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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3  Part 2 • Date March 2005

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  • Table of contents

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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

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  • The advanced multifunction RF concept

    Page(s): 1009 - 1020
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    The goal of the Advanced Multifunction Radio Frequency Concept (AMRFC) Program is to demonstrate the integration of many sorts of shipboard RF functions including radar, communications, and electronic warfare (EW) utilizing a common set of broad-band array antennas, signal and data processing, signal generation, and display hardware. The AMRFC Program was launched in response to the growing number of topside antennas on U.S. Navy ships, which have almost doubled from the ships launched in the 1980s to those launched in the 1990s. The AMRFC Program seeks to develop and demonstrate a wide-band generic active array antenna architecture that has the ability to transmit and receive multiple simultaneous independent beams for radar, EW, and communication functions. This paper describes a proof-of-principle test-bed that is being developed to demonstrate the AMRFC. View full abstract»

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  • Multifunction millimeter-wave systems for armored vehicle application

    Page(s): 1021 - 1025
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    There is an emerging need for millimeter-wave capabilities on military vehicles; in order to make such capabilities more affordable, we have been experimenting with the notion of combining multiple functions into a single device. The functions to be performed simultaneously include: 1) active protection (AP) radar for point defense against antitank threats; 2) surveillance radar for airborne and ground targets; 3) trunking radio for mobile ad hoc networking at a high data rate (>100 Mb/s); and 4) combat identification (ID). Due to a unique combination of characteristics, millimeter-wave radios, radars, and other sensors are attractive for military vehicle use. These characteristics include: 1) smaller profile/footprint of the high-gain antennas; 2) adequate weather penetration; 3) antijam, low probability of intercept, low probability of detection; and 4) wide bandwidth. For the combination of applications identified, this need is best met via a system operating near the 35-GHz atmospheric transmission window. Current mobile millimeter-wave ground-based systems (AP radar, wide-band communication, and combat ID) utilize highly directional steerable beams. Mechanical beam steering is usually done, resulting in restricted beam agility. Nevertheless, mechanical beam-steering performance is acceptable for AP radar and combat ID systems (but not for Joint Tactical Radio networked communications). A true multifunction system, however, requires beam-steering speeds that far exceed capabilities of even the best mechanical technologies. This is due to the need to support either networking or simultaneous multifunctions via time-shared beam steering. Thus, a true multifunction system must steer its beam anywhere in the upper hemisphere in less than 1 ms. Phased arrays are the obvious solution to these needs. Unfortunately, past phased-array technologies were unaffordable for Army vehicle application-hence, the multiplicity of systems. However, a new trend in development of affordable phased-array Ka-band antennas enables development of affordable Ka-band multifunction systems. View full abstract»

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  • Toward multistandard mobile terminals - fully integrated receivers requirements and architectures

    Page(s): 1026 - 1038
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    In the recent past, there has been an evolution in wireless communications toward multifunctions and multistandard mobile terminals. Reducing the number of external components to a minimum is key when the same mobile terminal has to process several different standards. Highly integrated solutions in low-cost silicon technologies are thus required. Zero-IF and low-IF receiver architectures are most suitable for a high level of integration. This paper presents a review of global system for mobile communications, universal mobile telecommunication system, Bluetooth, and wireless local area network (IEEE802.11a, b, g and HiperLAN2) standards, likely to all be present in the "universal" terminal of the future, enabling global roaming and wireless connectivity. The various standards are analyzed in order to find the optimal architecture and the building-block specifications for the receive section, with particular care to the RF front-end. State-of-the-art solutions are discussed, with emphasis on direct conversion CMOS implementations. A multistandard architecture for a fully-integrated CMOS receiver is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • The six-port as a communications receiver

    Page(s): 1039 - 1047
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    Configurable radio terminals require receivers with wide-band capabilities in order to support as many services as possible at most different carrier frequencies. Conventional well-known receiver architectures employing active circuitry are limited in this respect. Therefore, alternative architectures are investigated, such as the six-port, which has been introduced as a very flexible and elegant means for microwave measurements in the 1960s and 1970s. Later on, it has been used in radar applications. It was not until recently that communications receivers have been built upon the six-port principle. However, in all publications, there is always a certain mystic about the six-port. It has even been described as a "black box". In order to help paving the way for a wider application of the six-port technology, this paper describes the basic six-port theory and sets it into relation with the conventional receiver architectures such as the homodyne and heterodyne receiver. Finally, the advantages and possible applications of receivers based on the six-port technology are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A dual-band RF transceiver for multistandard WLAN applications

    Page(s): 1048 - 1055
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new dual-band RF transceiver is presented for 2.4- and 5.2-GHz multistandard wireless local area networks. The proposed dual-band RF transceiver integrates a concurrent dual-band front-end, a triple-band frequency synthesizer, and a band-sharing in-phase/quadrature modulator/demodulator to maximize component and power reuse. The design is started with the examination of an enhanced dual-band heterodyne architecture and then the optimal circuit partition to satisfy the multistandard requirements. Key dual-band circuits are designed and integrated with other building blocks for experimental demonstration. The measurement shows that eight 5-GHz channels and 13 2.4-GHz channels can be synthesized within 130 μs with phase noise less than -98 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz off carrier and spur suppression greater than -65 dBc. The transmitted P1 dB power is 25/20 dBm at 2.4/5.2 GHz, respectively, with the modulation accuracy error-vector magnitude (EVM) values varying from 3.57% to 7.19%. The receiver gain is 20/31 dB at 2.4/5.2 GHz front-end and 70 dB at IF back-end with EVM within 2.32% to 10% from -70- to -17-dBm received power range. View full abstract»

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  • Signal path optimization in software-defined radio systems

    Page(s): 1056 - 1064
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    Growing requirements set upon communication transceivers lead to high sensitivity to nonidealities of analog components, especially in case of software-defined radio (SDR) systems. This paper deals with disturbances, mismatches, and the rejection of images that are caused by the front-end processing. A hybrid architecture comprehending advantages of homodyne and heterodyne receivers is proposed for an SDR system. Theoretical outcomes are discussed and backed by simulations. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based algorithm, the phase increment Kay algorithm, and two autocorrelation algorithms, i.e., Morelli-Mengali and Crozier-Moreland, used for frequency offset correction, are compared. The FFT algorithm turns out to be the best solution, both in terms of performance and ease of implementation. DC correction is then discussed and in-phase/quadrature imbalance compensation by means of a blind-source separation (BSS) algorithm and a hard-decision algorithm is performed. The latter algorithm displays implementation advantages, while BSS performs better. View full abstract»

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  • High-band digital preprocessor (HBDP) for the AMRFC test-bed

    Page(s): 1065 - 1071
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fully integrated very wide-band (WB) digital receiver subsystem has been developed to support the Navy Advanced Multifunction RF Concept test-bed program. Input RF signals in the 6-18-GHz band are processed to provide digital outputs for narrow-band and digital beam outputs for WB applications having instantaneous bandwidths of 22 and 230 MHz, respectively. This paper describes the design and performance of the digital receiver subsystem. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive digital correction of mismatch errors for a 400-msamples/s 80-dB SFDR time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter

    Page(s): 1072 - 1082
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    Comprehensive digital calibration of a high-speed and high-resolution time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) is described. A channel transfer function, which incorporates all linear errors between analog input and digital output, is measured for each channel by applying a series of sinusoids. A set of finite-impulse response (FIR) filters designed by the weighted least squares principle provides frequency-dependent mismatch correction so that the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is no longer limited by channel mismatches. A four-channel TIADC prototype with 14-bit resolution and 400-MHz aggregate sampling rate was built to verify the proposed correction method. Uncalibrated SFDR was below 50 dB. After mismatch correction with 61-tap FIR filters, 80 dB of SFDR was achieved up to ∼175 MHz of input frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated antenna/power combiner for LINC radio transmitters

    Page(s): 1083 - 1088
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents integrated antennas, which can fulfill both the functions of an antenna and a power combiner, thus reducing the circuit loss. This will be useful for linear amplification using nonlinear components systems, where the circuit-level power-combiner losses degrade overall efficiency. Two antennas, which use a single-layer structure and a multilayer structure, respectively, are designed. Both antennas achieve good impedance-matching characteristics under both even- and odd-mode excitations. The single-layer antenna has a narrow bandwidth, and the even-mode radiated power at boresight is 33 and 26 dB lower than that of the odd-mode radiated power at the E- and H-plane, respectively, thus demonstrating the effective suppression of even-mode radiation. The other antenna using multilayer structure achieves a broad-band bandwidth (S11<-10 dB) of 15.5% and 8% under the odd- and even-mode excitation, respectively. Across the bandwidth, broadside radiation patterns with low cross-polar levels (<-21 dB) are achieved under the odd-mode excitation, while the even-mode radiation is also suppressed. View full abstract»

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  • An intelligently controlled RF power amplifier with a reconfigurable MEMS-varactor tuner

    Page(s): 1089 - 1095
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an intelligently controlled RF power amplifier with a reconfigurable output tuner using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches and a varactor. By switching on/off the MEMS switches and varying the bias voltage of the varactor, the performance of the amplifier is optimized for input signals with known or unknown frequencies in a range of 8-12 GHz. Fabrication-related unit-to-unit variations of the amplifier are overcome by the reconfigurable tuner. Directed algorithms based on a characterization table and on black-box genetic algorithms are developed for optimization and search. View full abstract»

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  • Linearity of X-band class-E power amplifiers in EER operation

    Page(s): 1096 - 1102
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    Multifunctional RF front ends need to transmit different types of signals while maintaining efficiency and signal quality. This paper addresses efficient transmitter power amplifiers (PAs) for signals with varying peak-to-average ratios, requiring simultaneous efficiency and linearity. Linearity characterization of class-E high-efficiency PAs operating in envelope elimination and restoration (EER) mode is discussed. Specifically, a 67%-efficient 10-GHz MESFET PA is characterized in terms of its AM-AM, AM-PM conversion and intermodulation products. Measurements of intermodulation distortion are compared with harmonic-balance simulations using TriQuint's Own Model provided by the device manufacturer. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that the amplifier in the EER mode has improved linearity while maintaining high-efficiency operation. View full abstract»

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  • A differential 4-bit 6.5-10-GHz RF MEMS tunable filter

    Page(s): 1103 - 1110
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    This paper presents a state-of-the-art RF microelectromechanical systems wide-band miniature tunable filter designed for 6.5-10-GHz frequency range. The differential filter, fabricated on a glass substrate using digital capacitor banks and microstrip lines, results in a tuning range of 44% with very fine resolution, and return loss better than 16 dB for the whole tuning range. The relative bandwidth of the filter is 5.1 ± 0.4% over the tuning range and the size of the filter is 5 mm × 4 mm. The insertion loss is 4.1 and 5.6 dB at 9.8 and 6.5 GHz, respectively, for a 1-kΩ/sq fabricated bias line. The simulations show that, for a bias line with 10-kΩ/sq resistance or more, the insertion loss improves to 3 dB at 9.8 GHz and 4 dB at 6.5 GHz. The measured IIP3 level is > 45 dBm for Δf > 500 kHz, and the filter can handle 250 mW of RF power for hot and cold switching. View full abstract»

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  • A reconfigurable bandpass filter for RF/microwave multifunctional systems

    Page(s): 1111 - 1116
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    A network prototype suitable for reconfigurable filters with imaginary-axis transmission zeros is presented. The prototype is synthesized using classical cascade synthesis. Reconfiguration of the transmission zeros is implemented entirely by tunable capacitors. The measured performance of a narrow-band reconfigurable bandpass filter realized in a planar combline using varactor diodes demonstrates the principle. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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