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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 2
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  • Special Issue on Advances in Video Coding and Delivery

    Page(s): 3 - 5
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  • Trends and Perspectives in Image and Video Coding

    Page(s): 6 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of the paper is to provide an overview on recent trends and future perspectives in image and video coding. Here, I review the rapid development in the field during the past 40 years and outline current state-of-the art strategies for coding images and videos. These and other coding algorithms are discussed in the context of international JPEG, JPEG 2000, MPEG-1/2/4, and H.261/3/4 standards. Novel techniques targeted at achieving higher compression gains, error robustness, and network/device adaptability are described and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Video Compression - From Concepts to the H.264/AVC Standard

    Page(s): 18 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (987 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the last one and a half decades, digital video compression technologies have become an integral part of the way we create, communicate, and consume visual information. In this paper, techniques for video compression are reviewed, starting from basic concepts. The rate-distortion performance of modern video compression schemes is the result of an interaction between motion representation techniques, intra-picture prediction techniques, waveform coding of differences, and waveform coding of various refreshed regions. The paper starts with an explanation of the basic concepts of video codec design and then explains how these various features have been integrated into international standards, up to and including the most recent such standard, known as H.264/AVC. View full abstract»

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  • JPEG 2000: Retrospective and New Developments

    Page(s): 32 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    JPEG 2000 is a new image coding system that delivers superior compression performance and provides many advanced features in scalability, flexibility, and system functionalities that outperform all previous standards. It brings exciting possibilities to many imaging applications such as the Internet, wireless, security, and digital cinema. This paper gives an overview of this triumph in innovations and teamwork. It gives brief introductions to the four new parts that are under development by the JPEG committee. It attempts to summarize the lessons learned from the JPEG 2000 development experience and draw some conclusions on the success factors of this important standard. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Scalable Video Coding

    Page(s): 42 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scalable video coding is attractive due to the capability of reconstructing lower resolution or lower quality signals from partial bit streams. This allows for simple solutions in adaptation to network and terminal capabilities. Different modalities of scalability are specified by video coding standards like MPEG-2 and MPEG-4. This paper gives a short overview over these techniques and analyzes in more detail the encoder/decoder drift problem, which is the major reason why scalable coding has been significantly less efficient than single-layer coding in most of these implementations. Only recently, new scalable video coding technology has evolved, which seems to close the gap of compression performance compared to state of the art single-layer video coding. New methods of efficient enhancement layer prediction were developed to improve traditional (motion-compensated hybrid) scalable coders, providing more flexible compromises on the drift problem. As a new technology trend, motion-compensated spatiotemporal wavelet coding has matured which entirely discards the drift and allows most flexible combinations of spatial, temporal, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) scalability with fine granularity over a broad range of data rates. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple Description Coding for Video Delivery

    Page(s): 57 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiple description coding (MDC) is an effective means to combat bursty packet losses in the Internet and wireless networks. MDC is especially promising for video applications where retransmission is unacceptable or infeasible. When combined with multiple path transport (MPT), MDC enables traffic dispersion and hence reduces network congestion. This work describes principles in designing MD video coders employing temporal prediction and presents several predictor structures that differ in their tradeoffs between mismatch-induced distortion and coding efficiency. The paper also discusses example video communication systems integrating MDC and MPT. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Video Coding

    Page(s): 71 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed coding is a new paradigm for video compression, based on Slepian and Wolf's and Wyner and Ziv's information-theoretic results from the 1970s. This paper reviews the recent development of practical distributed video coding schemes. Wyner-Ziv coding, i.e., lossy compression with receiver side information, enables low-complexity video encoding where the bulk of the computation is shifted to the decoder. Since the interframe dependence of the video sequence is exploited only at the decoder, an intraframe encoder can be combined with an interframe decoder. The rate-distortion performance is superior to conventional intraframe coding, but there is still a gap relative to conventional motion-compensated interframe coding. Wyner-Ziv coding is naturally robust against transmission errors and can be used for joint source-channel coding. A Wyner-Ziv MPEG encoder that protects the video waveform rather than the compressed bit stream achieves graceful degradation under deteriorating channel conditions without a layered signal representation. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Video Transcoding

    Page(s): 84 - 97
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    Video transcoding, due to its high practical values for a wide range of networked video applications, has become an active research topic. We outline the technical issues and research results related to video transcoding. We also discuss techniques for reducing the complexity, and techniques for improving the video quality, by exploiting the information extracted from the input video bit stream. View full abstract»

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  • Interactive 3-D Video Representation and Coding Technologies

    Page(s): 98 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9780 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interactivity in the sense of being able to explore and navigate audio-visual scenes by freely choosing viewpoint and viewing direction, is an important key feature of new and emerging audio-visual media. This paper gives an overview of suitable technology for such applications, with a focus on international standards, which are beneficial for consumers, service providers, and manufacturers. We first give a general classification and overview of interactive scene representation formats as commonly used in computer graphics literature. Then, we describe popular standard formats for interactive three-dimensional (3-D) scene representation and creation of virtual environments, the virtual reality modeling language (VRML), and the MPEG-4 BInary Format for Scenes (BIFS) with some examples. Recent extensions to MPEG-4 BIFS, the Animation Framework eXtension (AFX), providing advanced computer graphics tools, are explained and illustrated. New technologies mainly targeted at reconstruction, modeling, and representation of dynamic real world scenes are further studied. The user shall be able to navigate photorealistic scenes within certain restrictions, which can be roughly defined as 3-D video. Omnidirectional video is an extension of the planar two-dimensional (2-D) image plane to a spherical or cylindrical image plane. Any 2-D view in any direction can be rendered from this overall recording to give the user the impression of looking around. In interactive stereo two views, one for each eye, are synthesized to provide the user with an adequate depth cue of the observed scene. Head motion parallax viewing can be supported in a certain operating range if sufficient depth or disparity data are delivered with the video data. In free viewpoint video, a dynamic scene is captured by a number of cameras. The input data are transformed into a special data representation that enables interactive navigation through the dynamic scene environment. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Wireless Video Delivery

    Page(s): 111 - 122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (775 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews practical video delivery technologies, examining existing mobile networks, commercialized or standardized transport, and coding technologies. Compression efficiency, power dissipation, and error control are intrinsic issues in wireless video delivery. Among these issues, error control technologies are evaluated at four layers: 1) layer-1/2 transport; 2) end-to-end transport layer such as TCP/IP or RTP/UDP/IP; 3) error-resilience tool and network adaptation layer) and 4) source coder layer. Layer-1/2 transport tends to provide two distinct conditions: one quasi-error-free, in which upper layer error control technologies show a limited improvement, and one with a burst of errors during the fading period, in which the adaptability of error control is essential. Emerging mobile network quality of service will have a large variation of bandwidth and delay. Thus, adaptive rate control and error recovery are identified as more crucial issues for future research. View full abstract»

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  • End-to-End QoS for Video Delivery Over Wireless Internet

    Page(s): 123 - 134
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    Providing end-to-end quality of service (QoS) support is essential for video delivery over the next-generation wireless Internet. We address several key elements in the end-to-end QoS support, including scalable video representation, network-aware end system, and network QoS provisioning. There are generally two approaches in QoS support: the network-centric and the end-system centric solutions. The fundamental problem in a network-centric solution is how to map QoS criterion at different layers respectively, and optimize total quality across these layers. We first present the general framework of a cross-layer network-centric solution, and then describe the recent advances in network modeling, QoS mapping, and QoS adaptation. The key targets in end-system centric approach are network adaptation and media adaptation. We present a general framework of the end-system centric solution and investigate the recent developments. Specifically, for network adaptation, we review the available bandwidth estimation and efficient video transport protocol; for media adaptation , we describe the advances in error control, power control, and corresponding bit allocation. Finally, we highlight several advanced research directions. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Efficient Resource Allocation for Packet-Based Real-Time Video Transmission

    Page(s): 135 - 147
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multimedia applications involving the transmission of video over communication networks are rapidly increasing in popularity. Such applications can greatly benefit from adapting video coding parameters to network conditions as well as adapting network parameters to better support the application requirements. These two dimensions can both be viewed as allocating source and network resources to improve video quality. We highlight recent advances in optimal resource allocation for real-time video communications over unreliable and resource constrained communication channels. More specifically, we focus on point-to-point coding and delivery schemes in which the sequences are encoded on the fly. We present a high-level framework for resource-distortion optimization. The framework can be used for jointly considering factors across network layers, including source coding, channel resource allocation, and error concealment. For example, resources can take the form of transmission energy in a wireless channel, and transmission cost in a DiffServ-based Internet channel. This framework can be used to optimally trade off resource consumption with end-to-end video quality in packet-based video transmission. After giving an overview of this framework, we review recent work in two areas-energy efficient wireless video transmission and resource allocation for Internet-based applications. View full abstract»

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  • Video Adaptation: Concepts, Technologies, and Open Issues

    Page(s): 148 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video adaptation is an emerging field that offers a rich body of techniques for answering challenging questions in pervasive media applications. It transforms the input video(s) to an output in video or augmented multimedia form by utilizing manipulations at multiple levels (signal, structural, or semantic) in order to meet diverse resource constraints and user preferences while optimizing the overall utility of the video. There has been a vast amount of activity in research and standard development in this area. This paper first presents a general framework that defines the fundamental entities, important concepts (i.e., adaptation, resource, and utility), and formulation of video adaptation as constrained optimization problems. A taxonomy is used to classify different types of adaptation techniques. The state of the art in several active research areas is reviewed with open challenging issues identified. Finally, support of video adaptation from related international standards is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Internet Multicast Video Delivery

    Page(s): 159 - 170
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    Internet video delivery has been motivating research in multicast routing, quality of service (QoS), and the service model of the Internet itself for the last 15 years. Multicast delivery has the potential to deliver a large amount of content that currently cannot be delivered through broadcast. IP and overlay multicast are two architectures proposed to provide multicast support. A large body of research has been done with IP multicast and QoS mechanisms for IP multicast since the late 1980s. In the past five years, overlay multicast research has gained momentum with a vision to accomplish ubiquitous multicast delivery that is efficient and scales in the dimensions of the number of groups, number of receivers, and number of senders. This work presents an overview of the issues facing both IP and overlay multicast and the approaches that researchers are taking to solve them. Many of these approaches take advantage of a rich interface, beyond a single rate video stream, between the coding and delivery mechanisms. The semantics of this interface is an important question for future research and we discuss this with insight from experience on delivery technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Digital Video Content Protection

    Page(s): 171 - 183
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of digital video offers immense opportunities for creators; however, the ability for anyone to make perfect copies and the ease by which those copies can be distributed also facilitate misuse, illegal copying and distribution ("piracy"), plagiarism, and misappropriation. Popular Internet software based on a peer-to-peer architecture has been used to share copyrighted movies, music, software, and other materials. Concerned about the consequences of illegal copying and distribution on a massive scale, content owners are interested in digital rights management (DRM) systems which can protect their rights and preserve the economic value of digital video. A DRM system protects and enforces the rights associated with the use of digital content. Unfortunately, the technical challenges for securing digital content are formidable and previous approaches have not succeeded. We overview the concepts and approaches for video DRM and describe methods for providing security, including the roles of encryption and video watermarking. Current efforts and issues are described in encryption, watermarking, and key management. Lastly, we identify challenges and directions for further investigation in video DRM. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Hardware Architectures for Image and Video Coding - A Survey

    Page(s): 184 - 197
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    This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art hardware architectures for image and video coding. Fundamental design issues are discussed with particular emphasis on efficient dedicated implementation. Hardware architectures for MPEG-4 video coding and JPEG 2000 still image coding are reviewed as design examples, and special approaches exploited to improve efficiency are identified. Further perspectives are also presented to address the challenges of hardware architecture design for advanced image and video coding in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Lee de Forest

    Page(s): 198 - 202
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    In 1922, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) selected Lee de Forest as the fifth recipient of its Medal of Honor. He was cited for "his major contributions to the communications arts and sciences, as particularly exemplified by his invention of that outstandingly significant device: the three-electrode vacuum tube, and his work in the fields of radio telephonic transmission and reception". He served a term as president of the IRE in 1930. He also received the Edison Medal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) in 1946, becoming one of only seven to receive both the Medal of Honor and the Edison Medal prior to 1962. He became known for having a rather flamboyant personality and was a very prolific inventor, receiving more than 300 patents during his career. Like some other pioneers in radio and electronics, he expended considerable time and energy on litigation related to his patents. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Page(s): 203 - 205
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Page(s): 206
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 207 - 208
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Page(s): c3
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