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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Nonlinear blackbox modeling of MR-dampers for civil structural control

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 345 - 355
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Protecting civil engineering structures from severe impacts like strong earthquakes has demanded intensive research in the past two decades. One of the most promising devices proposed for structural protection is the magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers. To fully explore their potentials in the real-time feedback control implementations, accurate and robust modeling of the devices is a prerequisite. This paper first proposes a general nonlinear blackbox structure to model the MR damping behavior on the displacement-velocity phase plane. Two constructive parameter estimation algorithms are subsequently developed which are based on the recent mathematical advances in wavelets and ridgelets analysis. Compared with the traditional physical modeling, this research aims at improving model numerical stability and model structure generality. The achievement of these objectives is evaluated in the modeling of an experimental MR-damper in a base-isolation structural control system. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and control of TCV

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 356 - 369
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach to the modeling and control of tokamak fusion reactors is presented. A nonlinear model is derived using the classical arguments of Hamiltonian mechanics and a low-order linear model is derived from it. The modeling process used here addresses flux and energy conservation issues explicitly and self-consistently. The model is of particular value, because it shows the relationship between the initial modeling assumptions and the resulting predictions. The mechanisms behind the creation of uncontrollable modes in tokamak models are discussed. A normalized coprime factorization H controller is developed for the Tokamak a` Configuration Variable (TCV), CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, tokamak using the linearized model, which has been extensively verified on the TCV and JT-60U, JAERI, Naka, Japan, tokamaks. Recent theory is applied to reduce the controller order significantly whilst guaranteeing a priori bounds on the robust stability and performance. The controller is shown to track successfully reference signals that dictate the plasma's shape, position and current. The tests used to verify this were carried out on linear and nonlinear models. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive online correction and interpolation of quadrature encoder signals using radial basis functions

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 370 - 377
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the development of an adaptive online approach for the correction and interpolation of quadrature encoder signals, suitable for application to precision motion control systems. It is based on the use of a two-stage double-layered radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The first RBF stage is used to adaptively correct for the imperfections in the encoder signals such as mean, phase offsets, amplitude deviation and waveform distortion. The second RBF stage serves as the inferencing machine to adaptively map the quadrature encoder signals to higher order sinusoids, thus, enabling intermediate positions to be derived. Experimental and simulation results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the RBF approach. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to the estimation and rejection of disturbances in servo systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 378 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new approach to disturbance estimation based on a curvature model that improves the disturbance rejection performance of a servo system. The main feature is that the stability of the control system is guaranteed when the disturbance estimate is incorporated directly into the designed servo control law. Experimental results show that disturbances are rejected efficiently when this approach is used. View full abstract»

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  • Parameter estimation of induction motor at standstill with magnetic flux monitoring

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 386 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a new method for the estimation of the electric parameters of induction motors (IMs). During the identification process the rotor flux is also estimated. The procedure relies on standstill tests performed with a standard drive architecture, hence, it is suitable for self-commissioning drives. The identification scheme is based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) approach. A novel parallel adaptive observer (PAO) has been designed, starting from the series-parallel Kreisselmeier observer. The most interesting features of the proposed method are the following: 1) rapidity and accuracy of the identification process; 2) low-computational burden; 3)excellent noise rejection, thanks to the adopted parallel structure; 4) avoidance of incorrect parameter estimation due to magnetic saturation phenomena, thanks to recursive rotor flux monitoring. The performances of the new scheme are shown by means of simulation and experimental tests. The estimation results are validated by comparison with a powerful batch nonlinear least square (NLS) method and by evaluating the steady-state mechanical curve of the IM used in the tests. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of nonlinear systems using generalized kernel models

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 401 - 411
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonlinear system identification is considered using a generalized kernel regression model. Unlike the standard kernel model, which employs a fixed common variance for all the kernel regressors, each kernel regressor in the generalized kernel model has an individually tuned diagonal covariance matrix that is determined by maximizing the correlation between the training data and the regressor using a repeated guided random search based on boosting optimization. An efficient construction algorithm based on orthogonal forward regression with leave-one-out (LOO) test statistic and local regularization (LR) is then used to select a parsimonious generalized kernel regression model from the resulting full regression matrix. The proposed modeling algorithm is fully automatic and the user is not required to specify any criterion to terminate the construction procedure. Experimental results involving two real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear system identification approach. View full abstract»

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  • Constrained H control of active suspensions: an LMI approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 412 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper suggests a constrained H control scheme for active suspensions with output and control constraints. The H performance is used to measure ride comfort so that more general road disturbances can be considered. Time-domain constraints, representing requirements for: 1) good road holding which may have an impact on safety; 2) suspension stroke limitation; and 3) avoidance of actuator saturation, are captured using the concept of reachable sets and state-space ellipsoids. The proposed approach can potentially achieve the best possible ride comfort by allowing constrained variables free as long as they remain within given bounds. A state feedback solution to the constrained H active suspension control problem is derived in the framework of linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization and multiobjective control. Analysis and simulation results for a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) quarter-car model show possible improvements on ride comfort, while respecting time-domain hard constraints. View full abstract»

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  • Design of surface shape control for large two-dimensional arrays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 422 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops control design technology for active shape control of reflective surfaces using large spatially distributed actuator arrays. The potential applications are in astronomy, adaptive optic, beam control, space-based imaging, and other optics and imaging applications. In a very large lightweight active reflector, surface shape (figure) might be controlled by an array of actuators and sensors that counts millions of cells. The control technology discussed in this paper is scalable to these large array dimensions. This paper develops a classically motivated design methodology for distributed localized control laws of very large actuator/sensor arrays. The methodology uses standard PI-compensation, plus lags and/or notch-filters, to deal with temporal dynamics in each actuator channel. It achieves scalability to very large array sizes by imposing spatially localized fixed-form constraints on the control law structure. In this setup, the entire spatial-temporal design model can be transformed, via Laplace transforms in time and two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Fourier transforms in space, to produce a family of dynamic systems whose closed-loop characteristics can be subjected to standard classical control-engineering specifications, including stability, performance, and robustness. These specifications can be satisfied for all members of the family by solving linear programs (LPs) to find parameters of the fixed-form structure. The veracity of this methodology is illustrated with a design example loosely resembling an actively controlled reflector whose local deformations are controlled by a hexagonal array of actuator/sensor cells. View full abstract»

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  • Finding the source of nonlinearity in a process with plant-wide oscillation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 434 - 443
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A plant-wide oscillation in a chemical process often has an impact on product quality and running costs and there is, thus, a motivation for automated diagnosis of the source of such a disturbance. This brief describes a method of analyzing data from routine operation to locate the root cause oscillation in a dynamic system of interacting control loops and to distinguish it from propagated secondary oscillations. The novel concept is the application of a nonlinearity index that is strongest at the source. The index is large for the nonsinusoidal oscillating time trends that are typical of the output of a control loop with a limit cycle caused by nonlinearity. It is sensitive to limit cycles caused both by equipment and by process nonlinearity. The performance of the index is studied in detail and default settings for the parameters in the algorithm are derived so that it can be applied in a large scale setting such as a refinery or petrochemical plant. Issues arising from artifacts in the nonlinearity test when applied to strongly cyclic data have been addressed to provide a robust, reliable and practical method. The technique is demonstrated with three industrial case studies. View full abstract»

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  • Model-driven system identification of transcritical vapor compression systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 444 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief uses an air conditioning system to illustrate the benefits of iteratively combining first principles and system identification techniques to develop control-oriented models of complex systems. A transcritical vapor compression system is initially modeled with first principles and then verified with experimental data. Both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system identification techniques are then used to construct locally linear models. Motivated by the ability to capture the salient dynamic characteristics with low-order identified models, the physical model is evaluated for essentially nonminimal dynamics. A singular perturbation model reduction approach is then applied to obtain a minimal representation of the dynamics more suitable for control design, and yielding insight to the underlying system dynamics previously unavailable in the literature. The results demonstrate that iteratively modeling a complex system with first principles and system identification techniques gives greater confidence in the first principles model, and better understanding of the underlying physical dynamics. Although this iterative process requires more time and effort, significant insight and model improvements can be realized. View full abstract»

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  • Fault residual generation via nonlinear analytical redundancy

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 452 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault detection is critical in many applications, and analytical redundancy (AR) has been the key underlying tool for many approaches to fault detection. However, the conventional AR approach is formally limited to linear systems. In this brief, we exploit the structure of nonlinear geometric control theory to derive a new nonlinear analytical redundancy (NLAR) framework. The NLAR technique is applicable to affine systems and is seen to be a natural extension of linear AR. The NLAR structure introduced in this brief is tailored toward practical applications. Via an example of robot fault detection, we show the considerable improvement in performance generated by the approach compared with the traditional linear AR approach. View full abstract»

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  • An implementation of loop-shaping compensation for multidegree-of-freedom macro-microscaled telemanipulation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 459 - 464
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief describes the implementation of a telemanipulation control architecture on a three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) scaled master-slave telemanipulation system. Specifically, feedback linearization enables the use of loop-shaping compensators to increase the transparency bandwidth of a 3-DOF macro-micro telemanipulator pair, while the stability robustness of the system is maintained. Experimental results contrast the transparency and stability robustness of the compensated with the uncompensated system. The enhanced performance of the former demonstrates the utility of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating the state of charge of a battery

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 465 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief considers the state of charge (SOC) estimation problem for electrochemical batteries. Using an electric circuit model of the battery given in the literature, it is shown how the open-circuit voltage (which is directly related to the SOC) can be estimated based on the terminal voltage and current measurements provided there is sufficient variation in the battery current. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time dynamic trajectory smoothing for unmanned air vehicles

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 471 - 477
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief presents a real-time, feasible trajectory generation algorithm for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) flying through a sequence of waypoints. The algorithm produces extremal trajectories that transition between straight-line path segments in a time-optimal fashion. In addition, the algorithm can be configured so that the dynamically feasible trajectory has the same path length as the straight-line waypoint path. Implementation issues associated with the algorithm are described in detail. Simulation studies show the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Observing a three-tank system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 478 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Observability analysis and observer synthesis are studied for a three-tank water process. Observability of the process is considered under various assumptions on measurements. The observer design takes into account singularity of nonlinear observers. The simulation studies and real data validation show satisfactory convergence of the designed observers. View full abstract»

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  • A high-performance processor for embedded real-time control

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 485 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief reports on an algorithm and corresponding processor architecture for the construction of high-performance processors targeted at linear time invariant (LTI) control. The overall approach involves reformulating the controller into a particular discrete state-space representation, which is optimized for numerical efficiency using the δ operator, then programming this into a specially-designed control system processor (CSP) implemented using a "programmable ASIC" device. This architecture presents large cost and performance benefits for control applications over traditional architectures, particularly for large multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) controllers. Results of implementing control of the vertical modes of a Maglev vehicle are presented and compared with implementations using commercial processors. View full abstract»

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  • Fault estimation and accommodation for linear MIMO discrete-time systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 493 - 499
    Cited by:  Papers (99)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a methodology for detection and accommodation of actuator faults for a class of multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) stochastic systems is presented. First, a new real-time fault estimation module that estimates the actuator effectiveness is developed. The actuator fault diagnosis is based on the estimation of the state vector. Under some conditions, the stochastic system is transformed into two separate subsystems. One of them is not affected by actuator faults, so a reduced order Kalman filter can be used to estimate its states. The other, whose states are measurable, is affected by the faults. Then, the output of the nominal controller is reconfigured to compensate for the loss of actuator effectiveness in the system. Simulation results of a helicopter in vertical plane is presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed fault-tolerant control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • A repetitive-based controller for the boost converter to compensate the harmonic distortion of the output Voltage

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 500 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel repetitive based-control strategy is proposed for the pulsewidth modulated (PWM) boost converter to compensate the output voltage ripple due to the harmonic distortion present in the input voltage. Repetitive control has shown to be a useful tool for tracking of periodic reference signals and for compensation of periodic disturbances, in other words, for harmonic compensation. The structure of the proposed controller is preserved as close as possible to the conventional one, which includes outer and inner control loops. Thus, in the proposed controller, the repetitive strategy appears as a refinement term added to the inner control loop. We show that the repetitive strategy can be built using a single analog delay integrated circuit, thus, simplifying enormously the implementation. The repetitive strategy is able to cancel almost every remaining harmonic distortion component while maintaining an acceptable dynamical performance and without inclusion of additional hardware in the power stage. Experimental results on a boost converter board, using a poorly regulated voltage source, are presented to assess the performance of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c4
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