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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Detection of landfill gases by chemoresistive sensors based on titanium, molybdenum, tungsten oxides

    Page(s): 4 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monitoring of the gases produced in landfills is a major task nowadays for the environmental safety of the areas neighboring garbage dumps. We approached the problem via solid-state chemoresistive gas sensors to detect typical complex organic gases produced by landfills, i.e., carbon sulfide, methyl sulfide, and xylene. We have tested Ti, W, and Mo mixed-oxide thin films deposited by reactive sputtering and processed through the selective sublimation technique. We recorded a remarkable response toward carbon disulfide and xylene below the attention level for these gases. View full abstract»

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  • Low-temperature catalyst adding for tin-oxide nanostructure gas sensors

    Page(s): 12 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thick-film gas sensors are successfully fabricated using the nanostructure tin-oxide powder. In order to suppress the coarsening of the nanostructure tin-oxide particles during the adding process, the low-temperature catalyst adding (LTCA) method is proposed in this paper. LTCA is an adding method of noble Pd catalyst onto the nanostructure tin-oxide particles under the lower temperature below 300°C by excluding chloride. It turned out that the adding without particle coarsening is successfully carried out by means of LTCA. Applying LTCA to the fabrication of the thick film using nanostructure tin-oxide powder having a size smaller than 5 nm leads to an excellent performance with respect to the methane gas sensing. After aging at 400°C, a good sensitivity (R3500/R1000) of 0.66 is obtained for the sensor doped with 5 wt% of Pd catalyst. Also, the sensitivity of the sensor is so stable that the deviation of the electrical resistance is within 3% after 400 h of aging. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical and electrical characterization of β-Ga2O3 nanostructures for sensing applications

    Page(s): 20 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single crystalline β-Ga2O3 nanowire and nanoribbon materials were synthesized, and electrical and mechanical properties were studied for sensing applications. The structural analysis showed that the Ga2O3 nanomaterials were stoichiometric and had the same crystal lattice structure as the β phase Ga2O3 crystal. The mechanical study on individual Ga2O3 nanowires and nanoribbons showed that they had a bending modulus of around 300 GPa, are flexible (in bending and twisting), and are easy to be cleaved along their crystal lattice. The current-voltage electrical characterization through the thickness of nanoribbon and along the length of nanowire confirmed their semiconducting characteristic. A two-terminal device fabricated with an individual Ga2O3 nanowire showed good sensing response to ethanol gas at low-operating temperature, which revealed the potential of using such nanostructures for effective sensing applications. View full abstract»

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  • Realization and metrological characterization of a compact high-resolution pendulum tiltmeter

    Page(s): 26 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work describes the design, realization, and testing of a novel compact tiltmeter model, which is based on a simple free pendulum and optical detection. Two equal prototypes were built and metrologically characterized against each other. Various mechanical and electronic noise sources were first analyzed theoretically, in order to identify the expected contributions to resolution and long-term stability. The stability of the prototypes was then measured and characterized with the Allan variance as a function of averaging time. Experimental results confirm the theory. The best measured resolution is 300 prad and is obtained with an averaging time of 300 s. The dynamic range is ±300 μrad. Such values are suitable for the needs which stimulated the development of the device; however, improvements are possible and directions for the realization of a better version are indicated. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS pixels for subretinal implantable prothesis

    Page(s): 32 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work reports on the design, fabrication, and characterization of CMOS pixels for subretinal implants, which seems to be an effective way to recover visual capabilities in some types of blindness. Two possible approaches are presented for CMOS pixel implementation: 1) an approach based on a light-controlled oscillator (LICOS) using a ring oscillator with an odd number of inverters and 2) an approach based on distributing a square signal at each pixel that filters out a number of pulses depending of the light intensity wave across the chip (WATCH). Both types of pixels fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS demonstrate good mimic of the electrical behavior of human retina, with low-power consumption (typically 1 mW for a 14×14 matrix of pixels) and having small dimensions (75×78.5 μm2 for LICOS and 70×50 μm2 for WATCH), which make them suitable for practical implants. Experimental validation is reported on physiological solutions. Because of its characteristic, the proposed matrix of pixels could be considered as one of the first stand-alone highly integrated solutions for subretinal implant chips. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength demodulation of ultrabright green light-emitting diodes for electrical current sensing

    Page(s): 38 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on a novel electrical current-sensing principle based on wavelength-encoded modulation of the ultrabright green (at 525 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) transducers. It complies with the optical subsystem of a hybrid current transformer . Real-time wavelength demodulation is performed with the passive spectral edge filter OG 530. Linear calibration plots were achieved with -0.33 nm/mA for dc and +0.99 mA-1 for ac current sensitivity, respectively. A measurement accuracy of 1.3% for 28.4-mA ac peak current range is achieved. A simple theoretical model is outlined. Issues such as electronic and thermal effects on stability performance are also addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Gas-sensing properties of sprayed films of (CdO)x(ZnO)1-x mixed oxide

    Page(s): 48 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel NO2 sensor based on (CdO)x(ZnO)1-x mixed-oxide thin films deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique is developed. The sensor response to 3-ppm NO2 is studied in the range 50°C-350°C for three different film compositions. The device is also tested for other harmful gases, such as CO (300 ppm) and CH4 (3000 ppm). The sensor response to these reducing gases is different at different temperatures varying from the response typical for the p-type semiconductor to that typical for the n-type semiconductor. Satisfactory response to NO2 and dynamic behavior at 230°C, as well as low resistivity, are observed for the mixed-oxide film with 30% Cd. The response to interfering gas is poor at working temperature (230°C). On the basis of this study, a possible sensing mechanism is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical method for the study of plasmon generation in hybrid multilayer-optical fiber structures

    Page(s): 53 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theoretical method is presented for the determination of the behavior of devices based on the deposition of multilayer structures on polished optical fibers. Plasmon generation in metallic layers is modeled. The method is based on the Rayleigh expansion of the electric fields and permits us to determine their distribution over the whole structure by an application of boundary conditions. Once the distribution is known, the power transmitted by the fiber can be computed as a function of the geometrical and refractive parameters of the device. The method is versatile and can be used as a theoretical tool for the design of devices of that type used for many different purposes. We present real experimental results obtained with an operative sensor that agree with the theoretical predictions of our technique and prove its suitability. View full abstract»

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  • Ranking sensors using an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm

    Page(s): 59 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A procedure to rank sensors according to their noise rates was developed based on an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm for sensor fusion. No a priori knowledge of the sensors performance is assumed. Simulation analysis indicated 83.33% successful ranking with noise rates up to 50%. In an indoor experiment with a mobile robot equipped with three logical sensors, 88% of the rankings were correct. The ranking procedure also indicates the ranking results success probability. View full abstract»

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  • Higher order sensing using QCM sensor array and preconcentrator with variable temperature

    Page(s): 68 - 74
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    We proposed the higher order sensing method using a preconcentrator with variable temperature in combination with the quartz-crystal microbalance sensor array to extract many features of the samples. The temperature of the preconcentrator tube packed with hydrophobic adsorbent was gradually raised to 200°C. The rough separation among the compounds along the time axis enhanced the discrimination capability of the sensor array system. The results of the second-order sensing, such as images of the sensor responses and the loci on the principal component analysis space, gave us information about the apple flavors with different recipes. Moreover, the low-concentration flavors, such as apple and banana in water, were successfully discriminated using the proposed method. It was found that the system was robust against the sample concentration change under the environment of the large humidity. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of on-line flue gas measurements by MISiCFET and metal-oxide sensors in boilers

    Page(s): 75 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Metal insulator silicon carbide field-effect transistor sensors, metal-oxide sensors, and a linear Lambda sensor in an electronic nose was used to measure on-line in hot flue gases from a boiler. Flue gas from a 100-MW pellets-fuelled boiler has been used to feed the experimental setup. Several reference instruments, which measure the flue gases in parallel to the sensor array, are connected to the electronic nose. Data was collected during six weeks and then evaluated. Using principal component analysis as the data evaluation method, different operating modes for the boiler have been identified in the data set. The different modes could be described in terms of high or low O2 and CO concentration. Furthermore, we have shown that it seems possible to use a sensor array to determine the operating mode of the boiler and, by partial least-squares models, measure the CO concentration when the boiler operates in its optimum mode. View full abstract»

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  • An approach to multilayer microfluidic systems with integrated electrical, optical, and mechanical functionality

    Page(s): 82 - 89
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    A general solution is presented for the realization of microfluidic systems containing multiple compartments with sequential functions. The approach utilizes multilayer plastic/glass/silicon microfluidic system configurations with integrated electrical, optical, and fluid control functionalities. The approach allows for the integration of on-column, on-chip electrical conductivity/impedance detectors and driving electrodes, as well as for the integration of on-column, off-chip optical detection using resonance light scattering. A process-compatible latex microvalve is demonstrated and characterized. The procedure utilizes a novel packaging technique for realizing integrated fluid and electrical interfaces between the microsystem and conventional tubing/instrumentation. The microfluidic system demonstrated in this work contains some of the most commonly used components in bioanalysis systems and can be used as a platform to fabricate more sophisticated microscale bioanalysis systems for a variety of applications. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple sensors on pulsed eddy-current detection for 3-D subsurface crack assessment

    Page(s): 90 - 96
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    This paper proposes the use of multiple sensors in pulsed eddy-current detection for three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface flaw imaging. A normalization technique has been proposed to eliminate the characteristic variation among the Hall devices used in the probe and lift off effects. A principal component analysis-based feature extraction that provides orthogonal information for multiple sensor fusion has been introduced and investigated. Using the features of multiple projection coefficients, 3-D surface flaws can be measured and reconstructed. The experimental tests have illustrated that the proposed method has delivered more defect information than the conventional peak value and time for pulsed eddy-current sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of an electronic nose to assess fruit ripeness

    Page(s): 97 - 108
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    The main goal of our study was to see whether an artificial olfactory system can be used as a nondestructive instrument to measure fruit maturity. In order to make an objective comparison, samples measured with our electronic nose prototype were later characterized using fruit quality techniques. The cultivars chosen for the study were peaches, nectarines, apples, and pears. With peaches and nectarines, a PCA analysis on the electronic nose measurements helped to guess optimal harvest dates that were in good agreement with the ones obtained with fruit quality techniques. A good correlation between sensor signals and some fruit quality indicators was also found. With pears, the study addressed the possibility of classifying samples regarding their ripeness state after different cold storage and shelf-life periods. A PCA analysis showed good separation between samples measured after a shelf-life period of seven days and samples with four or less days. Finally, the electronic nose monitored the shelf-life ripening of apples. A good correlation between electronic nose signals and firmness, starch index, and acidity parameters was found. These results prove that electronic noses have the potential of becoming a reliable instrument to assess fruit ripeness. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Sensors journal page charges agreement form

    Page(s): 109
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  • IEEE Sensors 2005 the 4th IEEE Conference on Sensors

    Page(s): 110
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 111 - 112
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  • IEEE Sensors Council Information

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  • [Blank page - back cover]

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.