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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 337
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 338 - 339
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  • Continuous and discrete variable-structure controls for parallel three-phase boost rectifier

    Page(s): 340 - 354
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe three nonlinear control schemes for a parallel three-phase boost rectifier consisting of two modules. The basic idea, however, can be extended to a system with N modules. All of the control schemes are developed in a synchronous frame. Moreover, each of the closed-loop power-converter modules operates asynchronously without any communication with the other module. Based on the dynamical equations of the parallel converter, we find that independent control of both of the modules on the DQ axes is not necessary and possible. Consequently, we develop control schemes that stabilize the dq axes and limit the zero-axis disturbance by preventing the flow of the pure zero-sequence current. One of the control schemes is developed purely in the discrete domain. It combines the space-vector modulation scheme with a variable-structure control, thereby keeping the switching frequency constant and achieving satisfactory dynamic performance. The performances of the other control schemes are also satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Steady-State and dynamic study of one-cycle-controlled three-phase power-factor correction

    Page(s): 355 - 362
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    One-cycle control power-factor correction (OCC-PFC) with vector operation is a promising rectification method that eliminates harmonics and improves the power factor. It features great simplicity, high performance, and excellent stability. This paper performs analysis and design of OCC-PFC in both the steady-state and dynamic transients. The sufficient stability condition for three-phase OCC-PFC is derived. Some typical large-signal perturbations in practice are then used to verify the theoretical predictions. The paper also provides some guidelines for the selection of the circuit parameters in practical application. All analysis results were verified by simulation or experiments based on a three-phase 1-kW pre-industrial OCC-PFC prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Complex state-space modeling and nonlinear control of active front-end converters

    Page(s): 363 - 377
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the modeling and control of active front-end (AFE) converters using complex state-space representation, a technique developed and thus far mostly employed for the analysis of ac machines. Particularly, three-phase PWM voltage-source and current-source rectifiers are thoroughly studied using the graphical capabilities of this approach, namely, complex signal flow graphs. These are used to directly and intuitively derive high-performance nonlinear control laws based on input-output feedback linearization. Specifically, a cascaded and a paralleled control scheme are investigated for the voltage-source rectifier, whereas a cascaded scheme is considered for the current-source rectifier. Under these strategies both converters exhibit linear and decoupled d-q axes dynamics, while also attaining a reactive power compensation capacity. Moreover, linearization of their respective dc-link voltage and current loops utterly enforces and ensures their operating stability. All this is achieved without the elaborate mathematical complexity of input-output linearization, effectively shunned out by the proposed complex state-space approach. Finally, experimental results from 5-kVA digital-signal-processor-based laboratory prototypes verify the analysis and downright performance evinced by these AFE converters. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation issues of a fuzzy-logic-based three-phase active rectifier employing only Voltage sensors

    Page(s): 378 - 385
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    Switch-mode rectifiers are becoming more and more interesting in those applications where bidirectional power flow, power-factor correction, and electromagnetic interference reduction are required. Typical active rectifiers include current or voltage sensors, however, in order to obtain low-cost systems, their number should be reduced. In this paper, a current-sensorless active rectifier with feedforward fuzzy logic control is presented and discussed. The mathematical description of the system and the design of the fuzzy logic controller are introduced and analyzed; moreover the implementation on a SH7047 microcontroller is presented with emphasis on the most significant implementation issues. Experimental results are reported and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Voltage-sensorless control method to balance the input currents of a three-wire boost rectifier under unbalanced input Voltages condition

    Page(s): 386 - 398
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    This paper proposes a control method that can balance the input currents of the three-phase three-wire boost rectifier under unbalanced input voltage condition. The control objective is to operate the rectifier in the high-power-factor mode under balanced input voltage condition but to give overriding priority to the current balance function in case of unbalance in the input voltage. The control structure has been divided into two major functional blocks. The inner loop current-mode controller implements resistor emulation to achieve high-power-factor operation on each of the two orthogonal axes of the stationary reference frame. The outer control loop performs magnitude scaling and phase-shifting operations on current of one of the axes to make it balanced with the current on the other axis. The coefficients of scaling and shifting functions are determined by two closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) controllers that impose the conditions of input current balance as PI references. The control algorithm is simple and high performing. It does not require input voltage sensing and transformation of the control variables into a rotating reference frame. The simulation results on a MATLAB-SIMULINK platform validate the proposed control strategy. In implementation Texas Instrument's digital signal processor TMS320F240F is used as the digital controller. The control algorithm for high-power-factor operation is tested on a prototype boost rectifier under nominal and unbalanced input voltage conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A novel control concept for reliable operation of a three-phase three-switch buck-type unity-power-factor rectifier with integrated boost output stage under heavily unbalanced mains condition

    Page(s): 399 - 409
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    In this paper the reliable operation of a three-phase three-switch buck-type pulsewidth-modulation unity-power-factor rectifier with integrated boost output stage under heavily unbalanced mains, i.e., mains voltage unbalance, loss of one phase, short circuit of two phases, or earth fault of one phase is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A brief description of the principle of operation and the most advantageous modulation method are given. The analytical calculation of the relative on-times of the active switching states and of the dc-link current reference value is treated in detail for active and deactivated boost output stage. Based on the theoretical considerations a control scheme which allows for controlling the system for any mains condition without changeover of the control structure is described. Furthermore, digital simulations as well as experimental results are shown which confirm the proposed control concept for different mains failure conditions and for the transition from balanced mains to a failure condition and vice versa. The experimental results are derived from a 5-kW prototype (input voltage range (280...480) Vrms line-to-line, output voltage 400 VDC) of the rectifier system, where the control is realized by a 32-bit digital signal processor. View full abstract»

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  • Active filtering function of three-phase PWM boost rectifier under different line voltage conditions

    Page(s): 410 - 419
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    Slight hardware and algorithm modifications as well as a higher power ratio of a three-phase pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) rectifier make compensation of neighboring nonlinear power load possible. The active filtering function enlarges the functionality of PWM rectifiers, which decreases the cost of additional installation of compensating equipment. It gives a chance to fulfill both shunt active filter (SAF) and PWM rectifier tasks in a multidrive system by one advanced converter. Thanks to the idea of virtual flux, the direct power control space-vector-modulated (DPC-SVM) and new synchronous double reference frame phase-locked loop approach, the control system is resistant to a majority of line voltage disturbances. This assures proper operation of the system for abnormal and failure grid conditions. Simulation and experimental results have proven excellent performance and verify the validity of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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  • Application of a sinusoidal internal model to current control of three-phase utility-interface converters

    Page(s): 420 - 426
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-phase voltage-source converters are used as utility interfaces. In such a case, the converter line currents are required to track sinusoidal references synchronized with the utility grid without a steady-state error. In this paper a current control method based on a sinusoidal internal model is employed. The method uses a sine transfer function with a specified resonant frequency, which is called an S regulator. The combination of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) regulator and an S regulator is called a PIS regulator. The PIS regulator ensures that the steady-state error in response to any step changes in a reference signal at the resonant frequency and 0 Hz reduces to zero. An experiment was carried out using a 1-kVA prototype of three utility-interface converters, a voltage-source rectifier, an active power filter, and static synchronous compensator. Almost perfect current-tracking performance could be observed. View full abstract»

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  • A novel zero-Voltage-switching PWM boost rectifier with high power factor and low conduction losses

    Page(s): 427 - 435
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    This paper proposes a new single-phase high-power-factor rectifier, which features regulation by conventional pulsewidth modulation (PWM), soft commutation, and instantaneous average line current control. A new zero-voltage-switching PWM (ZVS-PWM) auxiliary circuit is configured in the presented ZVS-PWM rectifier to perform ZVS in the main switches and the passive switches, and zero-current switching in the auxiliary switch. Furthermore, soft commutation of the main switch is achieved without additional current stress by the presented ZVS-PWM auxiliary circuit. A significant reduction in the conduction losses is achieved, since the circulating current for the soft switching flows only through the auxiliary circuit and a minimum number of switching devices are involved in the circulating current path, and the proposed rectifier uses a single converter instead of the conventional configuration composed of a four-diode front-end rectifier followed by a boost converter. Nine transition states for describing the behavior of the ZVS-PWM rectifier in one switching period are described. A prototype rated at 1 kW, operating 80 kHz, with an input ac voltage of 220 Vrms and an output voltage of 400 Vdc has been implemented in the laboratory. An efficiency of 96.7% and power factor over 0.99 has been measured. Analysis, design, and the control circuitry are also presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Extending the low-speed operation range of PM Generator in automotive applications using novel AC-DC converter control

    Page(s): 436 - 443
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper outlines a case study on an integrated starter-generator-torque-booster (ISGtB) for a hybrid propulsion system, with a particular focus on the generator operation in the low-speed range. The propulsion system consists of an internal combustion (IC) engine and a brushless dc machine and is intended to drive a street scooter. The complex functionality of the ISGtB, some outstanding characteristics of modern IC engines, stringent demands on the generated supply voltage, and operational principle of the selected electrical machine are the reasons for our research on the generator operation. An ac-dc converter and its control are proposed. By utilizing MOSFET transistor reverse conduction characteristics, the idea of synchronous rectification, and the principle of boost switching conversion, several improvements in the generator characteristics are accomplished. The proposed solution, enabling each of the three-phase converter legs to operate as an autonomous boost converter with synchronously driven upper transistors instead of using body diodes, extends the generator operation range below the nominal rotational speed and offers simple yet efficient energy flow control. View full abstract»

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  • Three-phase single-stage four-switch PFC buck-boost-type rectifier

    Page(s): 444 - 453
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new three-phase single-stage power-factor corrector buck-boost-type rectifier topology. The typical topology uses a bridge configuration with six switches. This new topology only requires four switches, improving the rectifier efficiency as only one reverse-blocking power semiconductor conducts at any time. A vector-based sliding-mode control method for the three-phase input currents is also proposed. This fast and robust technique uses sliding mode to generate αβ space-vector modulation, which forces the input line currents to track a suitable sinusoidal reference. A near-unity power-factor operation of the rectifier is obtained using a sinusoidal reference in phase with the input source voltages. A proportional-integral controller is adopted to regulate the output voltage of the converter. This external voltage controller modulates the amplitude of the current references. The characteristics of the new rectifier are verified with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A constant output current three-phase diode bridge rectifier employing a novel "Electronic Smoothing Inductor"

    Page(s): 454 - 461
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    This paper presents an improvement of the well-known conventional three-phase diode bridge rectifier with dc output capacitor. The proposed circuit increases the power factor (PF) at the ac input and reduces the ripple current stress on the smoothing capacitor. The basic concept is the arrangement of an active voltage source between the output of the diode bridge and the smoothing capacitor which is controlled in a way that it emulates an ideal smoothing inductor. With this the input currents of the diode bridge which usually show high peak amplitudes are converted into a 120° rectangular shape which ideally results in a total PF of 0.955. The active voltage source mentioned before is realized by a low-voltage switch-mode converter stage of small power rating as compared to the output power of the rectifier. Starting with a brief discussion of basic three-phase rectifier techniques and of the drawbacks of three-phase diode bridge rectifiers with capacitive smoothing, the concept of the proposed active smoothing is described and the stationary operation is analyzed. Furthermore, control concepts as well as design considerations and analyses of the dynamic systems behavior are given. Finally, measurements taken from a laboratory model are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A new control strategy for neutral-point-clamped active rectifiers

    Page(s): 462 - 470
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new control strategy has been developed for interfacing a neutral-point-clamped active rectifier with the mains. In particular, a method, based on the modulation of the input currents amplitudes, is proposed to compensate the dc-link capacitors voltages fluctuations. The proposed strategy gives good results in all the operating conditions, but it appears to be very useful especially in no-load or low-load operations, where other methods fail. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results, derived from a reduced-scale prototype, are presented and confirm the validity of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of three-level rectifiers for low-voltage utility applications

    Page(s): 471 - 481
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    This paper evaluates the benefits of three-level topologies as alternatives to two-level topologies in low-voltage converters primarily operated in rectifier mode. The main evaluation aspects are input filter size, semiconductor losses, maximum switching frequency, part count, initial cost, and life cycle cost. Semiconductor loss characteristics of various three-level topologies are discussed. A detailed converter comparison is based on a 100-kW 400-Vrms rectifier using commercially available Si insulated gate bipolar transistor modules. View full abstract»

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  • Resonances in a high-power active-front-end rectifier system

    Page(s): 482 - 488
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    This paper presents the application of high-power three-level active-front-end rectifiers to regenerate energy in a downhill conveyor system. The selective harmonic elimination method is used to eliminate harmonics 11 and 13, working with very low switching frequency, where six-pulse harmonic orders 6k±1 are eliminated by the delta-wye connection of the transformer. In this way, the input current at the mains is highly sinusoidal with small harmonics starting at frequencies of order 23 and 25. Resonances have been detected, originated mainly by the capacitances of feeding cables and noneliminated harmonics, which produce high-voltage distortion. Theoretical and field measurements present the problem and the solution by using a specially designed high-pass power filter. View full abstract»

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  • Winder software testing with real-time dynamic Simulation

    Page(s): 489 - 498
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large portions of a winder's control system software are tested during commissioning. This is inefficient because production is stopped and financial pressures limit the time available for testing. However, it avoids the cost of integrating the winder and electrical drive system before installation. This paper describes a winder simulator that allowed control system software to be tested before installation. Shipping roll build up, parent roll build down, mechanical brakes, and a two-drum windup model were developed. These models were used to simulate the winder, web, and drive system dynamics in real time with a dedicated programmable logic controller (PLC). This PLC provided signals for the winder PLC that would normally be supplied by the drive system and various sensors. The simulator was verified with data from a previously installed winder. The use of the simulator before installation of a new winder demonstrated the benefits of pre-installation software testing. View full abstract»

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  • A novel motor drive design for incremental motion system via sliding-mode control method

    Page(s): 499 - 507
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a particular motor position control drive design via a novel sliding-mode controller. The newly designed controller is especially suitable for the motor incremental motion control which is specified by a trapezoidal velocity profile. The novel sliding-mode controller is designed in accordance with the trapezoidal velocity profile to guarantee the desired performance. A motor control system associated PC-based incremental motion controller with permanent-magnet synchronous motor is built to verify the control effect. The validity of the novel incremental motion controller with sliding-mode control method is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Novel rotor position extraction based on carrier frequency component method (CFCM) using two reference frames for IPM drives

    Page(s): 508 - 514
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a novel interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motor's rotor position extraction method from the carrier-frequency component signal, derived from pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) inverter switching, using two reference frames is presented. This method has been utilized for IPM motor vector control without a mechanical rotor position detector, extracting rotor position angle from the switching carrier-frequency (10 kHz) component current. It is effective for IPM motors, which have magnetic saliency, sinusoidal distributed stator winding, and are supplied by a PWM voltage-source inverter. The performance of two IPM motors' vector control without mechanical rotor position detector utilizing this method has been investigated. Experimental results demonstrating good dynamic and steady-state performance achieved are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Filter networks for long cable drives and their influence on motor voltage distribution and common-mode currents

    Page(s): 515 - 522
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    Filter networks for long cable drives have been studied in the last decade to solve the overvoltage problem at the motor terminals. However, little research has been dedicated to analyze their influence on the voltage distribution in the motor stator winding and on the circulation of the common-mode currents. In this paper, the project of dv/dt filters through simulation and analysis from previous work is extended, including the motor voltage distribution and common-mode current analysis. Simulation and experimental results are presented, demonstrating the usefulness of the filter networks on the motor overvoltage mitigation. Three filter topologies will be discussed and compared here: RLC filter at the motor terminals, RLC filter at the inverter output and reactor filter, which is extensively used in the industry. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the RLC filter at the inverter output is the most interesting solution among the main types of passive filter networks. View full abstract»

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  • vector-controlled PWM current-source-inverter-fed induction motor drive with a new stator current control method

    Page(s): 523 - 531
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    In this paper, the control of the pulsewidth-modulated current-source-inverter-fed induction motor drive is discussed. The vector control system of the induction motor is realized in a rotor-flux-oriented reference frame, where only the measured angular rotor speed and the dc-link current are needed for motor control. A new damping method for stator current oscillations is introduced. The method operates in an open-loop manner and is very suitable for microcontroller implementation, since the calculation power demand is low. Also, the stator current phase error caused by the load filter is compensated without measurement of any electrical variable. With the proposed control methods the motor current sensors can be totally eliminated since the stator current measurements are not needed either for protection in the current-source-inverter-fed drives. The proposed control methods are realized using a single-chip Motorola MC68HC916Y1 microcontroller. The experimental tests show excellent performance in both steady-state and transient conditions. View full abstract»

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  • An MRAS-based sensorless high-performance induction motor drive with a predictive adaptive model

    Page(s): 532 - 551
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    This paper presents a new model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed observer for high-performance field-oriented control induction motor drives based on adaptive linear neural networks. It is an evolution and an improvement of an MRAS observer presented in the literature. This new MRAS speed observer uses the current model as an adaptive model discretized with the modified Euler integration method. A linear neural network has been then designed and trained online by means of an ordinary least-squares (OLS) algorithm, differently from that in the literature which employs a nonlinear backpropagation network (BPN) algorithm. Moreover, the neural adaptive model is employed here in prediction mode, and not in simulation mode, as is usually the case in the literature, with a consequent quicker convergence of the speed estimation, no need of filtering the estimated speed, higher bandwidth of the speed loop, lower estimation errors both in transient and steady-state operation, better behavior in zero-speed operation at no load, and stable behavior in field weakening. A theoretical analysis of some stability issues of the proposed observer has also been developed. The OLS MRAS observer has been verified in numerical simulation and experimentally, and in comparison with the BPN MRAS one presented in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • A quasi-resonant quadratic boost converter using a single resonant network

    Page(s): 552 - 557
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a quadratic boost converter using a single quasi-resonant network to reach soft commutation. A resonant inductor, a resonant capacitor, and an auxiliary switch form the resonant network and the main switch operates in a zero-current-switching way. A complete analysis of this converter is presented. According to the simulation and experimental results, this quadratic boost converter provides a larger conversion ratio than that provided by the conventional boost converter (for a given duty ratio D), and presents optimum performance, which operates with soft-switch commutation using a single resonant network. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411