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Intelligent Systems, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date March-April 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c2
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  • Fathoming Funding

    Page(s): 2 - 3
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    To cope with trends in the funding of artificial intelligence research, AI researchers will need to stick together. View full abstract»

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  • Practical agents help out [virtual agent system]

    Page(s): 4 - 6
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    Artificial intelligence probes further into making machines more like humans. Researchers are using technology advances in speech recognition, conversational interactions, decision-making, natural language AI, enhanced data-mining techniques, and emotion to create virtual practical agents. These text, voice, and graphical avatars assist people with various tasks and difficult situations. They can help people better use services, make financial transactions, learn about technology, and even develop interpersonal negotiating skills and cope with stressful situations. Thus virtual agents are improving their ability to identify what we mean when we communicate with them, no matter how we put it. View full abstract»

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  • Making driver modeling attractive

    Page(s): 8 - 12
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    Automobile industry and academic researchers expend considerable effort to develop driver assistance systems. DASs are aware of certain driving situations and support drivers through information, warnings, or even intervention. Many DAS applications are safety oriented, such as lane departure warning systems. Some are comfort oriented, such as automated parking assistants. Moreover, DAS human-machine interfaces must support careful communication with potentially taxed drivers. Driver models support DAS design in several ways. Our work focuses on modeling the tactical level of driving decisions, such as when to brake and whether to accelerate and pass another vehicle. Such decisions are based on local, instantaneously available environmental information about the road and other cars in the same or an adjacent lane. View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: Planning with Templates

    Page(s): 13 - 15
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    Templates are standard operating procedures that can be used for solving typical problems and as a starting point for solving novel problems. These structures contain relevant variables (and required activities) and current variable values (or specific activities) that affect a problem or have been chosen in a problem-solving instance. With templates you can configure domain-independent planning algorithms, making them applicable to many different problem domains. By making the template explicit for the user in the form of a GUI, you can facilitate mixed-initiative, user-centric systems that help maintain awareness of complex and dynamic situations, share information across the network, and solve problems incrementally and iteratively. View full abstract»

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  • Comirem: an intelligent form for resource management

    Page(s): 16 - 24
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    Comirem (continuous, mixed-initiative resource management) is an "intelligent form" for resource management that is designed to more directly match the iterative, user-centered nature of planning and scheduling in practical domains. In this article, we provide an overview of the current Comirem system. Comirem promotes a graphical, spreadsheet-like model of user-system interaction. The user interacts with the system through Web-based forms that combine visual displays of the current plan and planning state with form-based editing capabilities so that the user can manipulate aspects of the solution and solution state. View full abstract»

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  • Conditional constraint networks for interleaved planning and information gathering

    Page(s): 25 - 33
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    We have developed Heracles II, a framework for mixed-initiative planning and information gathering. Heracles II maps the hierarchical task structure of the planning domain into a conditional constraint network. It also ensures correct constraint propagation in the presence of cycles, user interaction, and asynchronous sources. We have applied the Heracles II framework to several domains including travel planning and geospatial data integration. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of SHOP and SHOP2

    Page(s): 34 - 41
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    We design the simple hierarchical ordered planner (SHOP) and its successor, SHOP2, with two goals in mind: to investigate research issues in automated planning and to provide some simple, practical planning tools. SHOP and SHOP2 are based on a planning formalism called hierarchical task network planning. SHOP and SHOP2 use a search-control strategy called ordered task decomposition, which breaks tasks into subtasks and generates the plan's actions in the same order that the plan executor executes them. So, throughout the planning process, the planner can tell what the state of the world at each step of the plan. View full abstract»

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  • Authoring templates with Tracker

    Page(s): 42 - 45
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    Tracker, a tool developed by DARPA'S active templates program, extends data-entry forms to support plan authoring, information monitoring, and execution planning. Tracker is used to develop templates for a military air transportation system tool. The Tracker software lets users define templates to describe and implement a given planning problem's associated workflow. View full abstract»

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  • Personal knowledge publishing: fostering interdisciplinary communication

    Page(s): 46 - 53
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    We address this article in relation to blogging and personal knowledge publishing (PKP). Derived from blogging, personal knowledge publishing is a form of Web-based communication that lowers social and linguistic barriers, facilitating knowledge migration across disciplinary boundaries. The aggregate output of this practice could provide a promising basis for intelligent systems development. These individual-centered, community-discussion-support systems have emerged as an interesting complement to journals, mailing lists, and other media for interdisciplinary-minded individuals. PKP offers individual researchers a tool for building strong interdisciplinary research networks. These networks enable individuals to find relevant literature and experts outside their core research community. View full abstract»

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  • Navigation and multimodal transportation with EasyTransport

    Page(s): 54 - 61
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    Today's intelligent navigation and transportation systems influence the way travelers access information to plan trips efficiently. By and large, such systems derive their navigational suggestions out of precompiled data regarding direct road connections recorded in their databases. They typically facilitate passenger navigation within predefined geographic regions, provide location tracing and direction functionalities over cellular networks or the Web and deliver accurate but not necessarily optimal transition paths. This article proposes EasyTransport, an intelligent navigation and multimodal transportation guidance system that focuses on near-optimal trajectory planning and informed decision making. EasyTransport introduces a number of novel features. The EasyTransport system helps travelers plan the most efficient route and choose the best modes of transportation in urban or large-scale geographic areas. Users can adapt the generated outcomes through an interactive interface. View full abstract»

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  • Constraints and AI planning

    Page(s): 62 - 72
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    Tackling real-world planning problems often requires considering various types of constraints, which can range from simple numerical comparators to complex resources. This article provides an overview of techniques to deal with such constraints by expressing planning within general constraint-solving frameworks. Our goal here is to explore the interplay of constraints and planning, highlighting the differences between propositional satisfiability (SAT), integer programming (IP), and constraint programming (CP), and discuss their potential in expressing and solving AI planning problems. View full abstract»

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  • Work-centered support systems: a human-centered approach to intelligent system design

    Page(s): 73 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work-centered support system approach to human-centered computing focuses on analyzing and supporting the multiple facets of work. The WCSS for global weather management developed to support weather forecasting and monitoring in an airlift service organization, exemplifies this approach. A hallmark of human-centered computing (HCC) is its focus on domain practitioners and their field of practice. Human-centered design depends on a deep analysis of a field's cognitive and collaborative demands and how people work individually, in groups, and in organizations to meet those demands. The objective is to leverage what we know about human cognitive and collaborative processes to create systems that optimize the affordances (direct perception of meanings) and effectivities (knowledge-driven actions) for humans. The WCSS paradigm offers an approach for incorporating software agent technology in a manner that helps the user keep the head in the work and reduces the possibility that software agent states or actions surprise the user. View full abstract»

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  • From hardware to software to knowware: IT's third liberation?

    Page(s): 82 - 85
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    Knowware is a natural development in IT after hardware and software. It is a knowledge module that is independent, commercialized, suitable for computer manipulation, and directly usable by a class of software. It is directly related to intelligence: if software is the condensation and crystallization of knowledge, then knowware is the condensation and crystallization of intelligence. Pseudo natural languages (PNLs) such as ZHIWEN make it possible to develop knowware in a fast and massive fashion. They also offer a way to separate software developers from knowware developers, so that software engineers need only develop software tools, leaving the task of knowware development to the domain-specific experts. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling with the semantic Web in the geosciences

    Page(s): 86 - 88
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    Earth system science deals with complex systems that pose many significant representation challenges. Ontologies as knowledge repositories have been developed to support the primary goal of sharing knowledge in a manner that aids understanding. DARPA is currently developing an extension to OWL called SWRL (semantic Web rule language), which lets to express some aspects of rules and process behaviors. The semantic Web facilitates researchers' collaboration and model components automated discovery and use. Spatial data plays a key role in modeling the earth system as the input to models and as a measure against which results are validated. View full abstract»

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  • [Inside back cover]

    Page(s): c3
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Intelligent Systems serves users, managers, developers, researchers, and purchasers who are interested in intelligent systems and artificial intelligence, with particular emphasis on applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Daniel Zeng
University of Arizona