are based on the linearization of nonlinear binary integer programs and have been observed to be ineffective except on very small problems. This paper presents new integer programming formulations for the nonredundant version of the fragment allocation problem. This formulation is extended to address problems which have both storage and processing capacity constraints; the approach is observed to be particularly effective in the presence of capacity restrictions. Extensive computational tests conducted over a variety of parameter values indicate that the reformulations are very effective even on relatively large problems, thereby reducing the need for heuristic approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Agent-based load balancing on homogeneous minigrids: macroscopic modeling and characterization

    Page(s): 586 - 598
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a macroscopic-characterization of agent-based load balancing in homogeneous minigrid environments. The agent-based load balancing is regarded as agent distribution from a macroscopic point of view. We study two quantities on minigrids: the number and size of teams where agents (tasks) queue. In macroscopic modeling, the load balancing mechanism is characterized using differential equations. We show that the load balancing we concern always converges to a steady state. Furthermore, we show that load balancing with different initial distributions converges to the same steady state gradually. Also, we prove that the steady state becomes an even distribution if and only if agents have complete knowledge about agent teams on minigrids. Utility gains and efficiency are introduced to measure the quality of load balancing. Through numerical simulations, we discuss the utility gains and efficiency of load balancing in different cases and give a series of analysis. In order to maximize the utility gain and the efficiency, we theoretically study the optimization of agents' strategies. Finally, in order to validate our proposed agent- based load balancing mechanism, we develop a computing platform, called simulation system for grid task distribution (SSGTD). Through experimentation, we note that our experimental results in general confirm our theoretical proofs and numerical simulation results from the proposed equation system. In addition, we find a very interesting phenomenon, that is, agent-based load balancing mechanism is topology-independent. View full abstract»

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  • Performance-driven processor allocation

    Page(s): 599 - 611
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In current multiprogrammed multiprocessor systems, to take into account the performance of parallel applications is critical to decide an efficient processor allocation. In this paper, we present the performance-driven processor allocation policy (PDPA). PDPA is a new scheduling policy that implements a processor allocation policy and a multiprogramming-level policy, in a coordinated way, based on the measured application performance. With regard to the processor allocation, PDPA is a dynamic policy that allocates to applications the maximum number of processors to reach a given target efficiency. With regard to the multiprogramming level, PDPA allows the execution of a new application when free processors are available and the allocation of all the running applications is stable, or if some applications show bad performance. Results demonstrate that PDPA automatically adjusts the processor allocation of parallel applications to reach the specified target efficiency, and that it adjusts the multiprogramming level to the workload characteristics. PDPA is able to adjust the processor allocation and the multiprogramming level without human intervention, which is a desirable property for self-configurable systems, resulting in a better individual application response time. View full abstract»

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  • Moving address translation closer to memory in distributed shared-memory multiprocessors

    Page(s): 612 - 623
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To support a global virtual memory space, an architecture must translate virtual addresses dynamically. In current processors, the translation is done in a TLB (translation lookaside buffer), before or in parallel with the first-level cache access. As processor technology improves at a rapid pace and the working sets of new applications grow insatiably, the latency and bandwidth demands on the TLB are difficult to meet, especially in multiprocessor systems, which run larger applications and are plagued by the TLB consistency problem. We describe and compare five options for virtual address translation in the context of distributed shared memory (DSM) multiprocessors, including CC-NUMAs (cache-coherent non-uniform memory access architectures) and COMAs (cache only memory access architectures). In CC-NUMAs, moving the TLB to shared memory is a bad idea because page placement, migration, and replication are all constrained by the virtual page address, which greatly affects processor node access locality. In the context of COMAs, the allocation of pages to processor nodes is not as critical because memory blocks can dynamically migrate and replicate freely among nodes. As the address translation is done deeper in the memory hierarchy, the frequency of translations drops because of the filtering effect. We also observe that the TLB is very effective when it is merged with the shared-memory, because of the sharing and prefetching effects and because there is no need to maintain TLB consistency. Even if the effectiveness of the TLB merged with the shared memory is very high, we also show that the TLB can be removed in a system with address translation done in memory because the frequency of translations is very low. View full abstract»

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  • Time-aware utility-based resource allocation in wireless networks

    Page(s): 624 - 636
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a time-aware admission control and resource allocation scheme in wireless networks in the context of a future generation cellular network. The quality levels (and their respective utility) of different connections are specified using discrete resource-utility (R-U) functions. The scheme uses these R-U functions for allocating and reallocating bandwidth to connections, aiming to maximize the accumulated utility of the system. However, different applications react differently to resource reallocations. Therefore, at each allocation time point, the following factors are taken into account: the age of the connection, a disconnection (drop) penalty, and the sensitiveness to reallocation frequency. The evaluation of our approach shows a superior performance compared to a recent adaptive bandwidth allocation scheme (RBBS). In addition, we have studied the overhead that performing a reallocation imposes on the infrastructure. To minimize this overhead, we present an algorithm that efficiently reduces the number of reallocations while remaining within a given utility bound. View full abstract»

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  • Improving the performance of distributed virtual environment systems

    Page(s): 637 - 649
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The last years have witnessed a dramatic growth in the number as well as in the variety of distributed virtual environment systems. These systems allow multiple users, working on different client computers that are interconnected through different networks, to interact in a shared virtual world. One of the key issues in the design of scalable and cost-effective DVE systems is the partitioning problem. This problem consists of efficiently assigning the existing clients to the servers in the system and some techniques have been already proposed for solving it. This paper experimentally analyzes the correlation of the quality function proposed in the literature for solving the partitioning problem with the performance of DVE systems. Since the results show an absence of correlation, we also propose the experimental characterization of DVE systems. The results show that the reason for that absence of correlation is the nonlinear behavior of DVE systems with regard to the number of clients in the system. DVE systems reach saturation when any of the servers reaches 100 percent of CPU utilization. The system performance greatly decreases if this limit is exceeded in any server. Also, as a direct application of these results, we present a partitioning method that is targeted to keep all the servers in the system below a certain threshold value of CPU utilization, regardless of the amount of network traffic. Evaluation results show that the proposed partitioning method can improve DVE system performance, regardless of both the movement pattern of clients and the initial distribution of clients in the virtual world. View full abstract»

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  • An energy-efficient slack distribution technique for multimode distributed real-time embedded systems

    Page(s): 650 - 662
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In multimode distributed systems, active task sets are assigned to their distributed components for realizing one or more functions. Many of these systems encounter runtime task variations at the input and across the system while processing their tasks in real time. Very few efforts have been made to address energy efficient scheduling in these types of distributed systems. In this paper, we propose an analytical model for energy efficient scheduling in distributed real-time embedded systems to handle time-varying task inputs. A new slack distribution scheme is introduced and adopted during the schedule of the task sets in the system. The slack distribution is made according to the service demand at the nodes which affects the energy consumption in the system. The active component at a node periodically determines the service rate and applies voltage scaling according to the dynamic traffic condition observed at various network nodes. The proposed approach uses a comprehensive traffic description function at nodes and provides adequate information about the worst-case traffic behavior anywhere in the distributed network, thereby enhancing the system power management capabilities. We evaluate the proposed technique using several benchmarks employing an event driven simulator and demonstrate its performance for multimode applications. Experimental results indicate significant energy savings in various examples and case studies. View full abstract»

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  • The complexity of verifying memory coherence and consistency

    Page(s): 663 - 671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of testing shared memories for memory coherence and consistency is studied. First, it is proved that detecting violations of coherence in an execution is NP-complete, and it remains NP-complete for a number of restricted instances. This result leads to a proof that all known consistency models are NP-hard to verify. The complexity of verifying consistency models is not a mere consequence of coherence, and verifying sequential consistency remains NP-complete even after coherence has been verified. View full abstract»

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  • [Advertisement]

    Page(s): 672
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  • TPDS Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) is published monthly. It publishes a range of papers, comments on previously published papers, and survey articles that deal with the parallel and distributed systems research areas of current importance to our readers.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David Bader
College of Computing
Georgia Institute of Technology