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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 4 • Date April 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-Modulated DFB semiconductor laser

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 473 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a model of frequency modulated distributed feedback laser with intracavity phase modulator and have shown that it can operate in two different regimes, only one of which has good frequency-modulated (FM) response. We have identified the combination of the laser parameters that forces laser to operate in high FM efficiency regime. The results of our initial experiments support these conclusions. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of optical feedback on the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 483 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)  

    We study theoretically the effect of isotropic and polarization-selective optical feedback on the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. We use the framework of the spin-flip model that takes into account the spin degree of freedom of carriers in the semiconductor quantum well. We analyze the polarization switching dynamics for different values of the spin relaxation rate and find a good agreement with recent experimental results . We also study the influence of the external cavity length and find different dynamical behaviors for short and long external cavities. View full abstract»

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  • Multiwavelength array of single-frequency stabilized Fabry-Perot lasers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 490 - 494
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We characterize the influence of controlled perturbations (slots) in the ridge waveguide of Fabry-Perot lasers emitting around 1550 nm. The slots are etched simultaneously with the ridge and each slot introduces an additional loss of 2.3 cm-1. The lasers emit with a single wavelength when more than three slots are introduced, in which case the interslot spacing strongly influences the lasing spectrum. An array of devices with differing slot arrangements are fabricated on a single chip where each laser emits at a single wavelength across a 30-nm band each with side-mode suppression ratios greater than 28 dB. The emission wavelengths are simulated with a model for lossy slots where each slot has an effective in-phase reflectivity of 0.7%. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of semiconductor quantum-dot laser dynamics

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 495 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theory for describing nonequilibrium dynamics in a semiconductor quantum-dot laser is presented. This theory is applied to a microcavity laser with a gain region consisting of an inhomogeneous distribution of quantum dots, a quantum-well wetting layer, and injection pumped bulk regions. Numerical results are presented and the effects of spectral hole burning, plasma heating, and many-body effects are analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Design of wide-emitter single-mode laser diodes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 506 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    An accurate laser simulator is developed to investigate the influences of various device parameters on modal discrimination and beam quality to optimize the brightness of semiconductor lasers. Previous work using the Prony method is extended, both by using a more robust laser simulator to solve for the optical fields and by extending the Prony method to operating conditions above threshold. The semiconductor laser model is used to investigate the effects of various device parameters on the characteristics of a gain-guided 980-nm Al-free stripe geometry laser. The device parameters investigated are the device geometry, the thickness and doping level of the waveguiding layer and the front facet reflectivity. Together with practical and economic considerations, the device parameters of a wide emitter gain-guided laser are optimized. The optimized gain-guided laser is predicted to operate in the fundamental mode up to 1.15 W. At this maximum fundamental mode power, the slow axis beam divergence at 1/e2 points is 5.4°, the beam quality factor M2 is 1.62, the astigmatism is 27 μm, and the brightness is 61 MW/cm2sr. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of resonant mode coupling on optical Characteristics of InGaN-GaN-AlGaN lasers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 517 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The phenomenon of resonant mode coupling is modeled and numerically investigated in InGaN-based multiple-quantum-well laser structures. It is shown that under resonant conditions, the internal mode coupling can lead to severe distortions of both near- and far-field characteristics. Taking into account the carrier-induced change of the modal effective index for the lasing mode, we show that the resonant internal mode coupling can result in a strongly nonlinear dependence of the modal gain on injection current, with possible region of negative differential modal gain. View full abstract»

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  • Self-consistent Simulation of self-pulsating two-section gain-coupled DFB lasers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 525 - 531
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The role of cavity conditions in the dynamics of two-section gain-coupled distributed feedback (DFB) lasers is investigated using a self-consistent model. Self-sustained pulsation (SSP) exists only for devices with strongly coupled DFB gratings. As the coupling strength increases, multiple SSP regimes are developed. The SSP frequency tuning range increases as cavity length decreases. The frequency and modulation index predicted by the model agree well with experimental results. The facet condition of each section is found to affect SSP differently because of the asymmetrical behavior of the modes responsible for SSP. View full abstract»

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  • Gain measurements of Fabry-Pe´rot semiconductor lasers using a nonlinear least-squares fitting method

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 532 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method for the measurement of the gain-reflectance product of Fabry-Pe´rot (F-P) semiconductor lasers is proposed and compared to other techniques. The method is based on a nonlinear, least-squares fitting of the F-P modes to an Airy function. A separate fitting is performed over each mode, as measured with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), so that the gain-reflectance parameters are extracted. The influence of the OSAs response function is considered by convolution of the Airy function with the response function of the OSA. By comparing with the Hakki-Paoli method, the mode sum/min method, and the Fourier series expansion method, we find that the nonlinear fitting method is the least sensitive to noise. However, owing to a broadening of the F-P modes of the semiconductor laser, the mode sum/min method combined with a deconvolution technique gives the least underestimated gain above threshold. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 541 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (63)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    We characterize the chaotic dynamics of semiconductor lasers subject to either optical or electrooptical feedback modeled by Lang-Kobayashi and Ikeda equations, respectively. This characterization is relevant for secure optical communications based on chaos encryption. In particular, for each system we compute as a function of tunable parameters the Lyapunov spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency FM-noise-induced lineshape: a theoretical and experimental approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 549 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Linewidth determination by self-heterodyne or self-homodyne methods may lead to mistaken interpretation, because these measurements often include significant broadening due to low-frequency FM noise. The effects of FM noise on these linewidth measurement schemes are investigated. An analytical formulation of the photocurrent autocorrelation function is given for different frequency noise signatures, the lineshape being extracted from numerical implementation. We apply these results to linewidth prediction for 850-nm commercial vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and get almost perfect agreement between the theoretical and the experimental approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 554 - 561
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theoretical model is used to analyze the impact of phase noise on the performance of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) in the saturation regime for differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) applications. It is found that the variance of the differential phase error scales as T2c2 for τc≫T, where T is the bit period and τc is the carrier lifetime of the SOA. This suggests that the adverse effect of saturation-induced phase noise can be significantly reduced by increasing the bit rate or the carrier lifetime. View full abstract»

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  • Study of reverse dark current in 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 562 - 567
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been used to determine the reverse dark current mechanisms in 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes (APDs). A pn junction vertical mesa structure, passivated with SiO2 grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, exhibits predominate leakage current along the mesa sidewall. Similar APDs, passivated by thermal oxide, exhibit lower dark current before breakdown; however, when the temperature is higher than 146°C, an anomalous dark current, which increases rapidly with temperature, is observed. This current component appears to be eliminated by the removal of the thermal oxide. Near breakdown, tunneling is the dominant dark current mechanism for these pn devices. APDs fabricated from a pp-n structure show reduced tunneling current. At room temperature, the dark current at 95% of breakdown voltage is 140 fA (1.8 nA/cm2) for a 100-μm diameter APD. At a gain of 1000, the dark current is 35 pA (0.44 μA/cm2). View full abstract»

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  • Detrimental effect of impact ionization in the absorption region on the frequency response and excess noise performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM avalanche photodiodes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 568 - 572
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that optimization of the electric field profile in the absorption region of separate absorption, charge, and multiplication InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes is critical to achieve low excess noise and high gain bandwidth product. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 573 - 580
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two models are presented to describe the complex dynamics of Q-switched clad-pumped Er3+-Yb3+ codoped fiber lasers (EYDFLs): the full model that includes the full wavelength-dependence of parameters in the 1550- and the 1080-nm band due to Er3+ and Yb3+, respectively, and the simplified model that assumes single wavelengths for both bands. The models are based on detailed rate equations that include energy transfer between Er3+ and Yb3+ ions, and spontaneous emission due to both Er3+ and Yb3+. The simplified model is shown to agree with the full model within 10% difference. Experiments are performed using a 4-m-long single-mode clad-pumped EYDFL, and pulse energy of 14.5 μJ is achieved. Excellent agreement is shown between the simplified model and experiments. The model is further used to study the extractable energy of the laser and show limiting factors: amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and energy storage in Yb3+ ions. The model is also used to optimize the pulse energy in terms of fiber length, pump power, and Er3+-Yb3+ concentrations. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical analysis of tunable wavelength conversion based on FWM in a semiconductor fiber ring laser

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 581 - 588
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A comprehensive broad-band dynamic model of a tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor fiber ring laser (SFRL) is presented. Critical factors, e.g., the material gain profile, the longitudinal variation of the optical field, the carrier density, photon density, and the broad-band spontaneous noise emission, are considered in the model. Therefore, the static and dynamic characteristics of this kind of wavelength converter can be predicted more accurately. By numerical simulation, the effects of the input signal power, injection current, the coupling coefficient of the output coupler, and the lasing wavelength on the conversion efficiency of the wavelength converter are investigated. Also, the optical pulse pattern, frequency chirp, and extinction ratio of the conjugate signal are evaluated. To widen the dynamic range of input signal power, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is added into the SFRL. The characteristics of this tunable wavelength converter with an SFRL are investigated in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of electrooptic polymer electrical characteristics in a three-layer optical waveguide modulator

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 589 - 595
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electrical characteristics of electrooptic polymer waveguide modulators are often described by the bulk reactance of the individual layers. However, the resistance and capacitance between the layers can significantly alter the electrical performance of a waveguide modulator. These interface characteristics are related to the boundary charge density and are strongly affected by the adhesion of the layers in the waveguide stack. An electrical reactance model has been derived to investigate this phenomenon at low frequencies. The model shows the waveguide stack frequency response has no limiting effects below the microwave range and that a true dc response requires a stable voltage for over 1000 h. Thus, reactance of the layers is the key characteristic of optimizing the voltage across the core layer, even at very low frequencies (>10-6 Hz). The results of the model are compared with experimental data for two polymer systems and show quite good correlation. View full abstract»

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  • Nanoscale spatial phase modulation of GaN on a V-grooved Si Substrate-cubic phase GaN on Si(001) for monolithic integration

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 596 - 605
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanoscale spatial phase modulation of GaN grown on a 355-nm period array of V-grooves fabricated in a Si(001) substrate is reported. Orientation-dependent selective nucleation of GaN in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy begins from the opposing Si{111} sidewalls and rapidly fills each V-groove. At the initial stages of growth, the GaN deposited on the sidewalls has hexagonal phase with the c-axis normal to the Si{111}. As the growth continues, the filling of the V-groove over these misaligned hexagonal phase regions results in a transition to a cubic phase with its principal crystal axes parallel to those of the Si substrate. In a cross-sectional view perpendicular to the grooves, the defected hexagonal phase region and the clean cubic phase region above it form a boundary at the inside of each V-groove which is parallel to the Si{111} sidewalls. The GaN surface is almost planarized for only 75-nm deposition and is parallel to the original [001] plane of the Si substrate. The GaN clearly exhibits nanoscale spatial phase modulation with a periodic separation of hexagonal and cubic crystal structures across the groove direction for 600-nm deposition, implying a possibility of cubic phase GaN on an isolated single V-groove fabricated in a Si(001) substrate for monolithic integration. The structural/optical properties and stress measurements of this phase-modulated GaN grown on a nanoscale faceted Si surface are presented. View full abstract»

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  • 5th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronics Devices (NUSOD'05)

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 606
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  • IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 607
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 608
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University