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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - 1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Message From the Editor-in-Chief

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • PWM regenerative rectifiers: state of the art

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 5 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (251)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New regulations impose more stringent limits on current harmonics injected by power converters that are achieved with pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) rectifiers. In addition, several applications demand the capability of power regeneration to the power supply. This work presents the state of the art in the field of regenerative rectifiers with reduced input harmonics and improved power factor. Regenerative rectifiers are able to deliver energy back from the dc side to the ac power supply. Topologies for single- and three-phase power supplies are considered with their corresponding control strategies. Special attention is given to the application of voltage- and current-source PWM rectifiers in different processes with a power range from a few kilowatts up to several megawatts. This paper shows that PWM regenerative rectifiers are a highly developed and mature technology with a wide industrial acceptance. View full abstract»

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  • Single-phase single-stage power-factor-corrected converter topologies

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 23 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (70)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single-phase single-stage power-factor-corrected converter topologies are reviewed in this paper. The topologies discussed in the paper are related to ac-dc and ac-ac converters that are classified on the basis of the frequency of the input ac source, the presence of a dc-link capacitor, and the type of control used (resonant or pulsewidth modulation). The general operating principles and strengths and weaknesses of the converters, which the authors have investigated over the last decade, are discussed in detail, and their suitability in practical applications is stated. Considering practical design constraints, it is possible to effectively employ many single-stage converter topologies in a wide range of applications. View full abstract»

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  • Boost-chopper-derived PFC rectifiers: interest and reality

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 36 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents an overview of single-phase boost-chopper-derived power-factor-correction rectifiers. Converters are presented for several control strategies in continuous and discontinuous current mode operations. The presentation highlights the main characteristics of the converters and underlines harmonic content over a wide frequency range. A methodology is derived to compute these harmonics in order to facilitate the analysis and performance evaluation of the converters. Based on this methodology, a comparison is conducted in order to highlight advantages and drawbacks of the most popular converters and control strategies. A table is given where main converter critical parameters are summarized in order to help the designer, in converter and operating mode selections. Practical results are provided to validate the modeling technique. View full abstract»

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  • Helpful hints to select a power-factor-correction solution for low- and medium-power single-phase power supplies

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 46 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a review of power-factor-correction (PFC) circuits for low- and medium-power single-phase power supplies. The main idea is not just to show the state of the art of this topic but to select the most interesting topologies for each application depending on the power level, the input voltage range, and the output voltage. Since IEC 61000-3-2 regulations came into force, many new topologies have been presented trying to obtain a cost-effective solution to reduce the input current harmonic content. Each one of them has its application range due to the inherent characteristics of the topology. Obviously, not every converter is useful for the same application. This is especially perceptible in PFC circuits due to the large amount of different solutions. Hence, this paper tries to show the most appropriate topologies for each application, being the input power and the IEC 61000-3-2 Class some of the main parameters to select it. The scope of the paper is focused on single-phase power supplies belonging to IEC 61000-3-2 Class A and Class D with an input power level below 4 kW. View full abstract»

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  • Power-mode-controlled power-factor corrector for electronic ballast

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 56 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Medium- to high-power electronic ballasts are designed with two power conversion stages. The power-factor corrector (PFC) stabilizes the voltage supplied to the second stage and forces the utility current to meet the required standard. The inverter section stabilizes the arc in the lamp, and keeps the lamp power under the specified values. This paper proposes that the PFC section is to provide the power stability of the system while the inverter section operates in open loop. Consequences of this solution are: the power variation in the lamp caused by its aging is prevented, the complex dynamic of the lamp has no influence in the design, some extra voltage is available to achieve the lamp ignition, warmup time is reduced, and dimming control is easily implemented by modifying either the power reference or the bias value in the PFC control circuit. The inverter section is a half-bridge LCpCs resonant inverter designed to require minimum variation of the input voltage to supply constant power to the lamp. In this way the operation point suffers little changes and no overdimensioning of the PFC and inverter components is necessary to meet the power source condition. View full abstract»

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  • Robust control of power-factor-correction rectifiers with fast dynamic response

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 66 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new robust control technique for single-phase boost high-power-factor rectifiers. The proposed circuit significantly improves the dynamic response of the converter to load steps without the need of a high crossover frequency of the voltage loop, so that a low distortion of the input current is easily achieved. A 250-W power-factor-correction rectifier with the proposed control scheme has been designed and implemented, validating the concept both analytically and experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic limits of a power-factor preregulator

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 77 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power-factor correction has been one of the hottest topics during the last few years and, hence, many new circuits have appeared. In general, it is assumed that preregulators based on multiplier circuits have poor dynamics and, then, a second stage is needed to improve the output voltage dynamic behavior. The other option is the use of single-stage topologies which have fast output voltage regulation although the input current waveform is not sinusoidal. This work presents an analysis of the dynamic behavior of a conventional power-factor preregulator. The objective is to find the limits of the dynamic characteristics of these circuits when the priority is to improve the output voltage regulation and not the total harmonic distortion or the power factor. A large-signal model is presented and the theoretical results are validated with a prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Digitally controlled boost power-factor-correction converters operating in both continuous and discontinuous conduction mode

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 88 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Whereas power-factor-correction (PFC) converters for low-power ranges (less than 250 W) are commonly designed for operation in the discontinuous conduction mode, converters for higher power levels are operated in the continuous conduction mode. Nevertheless, when these converters are operated at reduced power, discontinuous conduction mode will appear during parts of the line period, yielding input current distortion. This distortion can be eliminated by employing a dedicated control algorithm, consisting of sample correction and duty-ratio feedforward. The reduction of the harmonic distortion of the input current and the increase of the power factor are demonstrated by experiments on a 1-kW boost PFC converter. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and performance evaluation of DSP-based control for constant-frequency discontinuous-conduction-mode boost PFC front end

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 98 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital signal processor (DSP) implementation of digital control for constant-frequency, discontinuous-conduction-mode boost power-factor-correction converter for universal line-voltage (90-264 Vrms) applications is presented. A step-by-step design procedure based on digital redesign technique is also provided. The performance evaluation of the proposed DSP control is performed on a 400-W prototype. It was shown that the implemented DSP-based control can achieve a power factor higher than 0.99 in the entire line range. View full abstract»

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  • Duty-ratio feedforward for digitally controlled boost PFC converters

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 108 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (62)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When a "classical" current control scheme is applied, the line current of a boost power-factor-correction (PFC) converter leads the line voltage, resulting in a nonunity fundamental displacement power factor and in important zero-crossing distortion in applications with a high line frequency (e.g., 400-Hz power systems on commercial aircraft). To resolve this problem, a current-control scheme is proposed using duty-ratio feedforward. In this paper, the input impedance of the boost PFC converter for both the classical current-loop controller and the controller using duty-ratio feedforward are derived theoretically. A comparison reveals the advantages of the proposed control scheme: a low total harmonic distortion of the line current, a resistive input impedance, virtually no zero-crossing distortion, and a fundamental displacement power factor close to unity. The theoretical results obtained are verified using an experimental setup of a digitally controlled boost PFC converter. View full abstract»

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  • Pulse regulation control technique for integrated high-quality rectifier-regulators

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 116 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pulse regulation control scheme is presented and applied to the boost integrated flyback rectifier/energy storage dc/dc (BIFRED) converter as the most popular member of the integrated high-quality rectifier-regulators (IHQRR). In contrast to the conventional control techniques, the principal idea of pulse regulation is to regulate the output voltage using a series of high- and low-power pulses generated by the current of the input inductor, which is operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Analysis of the BIFRED converter operating in DCM is presented. Fundamentals of pulse regulation as well as its stability analysis and the estimation of the output voltage ripple are introduced. Experimental results on a prototype converter are also presented to validate the analytical and simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • A novel forward AC/DC converter with input current shaping and fast output voltage regulation via reset winding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 125 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a novel simple forward AC/DC converter with harmonic current correction and fast output voltage regulation. In the proposed AC/DC converter, a transformer incorporating reset winding provides two main advantages. First, the bulk inductor used in the conventional boost-based power-factor-correction cell is omitted in the proposed converter, allowing significant volume and weight of magnetic material to be saved. Second, the voltage across the bulk capacitor can be held under 450 V by adjusting the transformer winding ratio, despite the converter operating in a wide range of input voltages (90∼265 V/AC). This new converter complies with IEC 61000-3-2 under a load range of 200 W and has fast output voltage regulation. View full abstract»

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  • A different approach to implement an active input current shaper

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 132 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, several AC/DC converters have been presented in order to meet the power quality regulations, while maintaining the lowest number of components with the purpose of minimizing the cost and complexity; for this purpose the active input current shaping technique was proposed. A new active input current shaper (AICS) is presented. Differently from the traditional series AICS, the proposed scheme connects the auxiliary output of the main converter in parallel with the rectified AC mains instead of the series connection. The proposed parallel scheme demands a current with a low harmonic content where the standard specifications are fulfilled. The operation, simulation, and experimental results of the proposed scheme are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A single-stage fast regulator with PFC based on an asymmetrical half-bridge topology

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 139 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents single-stage regulators with power-factor correction (PFC) based on an asymmetrical half-bridge topology. The proposed regulator is formed from a boost converter with two coupled inductors and an asymmetrical half-bridge converter with the synchronous switch technique, and it is controlled with pulsewidth modulation to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS). The boost converter is operated in discontinues conduction mode to achieve PFC. With the coupled inductors, input current ripple and power factor can be improved significantly. The proposed regulator has the features of constant-frequency operation, ZVS, and low voltage stress imposed on the active switches. Moreover, the regulator can achieve high power factor, high power density, high efficiency, low switching loss, and low component count, which makes its applications at medium-power levels feasible. Experimental results have verified the discussed features of the proposed regulator. View full abstract»

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  • Using the multilevel imbricated cells topologies in the design of low-power power-factor-corrector converters

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 151 - 161
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power-factor-corrector (PFC) converters are now commonly used in low-power supply systems connected to AC networks. In addition to their basic PFC properties, they constitute the best technical solution to directly obtain the compatibility with a large range of AC voltages provided by different distribution networks around the world (typically, from 85 to 265 V rms). It is the main application of these converters. This function is achieved with an additional cost and volume, and this extra price to pay needs to be minimized. In this context, we first recall the main approaches of the design of conventional PFCs based on the boost converter topology. We emphasize the different critical points of the sizing that mainly concern the input choke and the silicon devices, in regard with the choice of the switching frequency. Few ways of improvement are then presented for these conventional PFCs. In a second part, always in the context of a large input voltage range, we consider the possibility to introduce the multi-level concept to reduce the input choke and filters. A solution using a multi-level flying capacitor two-cell converter is presented. It is shown that it can lead to a significant increase of the performances, with several options of sizing which can be suited to different requirements of the applications. View full abstract»

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  • Novel concept for mains voltage proportional input current shaping of a VIENNA rectifier eliminating controller multipliers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 162 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel mains voltage proportional input current control concept eliminating the multiplication of the output voltage controller output and the mains ac phase voltages for the derivation of mains phase current reference values of a three-phase/level/switch pulsewidth-modulated (VIENNA) rectifier system. Furthermore, the concept features low input current ripple amplitude as, e.g., achieved for space-vector modulation, a low amplitude of the third harmonic of the current flowing into the output voltage center point, and a wide range of modulation. The practical realization of the analog control concept as well as experimental results for application with a 5-kW prototype of the pulsewidth-modulated rectifier are presented. Furthermore, a control scheme which relies only on the absolute values of the input phase currents and a modified control scheme which does not require information about the mains phase voltages are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Regenerative medium-voltage AC drive based on a multicell arrangement with reduced energy storage requirements

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 171 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multicell power circuit topologies have proved to be an effective alternative to medium-voltage ac drives. The main advantage is the improved power quality at both the ac system and the motor sides. However, several drawbacks are present in these configurations, such as a lack of sustained regenerative operating mode, uncontrolled input reactive power, and a large second current harmonic that is injected by the load into the dc link of each cell, which leads to a bulky electrolytic capacitor. This paper proposes to replace the input diode-based front-end rectifier with an active front-end rectifier in all cells of the topology and a novel control strategy in order to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks. In fact, the active front-end rectifier allows the topology to regenerate and the control strategy handles the reactive input power and reduces the large second current harmonic from the dc-link capacitor, thus reducing its size. These features are achieved without any penalties in the quality of both the ac input current and the motor voltage waveforms. Experimental results confirm the theoretical considerations. View full abstract»

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  • Module-type switching rectifier for cathodic protection of underground and maritime metallic structures

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 181 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cathodic protection is widely used to prevent corrosion of steel materials buried underground and in seawater. As a rectifier for cathodic protection, the conventional phase-controlled rectifiers with 50- or 60-Hz isolation transformers have been used so far in spite of such shortcomings as large volume, heavy weight, and poor power factor. In order to overcome such disadvantages, this paper proposes a new module-type switching rectifier for cathodic protection, which is composed of two parts, namely, ac/dc converter and module-type dc/dc converter. The ac/dc converter is a single-phase insulated gate bipolar transistor pulsewidth-modulation rectifier, thus resulting in almost unity power factor and controlled dc output voltage. The module-type dc/dc converter operates under zero-voltage switching/zero-current switching condition to permit high-frequency switching operation. It enables the use of a high-frequency transformer for electrical isolation, thus reducing volume and weight of the overall system and improving system efficiency. It is anticipated that the proposed rectifier techniques will apply to the similar technical areas such as multiple-module power supply systems and modular converter-fed dc motor drives. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage-balance limits in four-level diode-clamped converters with passive front ends

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 190 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilevel diode-clamped converters with more than three levels cannot maintain voltage balance in the dc-link capacitors for some operating conditions due to the existence of dc currents in the middle points. Since capacitors are either completely charged or discharged for those conditions, this circumstance severely limits practical application of these converters. The limit explored in this paper is that the four-level converter cannot achieve voltage balance. Proper redundant vectors are selected in the space-vector diagram so that a quadratic parameter related to the currents in the middle points is minimized. View full abstract»

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  • A DSP-based implementation of a new nonlinear control for a three-phase neutral point clamped boost rectifier prototype

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 197 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents the design and implementation of a nonlinear control strategy for a three-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped boost rectifier. The adopted control consists of nonlinear feedback linearization technique. The nonlinear state-space model of the rectifier was obtained in the dq0 reference frame. The input/output feedback linearization is then applied and the linearizing control law is derived. Therefore, the resulting model is linearized and decoupled in three independent subsystems. Afterwards, the stabilizing controllers are designed based on linear techniques to control line currents, output, and neutral point voltages. The control law is designed using Simulink/Matlab and applied to the converter via a 1.8-kHz pulsewidth modulator (PWM). Both control law and PWM signals are executed in real time using the DS1104 DSP of dSPACE. A 1.2 kW laboratory prototype is built for validation purposes. The proposed control law robustness is validated for diverse severe load and system parameter variations. It shows robust performance in terms of high power factor, low total harmonic distortion and output voltage ripples, small overshoot, and short settling time. View full abstract»

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  • An improved deadbeat control for UPS using disturbance observers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 206 - 212
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital control technique for the inverter stage of uninterruptible power supplies is proposed, which is based on a predictive regulator on both output voltage and inductor current. Its aim is to achieve a deadbeat dynamic response for the controlled variables (output voltage and inverter current). Besides the linear state feedback which allocates system poles at the origin so as to achieve deadbeat response for all state variables, the use of a disturbance observer for the estimation of the load current and of any other source of errors (such as dead-times, parameter, and model mismatches) is investigated. The proposed solution is able to guarantee a fast dynamic response and also a precise compensation of any source of unpredictable disturbance. Moreover, with a proper design of observer parameters, it is possible to reduce control sensitivity to model uncertainties, parameter mismatches, and noise on sensed variables, which usually characterizes existing deadbeat control techniques. Finally, the control algorithm is quite simple and requires only the measurements of the output voltage and inductor current. Experimental results on a single-phase 2 kVA prototype show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411