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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May-June 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 665
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Reactive compensation techniques to improve the ride-through capability of wind turbine during disturbance

    Page(s): 666 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    World wind energy capacity expanded at an annual rate of 25% during the 1990s. The total world wind turbine installation capacity was approximately 40 000 MW at the end of 2003. Germany has the highest installed capacity of over 10 000 MW, while Denmark, where the wind energy accounts for more than 13% of electricity consumed, has the highest wind energy level per capita. The United States is catching up in the development of wind farms, with several large-scale wind generation projects currently being materialized. Even though there is significant progress in the wind generation technology, most of the currently installed wind turbines utilize induction generators to produce the electricity. Since the induction generators do not perform voltage regulation and absorb reactive power from the utility grid, they are often the source of voltage fluctuations. It is necessary to examine their responses during the faults and possible impacts on the system stability when the percentage of the wind generation increases. This paper compares the steady-state voltage profile and the voltage ride-through capabilities of the induction-generator-based wind farms with different reactive compensation techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Fuel consumption minimization of a microgrid

    Page(s): 673 - 681
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    A cost optimization scheme for a microgrid is presented. Prior to the optimization of the microgrid itself, several schemes for sharing power between two generators are compared. The minimization of fuel use in a microgrid with a variety of power sources is then discussed. The optimization of a small power system has important differences from the case of a large system and its traditional economic dispatch problem. Among the most important differences is the presence of a local heat demand which adds another dimension to the optimization problem. The microgrid considered in this paper consists of two reciprocating gas engines, a combined heat and power plant, a photovoltaic array and a wind generator. The optimization is aimed at reducing the fuel consumption rate of the system while constraining it to fulfil the local energy demand (both electrical and thermal) and provide a certain minimum reserve power. A penalty is applied for any heat produced in excess of demand. The solution of the optimization problem strongly supports the idea of having a communication infrastructure operating between the power sources. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid fuel-cell strategies for clean power generation

    Page(s): 682 - 689
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    A hybrid power system consists of a combination of two or more power generation technologies to make best use of their operating characteristics and to obtain efficiencies higher than that could be obtained from a single power source. Since fuel cells directly convert fuel and an oxidant into electricity through an electrochemical process, they produce very low emissions and have higher operating efficiencies. Hence, combining fuel cells with other sources, the efficiency of the combined system can be further increased or extend the duration of the available power to the load as a backup power. In this paper, different types of fuel-cell hybrid systems and their applications are presented. An analysis of the combined cycle operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-microturbine is presented. A strategy for combining the thermophotovoltaic power generation unit and SOFC to obtain the hybrid power system that would have higher efficiency is proposed. The hybrid operation of wind power and solar power system with proton exchange membrane fuel cell is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of peaking capacitors in reducing rise times of high-voltage nanosecond pulses

    Page(s): 690 - 697
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    High-voltage (a few hundred kilovolt), short pulses (microseconds to to nanoseconds) have been found to be effective for various biological decontamination applications, such as cleaning of water with bacteria/algae. Marx generators are most commonly used for this purpose. A serious disadvantage of Marx generators is the increase in rise times due to series inductance. To alleviate this effect, peaking capacitors have been used to produce early time, fast-rising pulses that the Marx generators otherwise cannot supply due to their relatively high series inductance. This paper presents the results of the design and development of a 600-kV, 50-ns-rise-time, and ∼250-ns-duration pulse generator using a peaking capacitor. A 132-kV condenser-type bushing of 650-kV BIL and 230-pF capacitance was used as a peaking capacitor to reduce rise time. The effect of the peaking capacitor was also studied employing circuit modeling of the generator and the influence of various parameters was investigated. There is a good correlation between the experimental and the numerical results. View full abstract»

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  • Application of polyelectrolytes obtained by radiation processing to potable and waste water treatment

    Page(s): 698 - 706
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    Comparative results obtained by using classical treatment with electrolytes and combined treatment with electrolytes and polyelectrolytes (acrylamide copolymers) for potable water and waste water from vegetable oil plants and slaughter houses are presented. The polyelectrolytes used are obtained by combined electron beam and microwave-induced polymerization. They are available in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities as well as with very low residual monomer content (under 0.02%). View full abstract»

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  • Triggered Marx generators for the industrial-scale electroporation of sugar beets

    Page(s): 707 - 714
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    Electroporation is a method to induce pores in the membranes of biological cells by applying an electric field. During the last few years, some research and development has been done for sugar beets to transfer this method from the laboratory into the industrial scale in order to replace the thermal denaturation process. High-efficiency pulsed electric fields with short pulse durations are applied to the beets as a whole. This paper deals with some aspects concerning the electrode geometry and a new trigger concept for the Marx generators used to create the required electric fields. View full abstract»

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  • Robust design of electrostatic separation processes

    Page(s): 715 - 720
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    The aim of this paper is to analyze the robustness of the electrostatic separation process control. The objective was to reduce variation in the process outcome by finding operating conditions (high-voltage level, roll speed), under which uncontrollable variation in the noise factors (granule size, composition of the material to be separated) has minimal impact on the quantity (and the quality) of the recovered products. The experiments were carried out on a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator, provided with a corona electrode and a tubular electrode, both connected to a dc high-voltage supply. The samples of processed material were prepared from genuine chopped electric wire wastes (granule size >1 mm and <5 mm) containing various proportions of copper and PVC. The design and noise factors were combined into one single experimental design, based on Taguchi's approach, and a regression model of the process was fitted. The impact of the noise factors could be estimated, as well as the interactions between the design and noise factors. The conditions of industry application of Taguchi's methodology are discussed, as well as the possibility of adapting it to other electrostatic processes. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of high-frequency sinusoidal waveform superposed with third harmonic for stable operation of metal halide lamps

    Page(s): 721 - 727
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    In this paper, a novel topology to supply metal halide (MH) lamps using sinusoidal waveform with superposed third harmonic is proposed. By employing this technique, the lamp is supplied with an approximated square waveform, but it reduces the harmonic content and, therefore, electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference. The proposed topology is analyzed and designed for a 35-W MH lamp with ceramic discharge tube. Experimental results prove that lamp operation is stable at operating frequencies where acoustic resonances were previously observed when supplied with purely sinusoidal waveforms. In conclusion, the proposed technique could be a feasible solution for stable operation of MH lamps. View full abstract»

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  • Complete low-cost two-stage electronic ballast for 70-W high-pressure sodium vapor lamp based on current-mode-controlled buck-boost inverter

    Page(s): 728 - 734
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    In this paper, a low-cost electronic ballast for high-pressure sodium vapor lamps is presented. The proposed ballast is a two-stage circuit that requires only one switch and one inductor for each stage. The power-factor-correction stage is a buck dc-to-dc converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode to meet the IEC-61000-3-2 Class C requirements. The inverter stage is a low-cost nonresonant topology, based on a buck-boost inverter controlled by means of a specific current-mode control implementation. In addition, a novel and simple circuit, compatible with the presented inverter, is proposed to ignite the lamp. Furthermore, this circuit implementation provides protection against broken lamps. View full abstract»

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  • Single stage self-oscillating HPF electronic ballast

    Page(s): 735 - 741
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    This paper presents a single-stage self-oscillating high-power-factor electronic ballast more suitable for both low power levels (because it operates in discontinuous conduction mode) and low ac mains applications (since it employs an input-doubler rectifier). The electronic ballast is based on a high-frequency dither signal, which shapes the input current in a sinusoidal waveform. In order to reduce the electronic ballast components the self-oscillation technique has been employed. An electronic ballast prototype operating at 25 kHz has been implemented to drive two 40-W straight-type fluorescent lamps from a 127-V utility line. High power factor is achieved even though the electronic ballast drives just one fluorescent lamp. The experimental results demonstrated the electronic ballast operation. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance-based simulation models of supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries for power electronic applications

    Page(s): 742 - 747
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    To predict performance of modern power electronic systems, simulation-based design methods are used. This work employs the method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find new equivalent-circuit models for supercapacitors and Lithium-ion batteries. View full abstract»

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  • A stabilizer for oscillating torques in synchronous machines

    Page(s): 748 - 755
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    A novel torque stabilizer was developed and has been continuously applied at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, Germany, as a countermeasure to torsional oscillation and resonance problems in large synchronous machines. Such problems are most frequently encountered in rotor systems with long shafts and large inertias constituting a weakly damped mechanical resonator which exhibits a low resonance frequency, e.g., 10-30 Hz. This paper presents examples for the successful suppression of torsional resonances in synchronous machines of the IPP experimental power supply, an isolated power system based on flywheel generators. The novel torque stabilizer is a power electronic device which is connected to the stator winding of the synchronous machine. It produces the same effect as an increased natural damping for oscillation modes in the rotating shaft assembly. It is, therefore, universally applicable to torsional oscillation problems in generators and electrical drive systems. View full abstract»

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  • TEFC induction motors thermal models: a parameter sensitivity analysis

    Page(s): 756 - 763
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increasing pressures on electric motor manufacturers to develop smaller and more efficient electric motors, there is a trend to carry out more thermal analysis in parallel with the traditional electromagnetic design. It has been found that attention to thermal design can be rewarded by major improvements in the overall performance. Thus, there is a requirement for accurate and reliable thermal analysis models that can be easily incorporated into motor design software. In this paper, emphasis is given to thermal sensitivity analysis of totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motors. In particular, thermal parameters are modified and their effects on the temperature rise shown. The results are useful for identifying the most important thermal parameters and enable robust designs to be developed that are insensitive to manufacturing tolerances. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a high-performance magnetic gear

    Page(s): 764 - 770
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents calculation and measurement results of a high-performance permanent-magnetic gear. The analyzed permanent-magnetic gear has a gear ratio of 5.5 and is able to deliver 27 N·m. The analysis has shown that special attention needs to be paid to the system where the gear is to be installed because of a low natural torsion spring constant. The analyzed gear was also constructed in practice in order to validate the analysis and predict the efficiency. The measured torque from the magnetic gear was only 16 N·m reduced by the large end-effects. A systematic analysis of the loss components in the magnetic gear is also performed in order to figure out why the efficiency for the actual construction was only 81%. A large magnetic loss component originated in the bearings, where an unplanned extra bearing was necessary due to mechanical problems. Without the losses of magnetic origin in the bearings and less end-effects caused by relatively short stack, an impressive efficiency estimated at 96% can be obtained. Comparison with classical mechanical gears has shown that the magnetic gear has a better efficiency and a comparable torque per volume density. Finally, it is concluded that the results in this paper may help to initiate a shift from mechanical gears to magnetic gears. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of load magnitude on diagnosing broken bar faults in induction motors using the pendulous oscillation of the rotor magnetic field orientation

    Page(s): 771 - 783
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effects of load level on the ability to diagnose broken bar faults in squirrel-cage induction motors are studied in this paper. The pendulous oscillation of the rotor magnetic field orientation is implemented as a fault signature for rotor fault diagnostic purposes at steady-state operations. Moreover, the effects of load level on the low-side band component of the stator current spectrum, and associated diagnostic difficulties in this approach particularly in the presence of motor operation from pulsewidth-modulation drives, are reported as well. These investigations were performed through testing 2-hp and 5-hp induction motors over a wide range of load levels and control drives. The results of these tests and investigations demonstrate the efficacy of the pendulous oscillation signature as a diagnostic means that can be used for a wide range of motor operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based detection of rotor faults without rotor position sensor-the sensorless Vienna monitoring method

    Page(s): 784 - 789
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with an extended approach of the Vienna Monitoring Method (VMM), which is a model-based technique to detect rotor asymmetries in the squirrel cage of an induction machine. The conventional VMM requires the measured voltages, currents, and the signal of a rotor position sensor. The novel scheme presented in this paper alternatively works without a rotor position sensor. In particular, for low-inertia drives, accurate estimation of rotor position is required. The rotor-fault-related double-slip-frequency torque modulation causes a speed ripple with the same frequency. Consequently, low-inertia drives are exposed to higher speed ripples. In this case, it is not sufficient to estimate the mean value of the actual speed, only. Even the speed ripple has to be acquired to benefit from the accuracy of the employed models of the VMM. The proposed technique evaluates the signatures of an inherent rotor fault in order to determine the rotor position signal. The speed ripple can be obtained from the torque modulations that the models already compute. This way, an accurate rotor fault detection technique without rotor position sensor can be realized. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal flux weakening in surface PM machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings

    Page(s): 790 - 800
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A design approach is presented for achieving optimal flux-weakening operation in surface permanent-magnet (SPM) synchronous machines by properly designing the machine's stator windings using concentrated, fractional-slot stator windings. This technique makes it possible to significantly increase the machine inductance in order to achieve the critical condition for providing wide speed ranges of constant-power operation. The conditions for optimal flux weakening can be achieved while simultaneously delivering sinusoidal line-to-line back-electromotive-force waveforms and low cogging torque. A closed-form analytical model is described that can be used to design SPM machines to achieve optimal flux-weakening conditions. This technique is applied to design a 6-kW SPM machine that achieves constant-power operation over a wide speed range. Performance characteristics of this machine are compared using both closed-form and finite-element analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical approach of the stator current frequency harmonics computation for detection of induction machine rotor faults

    Page(s): 801 - 807
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretically and experimentally the stator current of a three-phase squirrel-cage induction machine in order to show how it is influenced by electrical rotor faults. The approach used for this study analyzes the modification introduced by n broken rotor bars in the rotor cage magnetomotive force and then estimates the resulting frequency spectrum in the stator current. This approach is validated in a 3-kW 230-V/400-V 50-Hz 2850-r/min two-pole three-phase induction machine, showing the sensitive frequency components to rotor fault condition. View full abstract»

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  • No tooling cost process for induction motors energy efficiency improvements

    Page(s): 808 - 816
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the analysis of some possibilities for increasing the induction motor efficiency using production technological process modifications is reported. This approach is known as the "no tooling cost" (NTC) strategy because it does not require a complete redesign of new laminations with a consistent cost in terms of investments. The paper shows the results obtained by a full experimental approach, using "ad hoc" prototypes. The NTC design modification and the technological processes analyzed in this paper have been done on totally enclosed fan-cooled standard induction motors. Obviously, the original motors have been compared from the energetic point of view with these prototypes. The energetic performance has been measured in accordance with the IEEE Std. 112-96 Method B. In particular, the following modifications, for obtaining an increase in efficiency, have been taken into consideration: rotor with copper bar included in the slot before the aluminum die cast, increase of the core axial length, and annealing of the stator core. View full abstract»

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  • New initial pole-position estimation of surface PM-LSM using reference currents

    Page(s): 817 - 824
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    This paper proposes a new algorithm for the initial pole-position estimation of a surface permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PM-LSM), which is carried out under closed-loop control without a pole sensor and is insensitive to the motor parameters. This is based on the principle that the initial pole position (IPP) is calculated by the reverse trigonometric function using the two reference currents, which are received from the speed controller. Compared to published research, the proposed algorithm does not utilize the impedance ratio like the general methods and it can be widely applied without the limitation of the motor structures. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by testing a surface PM-LSM with large cogging. Its results show the IPP is well estimated within a satisfied moving distance and a shorter estimation time, even if a large disturbance such as cogging exists. View full abstract»

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  • New "D-State-Observer"-based vector control for sensorless drive of permanent-magnet synchronous motors

    Page(s): 825 - 833
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    This paper proposes a new sensorless vector control method that can be applied to both salient-pole and nonsalient-pole permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method estimates phase of rotor flux by a newly developed flux-state observer for sensorless vector control of PMSMs, which is referred to as the "D-state observer". The D-state observer has the following attractive features: 1) it requires no additional steady-state condition for the motor mathematical model; 2) its order is the minimum second; 3) a single observer gain is simply constant over a wide operating range, and easily designed; 4) it utilizes motor parameters in a very simple manner; and 5) its structure is very simple and can be realized at a very low computational load. Usefulness of the proposed method is examined and confirmed through extensive experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of field current in vector-controlled synchronous machine variable-speed drives employing brushless asynchronous exciters

    Page(s): 834 - 840
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In wound-rotor synchronous machine variable-speed drives, accurate information about the field winding current is paramount to obtain high dynamic and steady-state performance, such as unity power factor. When brushless excitation is employed and no direct measurement of field winding current is available, it must be estimated. This is a topic which has not received much attention in the literature, despite its importance in high-power synchronous motor drives. This paper presents two different methods for field current estimation, applied in a vector-controlled voltage-source converter-fed drive. Experimental results illustrate the steady-state accuracy and dynamic performance. View full abstract»

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  • A 150-kVA vector-controlled matrix converter induction motor drive

    Page(s): 841 - 847
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    This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a 150-kVA closed-loop vector-controlled matrix converter induction motor drive. The primary objective of this research effort is to evaluate the utility of the matrix converter in electric vehicle applications, primarily for motor control. A prototype converter has been built using 600-A 1400-V insulated gate bipolar transistors. Closed-loop vector control has been implemented and tested using a 150-hp induction motor load. This paper presents the design of this converter along with practical test results, representing the largest matrix converter built to date. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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