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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • LTV controller design for vehicle lateral control under fault in rear sensors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    This work focuses on vehicle lateral control for automated highway systems (AHSs) studied as a part of the California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) Program. In the PATH lateral control system, magnetometers are installed under both front and rear bumpers of the vehicle; these magnetometers measure the lateral deviation of the vehicle relative to the magnets buried along the centerline of each automated lane. Lateral controllers have been designed and tested successfully provided that there is no fault in magnetometers. It has been argued that these controllers are NOT tolerant to the fault in magnetometers. The focus of This work is the degraded-mode lateral control under fault in rear magnetometers. The aim of the controller design is to accomplish adequate performance with the remaining set of magnetometers, the front magnetometers. The effects of the fault are examined, and the significance of the linear time-varying (LTV) property of the front-magnetometer-based vehicle lateral dynamics is recognized. Popular control methods for LTV systems generally involve gain scheduling by switching between several linear time-invariant (LTI) controllers. Such methods are complicated and it is difficult to prove the stability of the switching mechanism. To derive a simple effective LTV controller, feedback linearization is applied to approximately cancel out the time-varying terms in the plant and to function as a gain scheduler. However, due to the weakly damped zeroes of the plant, feedback linearization with state feedback or matched observer state feedback results in weakly damped internal dynamics. In order to tune the internal dynamics, a mismatched observer is designed based on H-infinity optimal control techniques. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the controller design. View full abstract»

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  • Sloshing suppression control of liquid transfer systems considering a 3-D transfer path

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 8 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In plants in many industries, there exist a lot of transfer systems with vibration mechanisms. While transfer without residual vibration is usually demanded in these plants, this requirement necessitates large numbers of sensors and complicated models for control design. Therefore, This work presents a trajectory control design method to suppress residual vibration in transfer systems without the need to directly measure vibration. The proposed method consists of two parts. First, the frequency characteristics of the controller, comprised of control elements with simple structures such as a notch filter and a low-pass filter, are shaped as needed to suppress vibration. Next, various parameters of the control elements are determined by solving an optimization problem with penalty terms expressed by the constraints of both the time and frequency domains. The proposed method is applied to a liquid container transfer system, with special consideration given to the suppression of sloshing (liquid vibration) as well as to the maintenance of a high-speed transfer on the container's three-dimensional transfer path. The obtained controller demonstrates good performance for all demands. The effectiveness of the control design method is shown by experiments. View full abstract»

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  • TerminatorBot: a novel robot with dual-use mechanism for locomotion and manipulation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 17 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1175 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As part of a massively distributed heterogeneous system, TerminatorBot, a novel, centimeter-scale crawling robot, has been developed to address applications in surveillance, search-and-rescue, and planetary exploration. Its two three-degree-of-freedom arms, which stow inside the cylindrical body for ballistic deployment and protected transport, comprise a dual-use mechanism for manipulation and locomotion. The intended applications require a small, rugged, and lightweight robot, hence, the desire for dual use. TerminatorBot's unique mechanism provides mobility and fine manipulation on a scale currently unavailable. To facilitate manipulation, we have also developed a specialized force/torque sensor. This new sensor design has a biased distribution of flexures, which equalizes force and torque sensitivities at the operational point. This work describes the mechanism and design of TerminatorBot, the specialized force/torque sensor, and the mechanism-specific gaits. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of the use of the generalized hold function for HDDs

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 26 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (454 KB)  

    This work is concerned with the application of H control with the generalized hold function (GHF) to track-following control of hard disk drives (HDDs). In HDDs, the sampling frequency is limited primarily by the fact that a high sampling frequency tends to decrease the available data storage capacity of the devices, since the position error signal (PES) must be stored on the disk. Under such conditions, GHF provides a possible way to enhance servo performance without requiring more PES data. We investigate its possibility, comparing the results with other conventional H control design results, including continuous/discrete-time and single/multirate control. Our results show that this controller has better performance due to the nature of the control input of the GHF. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Luenberger state observers using fixed-structure H optimization and its application to fault detection in lane-keeping control of automated vehicles

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 34 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lane-keeping control forms an integral part of fully automated intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS) and its reliable operation is critical to the operation of an automated highway. We present the design of a fault detection filter for the lane-keeping control systems onboard vehicles used by California-PATH, USA in its automated highways program. We use a Luenberger structure for the fault detection filters and tune the observer gains based on an H-based cost. Such a choice of cost was motivated by the need to explicitly incorporate frequency-domain-based performance objectives. The linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based formulation of an H optimization problem of Luenberger state observers does not allow for the augmentation with dynamic performance weightings in the optimization objective, since it makes the problem a nonconvex optimization problem. We present an algorithm to locally solve the problem of the design of Luenberger state observers using H optimization by transforming the problem into an H static output feedback controller problem. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the tuning methodology by comparing the fault detection performance of filters that use H Luenberger observers versus those that use Kalman filters. Implementation issues of the observers are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An innovative drive for wheeled mobile robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 43 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Introduced In this work is an innovative drive for wheeled mobile robots, that is based on two identical, coaxial wheels, independently driven by two identical motors. The common axis is capable of rotating about a vertical axis. The drive, termed dual-wheel transmission (DWT), is composed of two identical epicyclic gear trains, lying at two different levels and coupled by a common planet carrier. The latter can turn freely with respect to the robot platform carrying the motors, the transmission having as a stand-alone unit, three degrees of freedom and only two motors, which makes it underactuated. Upon coupling this drive with two other wheel units, which is the minimum required for static support, a robot with mobility of three is produced with the underactuation thereby disappearing. Finally, the dimensioning of the DWT is reported for robustness against manufacturing, actuation, and sensing errors. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and control of a six-axis precision motion control stage

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 50 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a newly developed six-axis magnetic suspension stage for precision motion control. The designed travel volume is 4×4×2 mm in translation and 1°×1°×2° in rotation. A dynamic model of the feedback linearized and uncoupled stage is developed for the purpose of motion control. Model parameter variations are demonstrated through closed-loop system identification. In motion control, a parameter variation model is proposed in conjunction with a reduced order observer to compensate the joined effect of disturbance, modeling error, and cross coupling. Experimental results in terms of positioning stability, motion resolution, rotational motion control, model regulation, large travel multiaxis contouring, and disturbance rejection are shown. Uniform positioning stability and invariant dynamic response within the designed travel volume are illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • Application of neural networks and State-space averaging to DC/DC PWM converters in sliding-mode operation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 60 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel output feedback neural controller is presented in This work for the implementation of sliding-mode control of dc/dc converters. The controller, which consists of a multilayer perceptron, has been trained in order to be robust for large variations of system parameters and state variables. Fast dynamic behavior is the other main advantage of the proposed controller, which allows realization of all beneficial features of the sliding-mode control technique. Other advantages of the controller are simplicity and low cost. Computer simulations have been carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the controller in voltage regulation for a relatively complex dc/dc converter topology of the Cuk converter. Simulation results confirm the excellent performance of the control system in response to large signal variations. In order to verify the simulation results, a controller prototype has been designed and built using analog components. The controller is applied to regulate the output voltage of the Cuk converter. Experimental results confirm the analytical and simulation achievements. View full abstract»

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  • Ferrofluid field induced flow for microfluidic applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 68 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Exposing a column of ferrofluid to coincident magnetic and thermal fields produces a pressure gradient in the magnetic fluid. As the column of ferrofluid heats up, it loses its attraction to the magnetic field and is displaced by cooler fluid. Subsequently, it is possible to generate a ferrofluid pump with no moving mechanical parts. Until recently, limitations in the magnetic and thermal properties of conventional materials severely limited operating pressures. Advancements in the design and synthesis of metal substituted magnetite enable fine control over both the magnetic and thermal properties of magnetic nanoparticles, a key element in ferrofluids. This manuscript covers three recent contributions to the design of ferrofluid pumps. First, we introduce a new approach to the synthesis of metal substituted magnetite nanoparticles based on thermophilic metal-reducing bacteria. Next, we extend the previous work in the modeling of the ferrofluid pumps to include the coupling between each of the three fundamental domains: magnetic, thermal and fluid dynamic. We validate these models with a comparison between experimental results and a multidomain finite element model. Our results show a good match between the model and experiment as well as approximately an order of magnitude increase in the fluid flow rate over conventional magnetite based ferrofluids operating below 80°C. Finally, as a practical demonstration, we describe a novel application of this technology: pumping fluids at the microfluidic scale. View full abstract»

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  • Design and fabrication of a locomotive mechanism for capsule-type endoscopes using shape memory alloys (SMAs)

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 77 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2060 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Endoscopes are medical devices to diagnose various kinds of diseases throughout the whole gastrointestinal tracks. Generally, they are divided into conventional push-type endoscopes and more recently developed wireless capsule-type endoscopes. The conventional endoscopes cannot reach the small intestines and generate pain and discomfort to patients due to the stiffness of their body. Such disadvantages do not exist in wireless capsule-type endoscopes. However, commercialized capsule-type endoscopes move passively by peristaltic waves (and the gravity), which makes it impossible for doctors to diagnose the areas of his or her interest more thoroughly and actively. To address this problem of passivity, a locomotive mechanism is proposed for wireless capsule-type endoscopes. Prototypes with micro brushless dc motors, ionic polymer metal composite actuator, and shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are designed and fabricated for preliminary tests. Based on the tests, spring-type SMA actuators are selected to be microactuators for capsule endoscopes. Thus, two-way linear actuators using a pair of SMA springs are developed based on a static analysis on them. Moreover, a simple and effective clamping device is developed based on biomimetic approach. A prototype endoscope with four pairs of SMA springs and four clampers was developed. It has 13 mm in diameter and 33 mm in total length, with a hollow space of 7.6 mm in diameter to house other parts that are needed for endoscopy such as a camera, an RF module, sensors, e.g., for endoscopic ultrasound, and a battery. A sequential control of the four actuators improves the efficiency of locomotion up to four times. To validate the performance of the proposed locomotive mechanism, a series of experiments were carried out including in-vitro tests. The results of the experiments indicate that the proposed locomotion mechanism is effective to be used for micro capsule-type endoscopes. View full abstract»

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  • A rotary encoder based on magneto-optical storage

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 87 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new kind of the rotary encoder based on the magneto-optical (MO) storage is proposed. Using the MO methods, a small high-precision high-response rotary encoder can be realized. High precision is achieved by a two-stage process in which the code disk is firstly written using the direct transfer recording, and then rewritten using the corrections based on the measured errors. The systems for writing to, reading from, and evaluating the MO encoder are developed, with the optimal MO encoder reading and writing parameters determined experimentally. A trial MO encoder with a resolution of 9000 pulses/revolutions is created directly from a reference encoder, delivering an accuracy of approximately 2.8 in. The maximum resolution and response frequencies achieved are 18000 p/r and 400 kHz. After the corrected transfer recording, accuracies of 1.3 in at a resolution of 2250 p/r and 1.7 in at 9000 p/r are achieved. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA-based servo control and three-dimensional dynamic interpolation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 98 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and implementation of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based controller that employs three-dimensional dynamic interpolation (3D2I) for process and system dynamics compensation is described. A strategy for multiple-constraint based tool deflection compensation employing the 3D2I mechanism is also presented as an example of the utility of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Control of loudspeakers using disturbance-observer-type velocity estimation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 111 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach to obtain sensorless velocity feedback for loudspeakers is developed. The back electromotive force (back-EMF) of the moving coil is estimated by using a disturbance-observer-type estimator based on the coil current measurement. The cone velocity of a loudspeaker can be obtained based on its proportionality to the back-EMF. Instead of relying on the coupled mechanical dynamics as reported in previous work, the proposed velocity estimation is based on the precise knowledge of electrical impedance, which makes it more robust to changes in acoustic loading. The proposed approach enables the development of a robust velocity controller for a subwoofer without an expensive velocity measuring device. Experimental results demonstrated that closed-loop velocity control using the proposed scheme of velocity estimation achieved a performance comparable to that obtained by using measured velocity feedback. The proposed approach can be easily adapted to other moving-coil-type linear actuators. View full abstract»

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  • Passive vibration control via electromagnetic shunt damping

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 118 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work will present a new type of passive vibration control technique based on the concept of electromagnetic shunt damping. The proposed technique is similar to piezoelectric shunt damping, as an appropriately designed impedance is shunted across the terminals of the transducer. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for a simple electromagnetic mass spring damper system. View full abstract»

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  • Disturbance modeling and control design for self-servo track writing

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 122 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The major disturbances in self-servo track writing are identified and modeled. Based on the disturbance models, an H2 controller together with a feedforward compensator is designed via linear matrix inequality approach to minimize the propagation tracking error from one track to the next. Furthermore, the error propagation containment effectiveness of the optimal H2 control is compared with that of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and proportional-derivative (PD) feedback controls with the feedforward compensators. Our results show that the propagation tracking error is improved by 27% with the H2 control compared with that by PID control. View full abstract»

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  • List of reviewers for 2004

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 128
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  • Have you visited lately? www.ieee.org

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 129
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    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 130
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 131 - 132
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c3
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    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr