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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 3 • Date March 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 477
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 478
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  • Special Issue on Grid Computing

    Page(s): 479 - 484
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  • The Earth System Grid: Supporting the Next Generation of Climate Modeling Research

    Page(s): 485 - 495
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Understanding the Earth's climate system and how it might be changing is a preeminent scientific challenge. Global climate models are used to simulate past, present, and future climates, and experiments are executed continuously on an array of distributed supercomputers. The resulting data archive, spread over several sites, currently contains upwards of 100 TB of simulation data and is growing rapidly. Looking toward mid-decade and beyond, we must anticipate and prepare for distributed climate research data holdings of many petabytes. The Earth System Grid (ESG) is a collaborative interdisciplinary project aimed at addressing the challenge of enabling management, discovery, access, and analysis of these critically important datasets in a distributed and heterogeneous computational environment. The problem is fundamentally a Grid problem. Building upon the Globus toolkit and a variety of other technologies, ESG is developing an environment that addresses authentication, authorization for data access, large-scale data transport and management, services and abstractions for high-performance remote data access, mechanisms for scalable data replication, cataloging with rich semantic and syntactic information, data discovery, distributed monitoring, and Web-based portals for using the system. View full abstract»

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  • DAME: Searching Large Data Sets Within a Grid-Enabled Engineering Application

    Page(s): 496 - 509
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of search engines within the Internet is now ubiquitous. This work examines how Grid technology may affect the implementation of search engines by focusing on the Signal Data Explorer application developed within the Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment (DAME) project. This application utilizes advanced neural-network-based methods (Advanced Uncertain Reasoning Architecture (AURA) technology) to search for matching patterns in time-series vibration data originating from Rolls-Royce aeroengines (jet engines). The large volume of data associated with the problem required the development of a distributed search engine, where data is held at a number of geographically disparate locations. This work gives a brief overview of the DAME project, the pattern marching problem, and the architecture. It also describes the Signal Data Explorer application and provides an overview of the underlying search engine technology and its use in the aeroengine health-monitoring domain. View full abstract»

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  • The Computational Chemistry Prototyping Environment

    Page(s): 510 - 521
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    Evolving technologies, as exemplified by computational grids and Web services, have made it possible to solve new scientific problems that would not have been feasible previously. In order to make such advances available to the community in general and to be able to solve new problems, not necessarily from the same discipline, it is imperative to build tools that provide a common user interface in order that application programmers and users do not have to be concerned with particulars of Web services and their underlying code, computational platforms, or with data file formats. We will describe our efforts in creating a computational chemistry environment that encompasses a general scientific workflow environment, a domain specific example for quantum chemistry, our ongoing design of a workflow user interface, and our efforts at database integration. View full abstract»

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  • Japanese Computational Grid Research Project: NAREGI

    Page(s): 522 - 533
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    The National Research Grid Initiative (NAREGI) is one of the major Japanese national IT projects currently being conducted. NAREGI will cover the period 2003-2007, and collaboration among industry, academia, and the government will play a key role in its success. The Center for Grid Research and Development has been established as a center for R&D of high-performance, scalable grid middleware technologies, which are aimed at enabling major computing centers to host grids over high-speed networks to provide a future computational infrastructure for scientific and engineering research in the 21st century. As an example of utilizing such grid computing technologies, the Center for Application Research and Development is conducting research on leading-edge, grid-enabled nanoscience and nanotechnology simulation applications, which will lead to the discovery and development of new materials and next-generation nanodevices. These two centers are collaborating to establish daily research use of a multiteraflop grid testbed infrastructure, which will be built to demonstrate the advantages of grid technologies for future applications in all areas of science and engineering. View full abstract»

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  • The Grid Application Toolkit: Toward Generic and Easy Application Programming Interfaces for the Grid

    Page(s): 534 - 550
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1831 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Core Grid technologies are rapidly maturing, but there remains a shortage of real Grid applications. One important reason is the lack of a simple and high-level application programming toolkit, bridging the gap between existing Grid middleware and application-level needs. The Grid Application Toolkit (GAT), as currently developed by the EC-funded project GridLab, provides this missing functionality. As seen from the application, the GAT provides a unified simple programming interface to the Grid infrastructure, tailored to the needs of Grid application programmers and users. A uniform programming interface will be needed for application developers to create a new generation of "Grid-aware" applications. The GAT implementation handles both the complexity and the variety of existing Grid middleware services via so-called adaptors. Complementing existing Grid middleware, GridLab also provides high-level services to implement the GAT functionality. We present the GridLab software architecture, consisting of the GAT, environment-specific adaptors, and GridLab services. We elaborate the concepts underlying the GAT and outline the corresponding application programming interface. We present the functionality of GridLab's high-level services and demonstrate how a dynamic Grid application can easily benefit from the GAT. All GridLab software is open source and can be downloaded from the project Web site. View full abstract»

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  • Building Grid Portal Applications From a Web Service Component Architecture

    Page(s): 551 - 563
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    This work describes an approach to building Grid applications based on the premise that users who wish to access and run these applications prefer to do so without becoming experts on Grid technology. We describe an application architecture based on wrapping user applications and application workflows as Web services and Web service resources. These services are visible to the users and to resource providers through a family of Grid portal components that can be used to configure, launch, and monitor complex applications in the scientific language of the end user. The applications in this model are instantiated by an application factory service. The layered design of the architecture makes it possible for an expert to configure an application factory service with a custom user interface client that may be dynamically loaded into the portal. View full abstract»

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  • Deploying the NaradaBrokering Substrate in Aiding Efficient Web and Grid Service Interactions

    Page(s): 564 - 577
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    NaradaBrokering has been developed as the messaging infrastructure for collaboration, peer-to-peer, and Grid applications. The value of NaradaBrokering in the context of Grid and Web Services has been clear for some time. NaradaBrokering-combined with further extensions to, and testing of, its existing capabilities - can also take advantage of the maturing of Web Service standards and specifications to build very powerful general mechanisms to deploy and integrate it with general Web Services. This paper describes a framework to integrate the NaradaBrokering substrate with Web Services. View full abstract»

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  • Data Grids, Digital Libraries, and Persistent Archives: An Integrated Approach to Sharing, Publishing, and Archiving Data

    Page(s): 578 - 588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The integration of grid, data grid, digital library, and preservation technology has resulted in software infrastructure that is uniquely suited to the generation and management of data. Grids provide support for the organization, management, and application of processes. Data grids manage the resulting digital entities. Digital libraries provide support for the management of information associated with the digital entities. Persistent archives provide long-term preservation. We examine the synergies between these data management systems and the future evolution that is required for the generation and management of information. View full abstract»

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  • Legion: Lessons Learned Building a Grid Operating System

    Page(s): 589 - 603
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Legion was the first integrated grid middleware architected from first principles to address the complexity of grid environments. Just as a traditional operating system provides an abstract interface to the underlying physical resources of a machine, Legion was designed to provide a powerful virtual machine interface layered over the distributed, heterogeneous, autonomous, and fault-prone physical and logical resources that constitute a grid. We believe that without a solid, integrated, operating system-like grid middleware, grids will fail to cross the chasm from bleeding-edge supercomputing users to more mainstream computing. This work provides an overview of the architectural principles that drove Legion, a high-level description of the system with complete references to more detailed explanations, and the history of Legion from first inception in August 1993 through commercialization. We present a number of important lessons, both technical and sociological, learned during the course of developing and deploying Legion. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Managing State in Distributed Systems: The Role of OGSI and WSRF

    Page(s): 604 - 612
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    We often encounter in distributed systems the need to model, access, and manage state. This state may be, for example, data in a purchase order, service level agreements representing resource availability, or the current load on a computer. We introduce two closely related approaches to modeling and manipulating state within a Web services (WS) framework: the Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI) and WS-Resource Framework (WSRF). Both approaches define conventions on the use of the Web service definition language schema that enable the modeling and management of state. OGSI introduces the idea of a stateful Web service and defines approaches for creating, naming, and managing the lifetime of instances of services; for declaring and inspecting service state data; for asynchronous notification of service state change; for representing and managing collections of service instances; and for common handling of service invocation faults. WSRF refactors and evolves OGSI to exploit new Web services standards, specifically WS-addressing, and to respond to early implementation and application experiences. WSRF retains essentially all of the functional capabilities present in OGSI, while changing some syntax (e.g., to exploit WS-addressing) and also adopting a different terminology in its presentation. In addition, WSRF partitions OGSI functionality into five distinct composable specifications. We explain the relationship between OGSI and WSRF and the related WS-notification specifications, explain the common requirements that both address, and compare and contrast the approaches taken to the realization of those requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Coordination in Intelligent Grid Environments

    Page(s): 613 - 630
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A computational grid is a complex system. The state space of a complex system is very large and it is infeasible to create a rigid infrastructure implementing optimal policies and strategies which take into account the current state of the system. An alternative to a rigid infrastructure is to base the system's reactions on logical inference, planning, and learning, the quintessential elements of an intelligent system. An intelligent grid is one where societal services exhibit intelligent behavior. A coordination service acting as a proxy on behalf of end users reacts to unforeseen events, plans how to carry out complex tasks, and learns from the history of the system. Various policies implemented by the societal services of an intelligent grid, such as brokerage and matchmaking, are based upon rules and facts gathered with the aid of a monitoring service. The question we address is how to construct intelligent computational grids which are truly scalable and could respond to the needs of a diverse user community. We present a prototype of a system used for a virtual laboratory in computational biology. View full abstract»

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  • Agreement-Based Resource Management

    Page(s): 631 - 643
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the criteria for the Grid infrastructure is the ability to share resources with nontrivial qualities of service. However, sharing resources in Grids is complicated in that is requires the ability bridge the differing policy requirements of the resource owners to create a consistent cross-organizational policy domain that delivers the necessary capability to the end user while respecting the policy requirements of the resource owner. Further complicating the management of Grid resources is the need to coordinate resource usage, the diversity of resource types and the variety of different management modes that may be used. We present a unifying resource management framework in which we can address these issues. The fundamental underlying concept in this framework is the representation of various resource management activities in terms of an agreement. Agreements abstract local management policy by representing an underlying resource strictly in terms of policy terms which it is willing to assert, and in doing so provides the basis for building a variety of alternative Grid resource management strategies. We introduce the concepts of agreement based resource management. We present a general agreement model and examine current resource management systems in the context of this model. We then discuss how agreement based resource management is being used as the basis for standards activities and next generation resource management services. View full abstract»

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  • Security for Grids

    Page(s): 644 - 652
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    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This work groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these activities and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely. View full abstract»

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  • Conceptual and Implementation Models for the Grid

    Page(s): 653 - 668
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    The Grid is rapidly emerging as the dominant paradigm for wide area distributed application systems. As a result, there is a need for modeling and analyzing the characteristics and requirements of Grid systems and programming models. This work adopts the well-established body of models for distributed computing systems, which are based upon carefully stated assumptions or axioms, as a basis for defining and characterizing Grids and their programming models and systems. The requirements of programming Grid applications and the resulting requirements on the underlying virtual organizations and virtual machines are investigated. The assumptions underlying some of the programming models and systems currently used for Grid applications are identified and their validity in Grid environments is discussed. A more in-depth analysis of two programming systems, the Imperial College E-Science Networked Infrastructure (ICENI) and Accord, using the proposed definitions' structure is presented. View full abstract»

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  • The Semantic Grid: Past, Present, and Future

    Page(s): 669 - 681
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Grid computing offers significant enhancements to our capabilities for computation, information processing, and collaboration, and has exciting ambitions in many fields of endeavor. We argue that the full richness of the Grid vision, with its application in e-Science, e-Research, or e-Business, requires the "Semantic Grid." The Semantic Grid is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. To this end, we outline the requirements of the Semantic Grid, discuss the state of the art in achieving them, and identify the key research challenges in realizing this vision. View full abstract»

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  • Cyberinfrastructure for Science and Engineering: Promises and Challenges

    Page(s): 682 - 691
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    It is now clear that information technology (IT) construed broadly has the power to revolutionize all areas of science and engineering (S&E) research and education. If exploited, this transformative power can change S&E forever. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is working toward this end, and, as a result, past efforts in supercomputing and high-performance networking are being subsumed into a broader, integrated vision of a more capable, ubiquitous, and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI). We cannot attain this overnight, or alone, or without substantial research in computer science and engineering. This paper will outline the potential for revolution, the vision of CI, some of the challenges, and a possible path toward reaching that vision. View full abstract»

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  • Grid Computing and Beyond: The Context of Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems

    Page(s): 692 - 697
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The advent of Grid computing has enhanced our capabilities to model and simulate complex systems arising in scientific, engineering, and commercial applications. The premise of Grid computing has been "on-demand" availability of computational resources to an application as needed, in the same manner as electricity is provided readily through electrical power grids. The computational grid (or simply the "Grid") entails ubiquitous access to resources (local or remote), such as computation and communication resources, as well as access to storage systems and visualization systems. As Grid computing technologies mature, it behooves to look beyond the current capabilities, into more advanced future environments. The environments of interest here are the enhanced capabilities that can be created by the paradigm of dynamic data driven applications systems (DDDAS). DDDAS entails the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. The DDDAS concept offers the promise of improving application models and methods, and augmenting the analysis and prediction capabilities of application simulations and the effectiveness of measurement systems. Enabling this synergistic feedback and control loop between application simulations and measurements requires novel application modeling approaches and frameworks, algorithms stable under dynamic data injection and steering conditions, and new systems software and computational infrastructure capabilities. Recent advances in complex applications and the advent of Grid computing and sensor systems are some of the technologies that make it timely to embark in developing DDDAS capabilities. DDDAS environments extend the current notion of Grid infrastructure to also include the measurement systems in an integrated and synergistic way. DDDAS environments require support and services that go beyond the current Grid services in terms of t View full abstract»

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  • The Grid Economy

    Page(s): 698 - 714
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    This work identifies challenges in managing resources in a Grid computing environment and proposes computational economy as a metaphor for effective management of resources and application scheduling. It identifies distributed resource management challenges and requirements of economy-based Grid systems, and discusses various representative economy-based systems, both historical and emerging, for cooperative and competitive trading of resources such as CPU cycles, storage, and network bandwidth. It presents an extensive, service-oriented Grid architecture driven by Grid economy and an approach for its realization by leveraging various existing Grid technologies. It also presents commodity and auction models for resource allocation. The use of commodity economy model for resource management and application scheduling in both computational and data grids is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: John S. Stone

    Page(s): 715 - 717
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Page(s): 718 - 720
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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North Carolina State University