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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 5 • Date May 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 853
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 854
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  • Special Issue on Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems

    Page(s): 855 - 860
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  • Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems

    Page(s): 861 - 875
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    Energy infrastructure faced with deregulation and coupled with interdependencies with other critical infrastructures and increased demand for high-quality and reliable electricity for our digital economy is becoming more and more stressed. The occurrence of several cascading failures in the past 40 years has helped focus attention on the need to understand the complex phenomena associated with these interconnected systems and to develop defense plans to protect the network against extreme contingencies caused by natural disasters, equipment failures, human errors, or deliberate sabotage and attacks. With dramatic increases in interregional bulk power transfers and accelerating diversity of transactions among parties, the electric power grid is being used in ways for which it was not originally designed. As the power grids become heavily loaded with long-distance transfers, the already complex system dynamics become even more important. The potential for rare events but high-impact cascading phenomena represent just a few of many new science and technology challenges. We focus on the lessons learned as well as challenges associated with accomplishing these missions, including recent hardware, software, applications, and algorithmic developments. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-Area Protection and Emergency Control

    Page(s): 876 - 891
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    System-wide disturbances in power systems are a challenging problem for the utility industry because of the large scale and the complexity of the power system. When a major power system disturbance occurs, protection and control actions are required to stop the power system degradation, restore the system to a normal state, and minimize the impact of the disturbance. In some cases, the present control actions are not designed for a fast-developing disturbance and may be too slow. The report explores special protection schemes and new technologies for advanced, wide-area protection. There seems to be a great potential for advanced wide-area protection and control systems, based on powerful, flexible and reliable system protection terminals, high speed, communication, and GPS synchronization in conjunction with careful and skilled engineering by power system analysts and protection engineers in cooperation. View full abstract»

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  • WACS-Wide-Area Stability and Voltage Control System: R&D and Online Demonstration

    Page(s): 892 - 906
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    As background, we describe frequently used feedforward wide-area discontinuous power system stability controls. Then we describe online demonstration of a new response-based (feedback) Wide-Area stability and voltage Control System (WACS). The control system uses powerful discontinuous actions for power system stabilization. The control system comprises phasor measurements at many substations, fiber-optic communications, real-time deterministic computers, and transfer trip output signals to circuit breakers at many other substations and power plants. Finally, we describe future development of WACS. WACS is developed as a flexible platform to prevent blackouts and facilitate electrical commerce. View full abstract»

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  • Designing a Reliable Power System: Hydro-Quebec's Integrated Approach

    Page(s): 907 - 917
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    Hydro-Que´bec's transmission system is among the most extensive and complex transmission networks in North America. The system's design was improved over the last few years using an optimization process based on acquired experience as well as customers' expectations. Hydro-Que´bec's transmission system is currently designed in accordance with four major guiding principles based on a successive line of defense concept designed to counter events that are increasingly more severe but also increasingly more rare. These major guiding principles are a direct reflection of the level of risk that society accepts to tolerate in relation to the costs involved by higher reliability requirements. Que´bec's specific context, which is characterized by long transmission lines, harsh weather, and customers' heavy reliance on electricity for their heating needs, means that very high security standards must be used in the system design. To obtain a level of reliability on par with that of our neighbors' systems, however, requires more stringent criteria and standards. This paper will describe the design philosophy of Hydro-Que´bec's power system, the underlying major guiding principles, and the defense plans designed to ensure its reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense

    Page(s): 918 - 933
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    This paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview on power infrastructure defense systems. A review of the literature on the subjects of critical infrastructures, threats to the power grids, defense system concepts, and the special protection systems is reported. The proposed Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system methodology is a real-time, wide-area, adaptive protection and control system involving the power, communication, and computer infrastructures. The SPID system performs the failure analysis, vulnerability assessment, and adaptive control actions to avoid catastrophic power outages. This paper also includes a new concept for bargaining by multiagents to identify the decision options to reduce the system vulnerability. The concept of a flexible configuration of the wide-area grid is substantiated with an area-partitioning algorithm. A 179-bus system is used to illustrate the area partitioning method that is intended to minimize the total amount of load shedding. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Algorithm for Identification and Tracing of Voltage and Oscillatory Stability Margin Boundaries

    Page(s): 934 - 946
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    This paper presents a framework based on a differential manifold approach that combines identification and tracing of both saddle node and Hopf bifurcation margin boundaries without calculating any eigenvalues. For a given base case, we first identify either the saddle node or Hopf bifurcation. The Hopf bifurcation is easily detected by observing the sign change of scalar index in the tangent vector without eigenvalue calculation. Based on manifold and bifurcation theory, a unified formulation for a variety of bifurcation related voltage and oscillatory stability margin boundary tracing in multiparameter space is proposed. The bifurcation-related margin boundary could be traced along any control scenario in multicontrol parameter space combined with any given loading scenario. This is achieved by moving from one boundary point to the next without retracing the entire PV curve. This paves the way for online voltage and oscillatory stability assessment. The unified boundary predictor-corrector-identifier tracing framework is originally employed to trace both voltage collapse and oscillatory stability margin boundaries, which are limited by the saddle node and Hopf bifurcation, respectively. The manifold-based methodologies presented in this paper facilitate the development of fast margin monitoring and control algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Satellite Technologies for Power System Measurements, Command, and Control

    Page(s): 947 - 955
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    This paper analyzes the use of wide-area measurement technologies including satellite-based methods for the command and control of power systems. The methods studied include the global positioning system (GPS) and low earth orbit satellites (LEOS). Satellite technologies have been used in a variety of applications requiring precise timing between geographically diverse locations. The deregulation of the electric power industry is placing increased demands on power transmission system utilization. Because deregulated power systems utilize long-distance high-power exchanges, satellite-based communication systems are useful in control of geographically large interconnected power systems. In this paper, the satellite-based measurements and commands are introduced for wide-area control. With the support of wide-area signals, a multiagent supervisory-level power system stabilizer is proposed here as a potential wide-area control structure. Increased loading of transmission facilities is an impetus for accurate dynamic thermal overhead electrical conductor ratings. The application of satellite-based measurement for improving the dynamic thermal rating of overhead transmission circuits is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Catastrophic Failures in Power Systems: Causes, Analyses, and Countermeasures

    Page(s): 956 - 964
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    Catastrophic failures of power systems are phenomena which occur with some regularity throughout the world. It is recognized that these cannot be prevented, although with the use of newer developments in power engineering, in communication systems, and in computer engineering it would be possible to reduce their frequency and their impact on society. Analyses of many blackouts point to some salient features which are common to most such events: power systems under stress because of high load levels or outages of important facilities, some initiating event-usually a fault, often followed by cascading effects due to unwanted operation of some protection systems. In particular, the role of hidden failures (HFs) in protection systems in propagating power system disturbances has become clearer with some of the recent research reported in the literature. This paper explores further the issue of HFs of protection systems and possible countermeasures. Regarding the countermeasures, adapting the protection systems so that they would change their operational logic from OR to a VOTING protocol has been discussed in the literature, and is well within the capability of present technology. Other hardware solutions, such as "Hidden Failure Monitoring and Protection Systems," have also been discussed in the literature. Most of these countermeasures will require intensive use of communication networks. Communication infrastructure will be utilized for real-time data transfer, as well as for slower speed data gathering tasks related to the condition of the power system. In this paper, we concentrate on the communication facilities and their applications for providing countermeasures against catastrophic failures of power systems. View full abstract»

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  • Designing the Next Generation of Real-Time Control, Communication, and Computations for Large Power Systems

    Page(s): 965 - 979
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    The power grid is not only a network interconnecting generators and loads through a transmission and distribution system, but is overlaid with a communication and control system that enables economic and secure operation. This multilayered infrastructure has evolved over many decades utilizing new technologies as they have appeared. This evolution has been slow and incremental, as the operation of the power system consisting of vertically integrated utilities has, until recently, changed very little. The monitoring of the grid is still done by a hierarchical design with polling for data at scanning rates in seconds that reflects the conceptual design of the 1960s. This design was adequate for vertically integrated utilities with limited feedback and wide-area controls; however, the thesis of this paper is that the changing environment, in both policy and technology, requires a new look at the operation of the power grid and a complete redesign of the control, communication and computation infrastructure. We provide several example novel control and communication regimes for such a new infrastructure. View full abstract»

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  • Design Aspects for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems

    Page(s): 980 - 996
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    This paper discusses the basic design and special applications of wide-area monitoring and control systems, which complement classical protection systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Energy Management System applications. Systemwide installed phasor measurement units send their measured data to a central computer, where snapshots of the dynamic system behavior are made available online. This new quality of system information opens up a wide range of new applications to assess and actively maintain system's stability in case of voltage, angle or frequency instability, thermal overload, and oscillations. Recent developed algorithms and their design for these application areas are introduced. With practical examples, the benefits in terms of system security are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-Area Protection and Power System Utilization

    Page(s): 997 - 1003
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    This paper describes basic principles and philosophy for wide-area protection schemes, also known as remedial action schemes (RAS) or system protection schemes (SPS). In the areas of power system automation and substation automation, there are two parallel trends in different directions: centralization and decentralization. More and more functions are moved from local and regional control centers toward the central or national control center. At the same time we also observe more and more "intelligence" and "decision-power" moving closer toward the actual power system process. We also see a great deal of functional integration, i.e., more and more functionality enclosed in the same hardware. This raises discussions concerning reliability (security and dependability). The main targets for this paper is therefore to: 1) sort out the terminology used in this area; 2) describe different application areas and related requirements; 3) illustrate different design principles-"top-down", "bottom-up", hierarchy, flat, etc., for different applications; and 4) identify similarities and differences between classic equipment protection and system protection-concerning philosophy as well as concerning product and system design. The theme of the paper is on the use of information technology to obtain more flexibility and smartness in power-system controls. View full abstract»

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  • Area-Wide System Protection Scheme Against Extreme Contingencies

    Page(s): 1004 - 1027
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    The deregulation of the electricity supply industry with its associated competitive electricity market has created additional difficulties for power system security. It has accentuated the ever-present danger posed by extreme contingencies that continue to disrupt entire interconnected power systems, such as the 30 billion dollar, 14 August 2003 northeast American blackout. A proposal has been made to use operational constraints as market indicators, an attitude that does nothing to alleviate the multimillion dollar cost of each power system collapse. By contrast, successfully sustaining power system integrity by dealing with extreme contingencies would remove many of the prevailing (and unsuccessful) operational constraints. A completely different avenue has been devised for circumventing the uncertainties associated with unforeseeable extreme contingencies. This new approach would automatically activate timely responses specifically in the region initially impacted by the extreme contingency. A future path is proposed that can use existing technology with energy storage devices to further enhance security and diminish the uncertainties bedeviling the electricity supply industry. View full abstract»

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  • dcOvercoming Communications Challenges in Software for Monitoring and Controlling Power Systems

    Page(s): 1028 - 1041
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    The restructuring of the electric power grid has created new control and monitoring requirements for which classical technologies may be inadequate. The most obvious way of building such systems, using TCP connections to link monitoring systems with data sources, gives poor scalability and exhibits instability precisely when information is most urgently required. Astrolabe, Bimodal Multicast, and Gravitational Gossip, technologies of our own design, seek to overcome these problems using what are called "epidemic" communication protocols. This paper evaluates a hypothetical power monitoring scenario involving the New York State grid, and concludes that the technology is well matched to the need. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems

    Page(s): 1042 - 1056
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    The restructuring of electricity has introduced new risks associated with the security of natural gas infrastructure on a significantly large scale, which entails changes in physical capabilities of pipelines, operational procedures, sensors and communications, contracting (supply and transportation), and tariffs. This paper will discuss the essence of the natural gas infrastructure for supplying the ever-increasing number of gas-powered units and use security-constrained unit commitment to analyze the short-time impact of natural gas prices on power generation scheduling. The paper analyzes the impact of natural gas infrastructure contingencies on the operation of electric power systems. Furthermore, the paper examines the impact of renewable sources of energy such as pumped-storage units and photovoltaic/battery systems on power system security by reducing the dependence of electricity infrastructure on the natural gas infrastructure. A modified IEEE 118-bus with 12 combined-cycle units is presented for analyzing the gas/electric interdependency. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Nikola Tesla

    Page(s): 1057 - 1059
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    In 1916, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) selected Nikola Tesla as the seventh recipient of the Edison Medal. He was cited for his "early original work in polyphase and high-frequency electrical currents." Tesla's AC induction motor had proved to be a key element in making AC power a viable alternative to the once dominant DC system associated with the name of Thomas A. Edison. Descendants of Tesla's motor still serve us in myriad applications in our homes, industry, and transportation. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Page(s): 1060 - 1062
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE information for authors

    Page(s): 1063 - 1064
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Page(s): c3
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE check out our June issue

    Page(s): c4
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