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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2005

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  • Table of contents

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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

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  • Editorial

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  • Study of specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in two child head models and in adult heads using mobile phones

    Page(s): 4 - 11
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    This paper gives a first comparison of specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in a child-sized (CS) head and an adult head using a dual-band mobile phone. In the second study, the visible human head is considered and comparison of SAR induced in a CS or child-like (CL) head and an adult head using a dual-band mobile phone is given. All the peaks of average SAR over a mass of 10 and 1 g in the head and the power budget are determined in the two comparisons using the finite-difference time-domain method. The differences between the results for adult and CS or CL heads are given at 900 and 1800 MHz. No important differences are noted for the peak SAR averaged over 10 g (SAR10 g), between the two adult head models, as well as between the two child head models. The peak SAR10 g in the brain of the CS or CL head is slightly more significant than that for the adult one. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated interconnect networks for RF switch matrix applications

    Page(s): 12 - 21
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    In this paper, two new types of integrated RF interconnect networks are presented. The circuits are printed on double-sided alumina substrates, eliminating the need to use multilayer manufacturing technology. The interconnect networks employ finite ground coplanar lines and vertical transitions and can be easily integrated with semiconductor and microelectromechanical-systems switches. A wide-band 3×3 interconnect network utilizing single and double three-via vertical transitions is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The measured results show a return loss of -20dB and an isolation of better than -40dB up to 30 GHz. A vialess double-sided interconnect network is also studied and optimized for satellite Ku-band applications. This type of interconnect network uses a process requiring only front and back pattern metallization. The measured results indicate a return loss of better than -17dB and an isolation of better than -45dB. View full abstract»

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  • Sequential tuning of microwave filters using adaptive models and parameter extraction

    Page(s): 22 - 31
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    This paper describes a sequential procedure for computer-aided tuning and diagnosis of multiple-coupled resonator filters. The method is based on a sequential parameter estimation and a systematic tuning procedure and employs three different filter models. A detuned model represents the initial status of the filter after a well-defined detuning procedure. The target filter is described by an ideal model, whereas the actual state of the filter at each tuning step is represented by a coarse adaptive model. The goal of the procedure is the convergence of the coarse model to the ideal model and will be obtained by systematically centering resonant frequencies and coupling coefficients. Practical examples comprising low- and high-degree filters confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach in both tuning and fault diagnosis. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of leaky-wave propagation in metamaterial grounded slabs excited by a dipole source

    Page(s): 32 - 44
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    In this paper, dispersive propagation and radiation properties of leaky waves on metamaterial grounded slabs are investigated. The proper or improper nature of leaky modes supported by such structures is shown to be related to the metamaterial being ε-negative, μ-negative, or double-negative, and to field polarization, giving rise to backward or forward radiation depending on the frequency range of operation. These spectral features and the associated frequency scan of the radiated beam are illustrated by considering the field excited by a dipole source in the presence of an infinite metamaterial grounded slab. The possibility to achieve nearly equal values for the phase constants of a TE and a TM leaky mode on a large frequency range is shown; this allows us to obtain a conical radiation pattern and, also, for suitable values of the attenuation constants, the radiation of a pencil beam at broadside. Conditions for achieving maximum power density at broadside are derived, when one constitutive parameter is much smaller than the other. In order to illustrate these novel features, numerical results based on experimentally tested dispersion models for permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial media are provided, concerning leaky-wave modal properties and near and far fields excited by a dipole source. View full abstract»

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  • Designing multisine excitations for nonlinear model testing

    Page(s): 45 - 54
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    This paper deals with the design of bandpass multisine excitations appropriate for microwave nonlinear model testing. A formal analysis showed that if the output power spectral density of a general nonlinear dynamic system is used as a metric for signal similarity, then it is possible to derive a set of statistical characteristics to be approximated. Using these nth-order extensions of the autocorrelation or the power spectral-density functions as the approximation goals, the multisine design problem is formulated as an optimization scheme where the various tone amplitudes and phases become the target design variables. View full abstract»

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  • Signal generation, control, and frequency conversion AlGaN/GaN HEMT MMICs

    Page(s): 55 - 65
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    We review the design and experimental results of three new AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistor monolithic microwave integrated circuits: a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), a single-pole-double-throw switch (SPDT), and a resistive field-effect transistor mixer. The VCO exhibits frequency range between 8.5-9.5 GHz with maximum output power of 35 dBm (at Vds=30 V) across a 50-Ω load. The L/S band SPDT switch at 0.9, 1.8, and 2.1 GHz was measured to have 0.87-, 0.96-, 1-dB insertion loss and 46-, 42-, and 41-dB isolation, respectively. The switch also shows linear performance for the power levels up to 1 W in the insertion mode. A singly ended X-band resistive mixer has exhibited very low intermodulation, less than -60 dBc for the second and third harmonics of the IF at the RF power level of 10 dBm, and high power handling, P1 dB is estimated to be at least 1 W, with the conversion loss of 17 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Guided-wave and leakage characteristics of substrate integrated waveguide

    Page(s): 66 - 73
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    The substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technique makes it possible that a complete circuit including planar circuitry, transitions, and rectangular waveguides are fabricated in planar form using a standard printed circuit board or other planar processing techniques. In this paper, guided wave and modes characteristics of such an SIW periodic structure are studied in detail for the first time. A numerical multimode calibration procedure is proposed and developed with a commercial software package on the basis of a full-wave finite-element method for the accurate extraction of complex propagation constants of the SIW structure. Two different lengths of the SIW are numerically simulated under multimode excitation. By means of our proposed technique, the complex propagation constant of each SIW mode can accurately be extracted and the electromagnetic bandstop phenomena of periodic structures are also investigated. Experiments are made to validate our proposed technique. Simple design rules are provided and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • 30-GHz-band over 5-W power performance of short-channel AlGaN/GaN heterojunction FETs

    Page(s): 74 - 80
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    This paper describes the small-signal characterization through delay-time analysis and high-power operation of the Ka-band of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (FETs). An FET with a gatewidth of 100 μm and a gate length of 0.09 μm has exhibited a current gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 81 GHz, a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 187 GHz, and a maximum stable gain of 10.5 dB at 30 GHz (8.3 dB at 60 GHz). Delay-time analysis has demonstrated channel electron velocities of 1.50×107 to 1.75×107 cm/s in a gate-length range of 0.09-0.25 μm. State-of-the-art performance-saturated power of 5.8 W with a linear gain of 9.2 dB and a power-added efficiency of 43.2%-has been achieved at 30 GHz using a single chip having a gatewidth of 1.0 mm and a gate length of 0.25 μm. View full abstract»

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  • Reconfigurable RFICs in Si-based technologies for a compact intelligent RF front-end

    Page(s): 81 - 93
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    This paper presents reconfigurable RF integrated circuits (ICs) for a compact implementation of an intelligent RF front-end for multiband and multistandard applications. Reconfigurability has been addressed at each level starting from the basic elements to the RF blocks and the overall front-end architecture. An active resistor tunable from 400 to 1600 Ω up to 10 GHz has been designed and an equivalent model has been extracted. A fully tunable active inductor using a tunable feedback resistor has been proposed that provides inductances between 0.1-15 nH with Q>50 in the C-band. To demonstrate reconfigurability at the block level, voltage-controlled oscillators with very wide tuning ranges have been implemented in the C-band using the proposed active inductor, as well as using a switched-spiral resonator with capacitive tuning. The ICs have been implemented using 0.18-μm Si-CMOS and 0.18-μm SiGe-BiCMOS technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical evaluation of the Green's functions for cylindrical enclosures by a new spatial images method

    Page(s): 94 - 105
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    A spatial images technique is used to efficiently calculate the mixed potential Green's functions associated to magnetic sources when they are placed inside a circular cylindrical cavity. The technique places magnetic dipole images and charges outside the cylindrical region. Their strength and orientation are then calculated by imposing the appropriate boundary conditions for the fields at discrete points of the metallic wall. In this paper, the basic technique is combined with spatial domain multilayered Green's functions formulated with Sommerfeld integrals. This allows the analysis of practical multilayered circuits shielded in circular cavities. Convergence results are shown to demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Two practical microwave circuits are also analyzed to show the validity of the formulation. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive duplexer implemented using single-path and multipath feedforward techniques with BST phase shifters

    Page(s): 106 - 114
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    As the complexity of modern modulation schemes increases, the noise levels inserted in the receive band by the transmitter are also increased. A technique to enhance the isolation of a surface acoustic wave duplexer is introduced, which reduces the noise levels in the receive band of the system. Feedforward techniques are used to create an adaptive in the receive band, which can be targeted at any channel across the band. This has been shown to give an improved isolation of 20 dB for the duplexer over a 2-MHz bandwidth. This feedforward system is implemented using a barium strontium titanate phase shifter to enable tunability of the enhancement . Multipath feedforward techniques are also used to create extra s in the receive band and, hence, further improve isolation. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-band transmitters using digitally predistorted frequency multipliers for reconfigurable radios

    Page(s): 115 - 122
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    Two methods for reconfigurable transmitters using frequency multipliers in conjunction with digital predistortion linearizers are developed. One method utilizes a circuit topology that can be switched between a fundamental-mode in-phase combined amplifier, and a push-push frequency doubler using input phasing. Investigation to maximize output harmonics out of regular power amplifiers (PAs) was performed, and the implementation of the device was successful for the amplifier- and doubler-mode operation. To satisfy optimal load-line conditions for the operation in both modes, a bi-tuned output-combining technique is introduced as well. Measurement results indicate that the circuit is able to transmit 28 dBm of output power at 900 MHz in the amplifier mode, and 22 dBm at 1800 MHz in the doubler mode. In combination with predistortion linearization, the reconfigurable transmitter was shown to be capable of amplifying IS-95B code-division multiple-access (CDMA) signals with an adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) up to -58dBc/30kHz. The second suggested method utilizes a fundamental-frequency PA followed by a varactor multiplier that can be bypassed with an RF switch. A varactor-diode doubler with a saturated conversion loss of 1.3 dB was built and tested. Using predistortion linearization techniques on both the PA and doubler, an ACPR of -53dBc/30kHz at 885-kHz offset was achieved for a CDMA signal transmitted at 1850 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • 30-100-GHz inductors and transformers for millimeter-wave (Bi)CMOS integrated circuits

    Page(s): 123 - 133
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    Silicon planar and three-dimensional inductors and transformers were designed and characterized on-wafer up to 100 GHz. Self-resonance frequencies (SRFs) beyond 100 GHz were obtained, demonstrating for the first time that spiral structures are suitable for applications such as 60-GHz wireless local area network and 77-GHz automotive RADAR. Minimizing area over substrate is critical to achieving high SRF. A stacked transformer is reported with S21 of -2.5 dB at 50 GHz, and which offers improved performance and less area (30 μm×30 μm) than planar transformers or microstrip couplers. A compact inductor model is described, along with a methodology for extracting model parameters from simulated or measured y-parameters. Millimeter-wave SiGe BiCMOS mixer and voltage-controlled-oscillator circuits employing spiral inductors are presented with better or comparable performance to previously reported transmission-line-based circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Novel low-cost planar probes with broadside apertures for nondestructive dielectric measurement of biological materials at microwave frequencies

    Page(s): 134 - 143
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    Novel planar-type probes were developed to demonstrate the possibility of replacing the existing high-cost open-ended coaxial probes. The planar probes of this study define an aperture on the broadside of the probe body. In this way, the contact area can be maximized and/or customized according to specific medical needs. The probes with various aperture sizes and shapes can also be fabricated simultaneously in a single batch process. Three probes are developed in this paper: a probe combining two laminates, a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based probe with a single benzocyclobutene (BCB) layer on a quartz substrate, and another MEMS probe with two BCB layers defined on a silicon substrate. The third probe was specifically designed for monolithic integration with driving circuits on a single substrate. Limitations in the high-frequency performance of the planar probes were carefully studied, and higher order modes and incomplete shielding were found to be the main causes. The measurement results of each probe showed excellent compatibility with those of the open-ended coaxial probe up to almost 40 GHz. The proposed planar-type probes have great potentials for practical medical applications in view of low cost, disposability, and monolithic integration capability with the driving circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Design of high-efficiency current-mode class-D amplifiers for wireless handsets

    Page(s): 144 - 151
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    Design considerations are discussed for current-mode class-D (CMCD) microwave power amplifiers. Factors affecting amplifier efficiency are described analytically and via simulation. Amplifiers are reported that incorporate parallel LC resonators alongside the switching transistors. To reduce parasitic resistance, bond-wires were utilized to implement a high Q inductor in the LC resonator. An experimental CMCD amplifier based on GaAs HBTs is reported, with collector efficiency of 78.5% at an output power of 29.5 dBm (0.89 W) at 700 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed electrical backplane transmission using duobinary signaling

    Page(s): 152 - 160
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    High-speed electrical data transmission through low-cost backplanes is a particularly challenging problem. We present for the first time a very effective approach that uses the concept of duobinary signaling to accomplish this task. Using a finite-impulse-response filter, we are able to compensate for the phase and amplitude response of the backplane such that the resulting frequency response of the channel is that of an ideal duobinary filter. At the output of the backplane, we use an innovative pseudodigital circuit to convert the electrical duobinary to binary. For 10-Gb/s data transmission, we demonstrate a bit error rate <10-13 through electrical backplane traces up to 34 in in length on FR4. A full discussion of the concept, system architecture, and measured results are presented. Analysis is presented that compares and contrasts this approach to PAM-4 and standard nonreturn-to-zero signaling. View full abstract»

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  • Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth

    Page(s): 161 - 173
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    A metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure is presented and demonstrated as a novel leaky-wave (LW) antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth functionalities. This structure is, in essence, a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) microstrip structure incorporating varactor diodes for fixed-frequency voltage-controlled operation. Angle scanning at a fixed frequency is achieved by modulating the capacitances of the structure by adjusting the (uniform) bias voltage applied to the varactors. Beamwidth tuning is obtained by making the structure nonuniform by application of a nonuniform bias voltage distribution of the varactors. A rigorous analysis based on an extension of the CRLH concept is proposed and the corresponding dispersion curves, obtained by equivalent-circuit formulas with LC parameters extracted from full-wave simulation, are shown. A 30-cell LW antenna structure, incorporating both series and shunt varactors for optimal impedance matching and maximal tuning range, is designed. This prototype exhibits continuous scanning capability from 50° to -49° by tuning the bias voltages from 0 to 21 V at 3.33 GHz. A maximum gain of 18 dBi at broadside is also achieved. In addition, it provides half-power beamwidth variation of up to 200% with comparison to the case of uniform biasing. The effect of intermodulation due to the nonlinearity of the varactors is shown to be negligible for antenna applications. The antenna is tested in a 10-Mb/s binary phase-shift keying transmission link and successful recovery of the baseband data is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Canonical ridge waveguide filters in LTCC or metallic resonators

    Page(s): 174 - 182
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    A new physical realization of an elliptic function filter response is proposed for achieving compact size, wide bandwidth, wide spurious free stopband and high-selectivity performance. The filter configuration can be implemented in conventional waveguide technology or embedded in a multilayer low-temperature co-fired ceramic structure for integration with other circuitry in a chip module. The filter is analyzed using rigorous mode matching. To validate the concept, prototypes of four- and six-cavity elliptic filters are designed following a systematic procedure. Approximate synthesis is used to obtain initial dimensions of the filter and the desired optimum response is obtained by means of a final full-wave optimization. The results are verified with other numerical methods and with the measurements of a fourth-order waveguide filter. View full abstract»

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  • A novel compact electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structure and its applications for microwave circuits

    Page(s): 183 - 190
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    A novel electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structure in a fork-like shape is investigated. This structure has an extremely compact size. A comparison has been carried out between the new structure and the conventional mushroom-like EBG structure. Simulations and experimental results have verified that the area of the fork-like structure is less than 40% of the latter. The presented structure also provides an additional degree of freedom to adjust the bandgap position, which is applied to design a novel reconfigurable multiband EBG structure. Several application examples have been demonstrated, including a double-element microstrip antenna array with low mutual coupling, notch-type antenna duplexer, and steerable array with a linearly discrete beamsteering of 20° in steps of 10° at 2.468 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable combline filter with continuous control of center frequency and bandwidth

    Page(s): 191 - 199
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    A new combline filter structure with a continuous tunability for both the center frequency and bandwidth is presented in this paper. The passband-width tunability is achieved by placing variable coupling reducers between the filter resonators. The coupling reducers, operating as bandwidth control subnetworks, are designed as detuned resonators made up of a line segment ending in a variable capacitor. The proposed filter structure is experimentally validated with the design, construction in suspended stripline technology, and characterization of a low-cost filter prototype for terrestrial digital video broadcasting receivers operating in the UHF band (470-862 MHz). Other relevant factors, such as the intermodulation distortion produced by the varactors used to control the bandwidth electronically or the power-handling performance of the constructed filter, are also discussed. The reconfigurable filter module described in this paper is very suitable for the design of flexible multifunction receiver subsystems simultaneously supporting signals with a different bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • A new full-wave hybrid differential-integral approach for the investigation of multilayer structures including nonuniformly doped diffusions

    Page(s): 200 - 214
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    A novel hybrid differential-integral approach, based on the transverse wave formulation (TWF) is presented for full-wave investigation of multilayer structures including inhomogeneous layer stacks with arbitrary doping profiles. In combining both the benefits of spatial and spectral resolutions, the TWF offers a natural framework for the implementation of multiresolution and multiscale approaches from physical considerations. The possibility of separating the transverse TE and TM components of the TWF solution is discussed. Original isolation structures based on the oxide deep-trenches technique are proposed and demonstrate significant isolation capability in the context of RF integrated-circuit applications. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave ablation with a triaxial antenna: results in ex vivo bovine liver

    Page(s): 215 - 220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We apply a new triaxial antenna for microwave ablation procedures to an ex vivo bovine liver. The antenna consists of a coaxial monopole inserted through a biopsy needle positioned one quarter-wavelength from the antenna base. The insertion needle creates a triaxial structure, which enhances return loss more than 10 dB, maximizing energy transfer to the tissue while minimizing feed cable heating and invasiveness. Numerical electromagnetic and thermal simulations are used to optimize the antenna design and predict heating patterns. Numerical and ex vivo experimental results show that the lesion size depends strongly on ablation time and average input power, but not on peak power. Pulsing algorithms are also explored. We were able to measure a 3.8-cm lesion using 50 W for 7 min, which we believe to be the largest lesion reported thus far using a 17-gauge insertion needle. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org