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Nanobiotechnology, IEE Proceedings -

Issue 1 • Date 4 Feb. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 6 of 6
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  • Comparison of DNA detection methods using nanoparticles and silver enhancement

    Page(s): 3 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB)  

    DNA microarrays are an emerging technology for the parallel detection of DNA molecules. Fluorescent molecules are the current standard for a DNA array's optical readout but they possess some drawbacks including the stability of the dyes and the cost of the scanners. Therefore alternative labelling strategies are of considerable interests. One such strategy is the use of nanoparticles which offers several advantages in terms of stability and versatility of the detection mode. The authors present a review on the different ways DNA can be detected, mainly onto a solid support, using nanoparticle labels. View full abstract»

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  • Biological applications of localised surface plasmonic phenomenae

    Page(s): 13 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2032 KB)  

    Researchers and industrialists have taken advantage of the unusual optical, magnetic, electronic, catalytic, and mechanical properties of nanomaterials. Nanoparticles and nanoscale materials have proven to be useful for biological uses. Nanoscale materials hold a particular interest to those in the biological sciences because they are on the same size scale as biological macromolecules, proteins and nucleic acids. The interactions between biomolecules and nanomaterials have formed the basis for a number of applications including detection, biosensing, cellular and in situ hybridisation labelling, cell tagging and sorting, point-of-care diagnostics, kinetic and binding studies, imaging enhancers, and even as potential therapeutic agents. Noble metal nanoparticles are especially interesting because of their unusual optical properties which arise from their ability to support surface plasmons. In this review the authors focus on biological applications and technologies that utilise two types of related plasmonic phenomonae: localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The background necessary to understand the application of LSPR and SERS to biological problems is presented and illustrative examples of resonant Rayleigh scattering, refractive index sensing, and SERS-based detection and labelling are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Use of magnetic nanoparticle heating in the treatment of breast cancer

    Page(s): 33 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB)  

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising tools for the minimal invasive elimination of small tumours in the breast using magnetically-induced heating. The approach complies with the increasing demand for breast conserving therapies and has the advantage of offering a selective and refined tuning of the degree of energy deposition allowing an adequate temperature control at the target. The biophysical basis of the approach, the magnetic and structural properties of magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed. Results with model targets and in vivo experiments in laboratory animals are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic particles as markers and carriers of biomolecules

    Page(s): 41 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)  

    The detection and manipulation of biomolecules on a common platform is of considerable interest not only for application in devices such as diagnostic tools but also for basic research in biological and medical systems. A promising approach is the utilisation of magnetic particles as markers and carriers for biomolecules. The principle functionality of this approach is demonstrated by the authors. Magnetic particles used as markers can be detected by highly sensitive magnetoresistive sensors resulting in a purely electronic signal. A direct comparison with the standard fluorescence method reveals the advantages of using the magnetic particles. In addition, magnetic particles used as carriers can be manipulated on-chip via currents running through especially designed line patterns. Some current drawbacks and future aspects are discussed. The combination of sensing and manipulating magnetic particles is a promising choice for future integrated lab-on-a-chip systems. View full abstract»

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  • Chip-based electrical detection of DNA

    Page(s): 47 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)  

    A variety of methods have been developed for the detection of the binding of the complementary strand of DNA to a gene chip using electrical rather than the established optical signal techniques. Chip-based DNA sensors offer sensitivity, specificity, parallelisation and miniaturisation for the detection of selected DNA sequences or mutated genes associated with human diseases. Problems associated with the established fluorescence-based optical detection technique include the high equipment costs and the need to use sophisticated numerical algorithms to interpret the data. These problems generally limit its use to research laboratories and make it hard to adapt this detection scheme for on-site or point-of-care use. An electrical readout might be a solution to these problems. A review of a number of different approaches to achieve an electrical readout for a DNA chip is presented. The review covers various methods that are based on the use of metal nanoparticles as labels and also electrochemical methods that use polymer-modified electrodes, DNA-specific redox reporters, and DNA-mediated charge transport techniques. View full abstract»

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