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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6  Part 2 • Date Dec. 2004

 This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 1  | Part 3 

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3121 - 3125
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  • 2004 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Comments by the General Chairman

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3126 - 3127
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  • 2004 Special NSREC Issue of the IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science - Comments by the Guest Editor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3128
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  • List of Reviewers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3129 - 3130
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  • 2004 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Awards Chairman's Comments

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3131 - 3132
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  • Outstanding Conference Paper Award 2004 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3133 - 3134
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  • In Memoriam: Arthur Robb Frederickson

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3135 - 3136
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  • In Memoriam: Klaus Kerris

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3137 - 3138
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  • In Memoriam: Steve Lutjens [and] Raymond Denson

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3139 - 3140
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  • In Memoriam: Jean-Marie Palau

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3141 - 3142
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  • Charge trapping and annealing in high-κ gate dielectrics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3143 - 3149
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We examine the radiation response, annealing characteristics, and long-term reliability of capacitors with Al gates and Al2O3-SiOxNy gate dielectrics stacks which received a forming gas anneal (FGA) or an O2 and FG anneal after high-κ deposition. By comparison to a theoretical capacitance-voltage (CV) curve, the FG annealed devices are found to have a large preirradiation interface trapped charge density of ∼7×1011 cm-2, whereas devices annealed in O2 and FG show a large density (∼9×1011 cm-2) of negative bulk charge. The midgap voltage shift (ΔVmg) increases monotonically with dose for both sets of devices, but the O2 annealed devices exhibit 50% less trapping at a total dose of 2 Mrad(SiO2). The radiation-induced voltage shifts are found to recover during long duration biased anneals as a result of tunneling and thermal annealing. For short times and large biases, the annealing response is found to be dominated by tunneling. After 1,000 s of annealing, there is a 50% reduction in ΔVmg for devices annealed at 2.0 MV/cm and a 7.5% recovery for devices annealed at 1.0 MV/cm. For longer times, the annealing response of these devices is dominated by thermal annealing. Accelerated life testing shows these devices have a broad failure distribution with a large population of extrinsic failures. Extrapolation of the reliability data suggests these particular devices would have to be operated at an electric field less than ∼2.5 MV/cm to achieve a ten-year operational lifetime. Improved reliability is, therefore, required before insertion into a manufacturing environment. View full abstract»

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  • Drain current decrease in MOSFETs after heavy ion irradiation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3150 - 3157
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, we have focused our attention on MOSFETs, which are the real basic elements of all CMOS applications. We have studied the immediate and latent effects produced by heavy ion irradiation on MOSFETs with ultrathin gate oxide, even after electrical stresses subsequent to irradiation. We found that a single ion can generate a physically damaged region (PDR) localized in the Si-SiO2 interface, which may hamper the surface channel formation. In order to generate a PDR the ion hit must be close enough to MOSFET borders, i.e., in correspondence with the STI or the LDD spacer. Consequently, if both MOSFET W and L are large enough only few ion hits may give place to a PDR, mitigating the radiation damage. Finally we have developed an original model to describe the impact of the PDR on channel conductance in the ohmic linear region. On the basis of this model, we predict a PDR size around 0.2-1 μm. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of hydrogen motion on interface trap formation and annealing

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3158 - 3165
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We combine first-principles calculations and statistical modeling of hydrogen motion to investigate interface trap formation and post-irradiation annealing processes in the Si-SiO2 system. The dependence of the interface trap density on the temperature and bias voltage is explained on the basis of analytical modeling and statistical simulations based on Monte Carlo and master equation approaches. We suggest that the interface-trap buildup and annealing dynamics are primarily controlled by processes associated with hydrogen transport toward and along the interface, hydrogen reactions with passivated and unpassivated dangling bonds, and differences in most-favorable charge states for hydrogen-related species in SiO2 and Si. The dramatic change of the interface-trap formation dynamics as a function of postirradiation annealing bias in MOS devices at a temperature of ∼150°C is explained as a result of competition between the direct depassivation of the interfacial Si-H bonds by protons and the passivation of interfacial dangling bond defects by neutral molecular hydrogen formed near the interface and in the Si. We show that the transport of different hydrogen-related species in the interfacial region and their mutual transformations are responsible for significant postirradiation accumulation of hydrogen near the interface. We also discuss how this approach and these results may be employed for further understanding of enhanced low-dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS). View full abstract»

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  • Nonuniform total-dose-induced charge distribution in shallow-trench isolation oxides

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3166 - 3171
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach for modeling the radiation-induced charge distribution in shallow-trench isolation (STI) structures shows that much less charge is trapped near the top of the trench. We found that charges inside the STI oxide are pushed down by the vertical electric field coming from the positive gate bias, leaving much less total-dose-induced charge close to the top of trench. This nonuniformity significantly affects the measured leakage current. View full abstract»

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  • Annealing behavior of linear bipolar devices with enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3172 - 3177
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The post-irradiation annealing behavior of total dose degradation in LM139 comparators fabricated in National Semiconductor Corporation's (NSC) enhanced low-dose-rate sensitive (ELDRS) linear bipolar technology is examined. Data show that a large fraction of the radiation-induced increase in input bias current recovers after a 100°C anneal. The recovery in input bias current is linked to a significant amount of interface-trap annealing at 100°C. This is qualitatively consistent with previous data on interface-trap annealing and recent models for interface-trap annealing associated with hydrogen motion at the silicon/silcon dioxide interface. The annealing results have implications for hardness assurance testing. If the radiation induced charge that is responsible for ELDRS (whether it be interface or border traps) can anneal at 100°C, these data suggest that elevated temperature irradiations sometimes used to bound the ELDRS response of ICs may also cause some annealing of radiation-induced charge. These data help explain why high-dose-rate irradiations at elevated temperatures in some cases underestimate low-dose-rate degradation. In addition, these data confirm that high-dose-rate irradiations followed by elevated temperature anneals do not mimic the mechanisms that cause enhanced degradation at low dose rates in devices with ELDRS. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation-induced base current broadening mechanisms in gated bipolar devices

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3178 - 3185
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ionizing radiation experiments on gated lateral bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) show a broadening in the peak base current profile after irradiation. The primary mechanism for this effect is identified as the change in the charge state of interface traps in the oxide over the base. Simulations and theoretical analysis not only describe the mechanism in detail, but also suggest possible solutions for extracting information from the shape of the profile. The effects of the interface-trap energy distribution are investigated, showing that traps between flatband and threshold contribute to the width of the base-current peak. View full abstract»

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  • Electron irradiation effects on nanocrystal quantum dots used in bio-sensing applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3186 - 3192
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Effects of low energy electron irradiation (5-30 keV) on some of the optical properties of CdSe nanocrystals are examined. Degradation in luminescence intensities are measured and compared for inorganic nanocrystals coated in trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and biologically compatible CdSe nanocrystals coated in mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), as well as CdSe-MAA nanocrystals conjugated with the protein Streptavidin. Electron beam effects are investigated using the technique of cathodoluminescence, which is seen to induce significant degradation in nanocrystal related fluorescence in all nanocrystals. Varying beam energy and sample temperatures showed faster degradation at cryogenic temperatures and a higher susceptibility to low beam energies in protein conjugated nanocrystals. View full abstract»

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  • Displacement damage-induced catastrophic second breakdown in silicon carbide Schottky power diodes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3193 - 3200
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel catastrophic breakdown mode in reverse biased silicon carbide diodes has been seen for particles that are too low in LET to induce SEB, however SEB-like events were seen from particles of higher LET. The low LET breakdown mechanism correlates with second breakdown in diodes due to increased leakage and assisted charge injection from incident particles. Percolation theory was used to predict some basic responses of the devices. View full abstract»

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  • Limits to the application of NIEL for damage correlation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3201 - 3206
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of incident particle range, straggling, primary recoil atom range and target volume on the expected applicability of nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) as a basis for correlating displacement damage effects are quantified. Examples are given for protons and alpha particles incident on both silicon and gallium arsenide. View full abstract»

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  • Alpha particle nonionizing energy loss (NIEL)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3207 - 3210
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method previously developed for proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) calculations was extended to alpha particles. The alpha particle NIELs for representative device materials are presented from the damage threshold energy to 1GeV/n. The method used the Ziegler, Biersack, Littmark (ZBL) screened potential for Coulomb interactions and the MCNPX "thin target approximation" for nuclear interactions. The alpha NIEL obtained in this study was compared to the proton NIEL from the previous study. It is seen that for silicon, the NIEL for alphas is about 16 times the NIEL for protons at 1.0 MeV/n where the Coulombic interaction dominates. The ratio drops at higher energies because of the nuclear contributions. Furthermore, a simple radiation transport analysis indicates that in a representative space environment, the contribution of alphas to the damage dose can be comparable to the proton contribution, and that shielding has a marked influence on the relative contributions. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs induced by electrons and protons in SiO2

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3211 - 3218
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs in SiO2, induced by electrons and protons, was simulated using a new Monte Carlo (MC) code which calculates the full track structure with parameters found using the complex dielectric function theory for electron energies above 50 eV. For electrons below 50 eV, we included interactions with phonons. Track structure calculations were used to find the spatial distribution of the electron-hole pairs. The charge-yield for electrons and protons under electric field has been calculated directly, without using either the columnar or the geminate models for charge recombination. A good agreement is found with experimental charge-yield results. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of thermal annealing on radiation-induced degradation of bipolar technologies when the dose rate is switched from high to low

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3219 - 3224
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of an electrostatic barrier in the oxide bulk on the radiation-induced degradation of bipolar technologies is investigated by performing a thermal annealing operation before switching the dose rate from high to low. It is shown that, in our test conditions, no significant electrostatic barrier effect is at play in the device degradation. View full abstract»

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  • Total dose effects on bipolar integrated circuits: characterization of the saturation region

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3225 - 3230
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The total-dose response of bipolar microcircuits is investigated. A recovery of the degradation is observed for high total dose in the saturation region. The circuit response in this region is studied based on room temperature annealing. The role of the electric field is studied and the results are discussed in terms of hardness assurance. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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