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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6  Part 1 • Date Dec. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2973 - 2974
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  • JFET transistors for low-noise applications at low frequency

    Page(s): 2975 - 2982
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a methodology to study and select JFET transistors, to be adopted for the readout of bolometric detectors, which makes use of a novel instrument capable of doing very accurate automatic noise measurements at low frequency. Clever design criteria and properly selected biasing conditions allow outstanding results in terms of noise and power dissipation. Noise was explored at very small power dissipation, 2.5 μW, and JFET transistors were biased in a nonconventional region at low temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation of the very forward region of a linear collider detector

    Page(s): 2983 - 2989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The very forward region of a detector at a linear e+e- collider is a particularly challenging area for instrumentation. In the TESLA detector, two calorimeters, BeamCal (Beam Calorimeter) and LumiCal (Luminosity Calorimeter) are planned. The BeamCal is positioned just adjacent to the beampipe. It will be hit by beamstrahlung remnants giving a deposition of several tens of TeV per bunch crossing. The distribution of this energy will be measured to assist in tuning the beams. Single high-energy electrons will be identified and measured. High-energy electron identification is particularly important to veto backgrounds to new particle searches. Several technological options for BeamCal are discussed. Monte Carlo simulations are presented for a diamond/tungsten sandwich structure and compared to results obtained for a heavy element crystal calorimeter. First, tests of sensors are described. The LumiCal will measure larger polar angles than the BeamCal. It will provide a high-precision (O(10-4)) luminosity measurement from Bhabha scattering. Monte Carlo simulations to optimize the shape and the structure of the calorimeter are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Secondary emission monitor for low-interception monitoring (SLIM): an innovative nondestructive beam monitor for the extraction lines of a hadrontherapy center

    Page(s): 2990 - 2998
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real-time monitoring of hadrontherapy beam intensities and profiles is a critical issue for the optimization of the dose delivery to the patient tumour tissue, the patient safety, and the operation of the accelerator complex. For this purpose, an innovative beam monitor, based on the secondary emission of electrons by a nonperturbative, submicrometer-thick Al target placed directly in the extracted beam path, is being proposed. The secondary electrons, accelerated by an electrostatic focusing system, are detected by a monolithic silicon position sensitive sensor, which provides the beam intensity and position with a precision of 1 mm at a 10-kHz frame rate. The conceptual design and the engineering study optimized for hadrontherapy are presented together with the results of the laboratory tests with thermoionic electrons and the first measurements in a hadron beam. View full abstract»

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  • Beam monitors for TESLA based on diamond strip detectors

    Page(s): 2999 - 3005
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For TeV energy superconducting linear accelerator (TESLA), it is foreseen to measure the beam profile with so-called wire scanners. A thin carbon fiber is moved through the beam and the number of scattered secondary particles is measured in correlation to the position of the wire. From this, a beam profile can be calculated as an average over many bunches of the beam. With strip detectors made from diamond, the beam profile can be measured online for single bunches. With two perpendicular arrays of strips on the front and the back side of the detector, the beam profile can also be measured in the X and Y direction. If fast electronics are used and the bunches are not too short, even a longitudinal profile in the Z direction can be obtained. We successfully tested a diamond detector in a heavy ion beam with bunches of up to 3·1010 O6+ ions and in a beam of 1010 electrons in bunches with a length of 300 μm, as planned for TESLA. The fluence of 1015 e-/cm2 or more by one of the bunches foreseen for TESLA corresponds to the irradiation a vertex detector receives during ten years of large hadron collider. The results of our measurements will be presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Signal variations in high-granularity Si pixel detectors

    Page(s): 3006 - 3012
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fixed-pattern noise is one of the limiting factors of image quality and degrades the achievable spatial resolution. In the case of silicon sensors, the effects of nonuniformities due to doping inhomogeneities can be limited by operating the sensor in strong overdepletion. For high-granularity photon-counting pixel detectors, an additional high-frequency interpixel signal variation is an important factor for the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is a common practice to apply flatfield corrections to increase the SNR of a detector system. For the case of direct conversion detectors, it can be shown theoretically that the Poisson limit can be reached for floodfield irradiation. However, when used for imaging with spectral X-ray sources, flatfield corrections are less effective. This is partly a consequence of charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which gives rise to an effective energy spectrum seen by the readout, which is different from the spectral content of the incident beam. In this paper, we present simulations and measurements of the limited applicability of flatfield corrections for spectral source imaging and investigate the origins of the high-frequency interpixel noise component. The model, calculations, and measurements performed suggest that flatfield correction maps for photon-counting detectors with a direct conversion Si sensor can be obtained from electrical characterization of the readout chip alone. View full abstract»

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  • In vivo dosimetry and seed localization in prostate brachytherapy with permanent implants

    Page(s): 3013 - 3018
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the development of an interactive, intraoperative dose planning system for seed implant brachytherapy in cancer treatment. This system involves in vivo dosimetry and the ability to determine implanted seed positions. The first stage of this project is the development of a urethral alarm probe to measure the dose along the urethra during a prostate brachytherapy treatment procedure. Ultimately, the system will be used to advise the physicians upon reaching a preset dose rate or dose after total seed decay in the urethra during the seed placement. The second stage is the development of a method and instrumentation for in vivo measurements of the location of implanted seeds in the same frame as for dose planning and the use of these in intraoperative treatment planning. We have developed a silicon mini-detector, miniature front-end, and shaping amplifier with discriminator, connected to the mini-silicon detector at the end of a cable placed in a urological catheter, to satisfy the spectroscopic requirements of the urethral probe. This technique will avoid complications related to overdosing the urethra and the rectum. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of inelastic interactions for therapeutic proton beams using Monte Carlo simulation

    Page(s): 3019 - 3025
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    The irradiation of various tissue-like materials by therapeutic proton beams was simulated using Monte Carlo. The contribution of inelastic reaction products to the depth-dose distribution was determined. The use of silicon microdosimeters for verifying Monte Carlo calculations was also investigated. The importance of these studies to Monte Carlo-based treatment planning systems is emphasized. View full abstract»

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  • Scalability tests of R-GMA-based grid job monitoring system for CMS Monte Carlo data production

    Page(s): 3026 - 3029
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (106 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-energy physics experiments, such as the compact muon solenoid (CMS) at the large hadron collider (LHC), have large-scale data processing computing requirements. The grid has been chosen as the solution. One important challenge when using the grid for large-scale data processing is the ability to monitor the large numbers of jobs that are being executed simultaneously at multiple remote sites. The relational grid monitoring architecture (R-GMA) is a monitoring and information management service for distributed resources based on the GMA of the Global Grid Forum. We report on the first measurements of R-GMA as part of a monitoring architecture to be used for batch submission of multiple Monte Carlo simulation jobs running on a CMS-specific LHC computing grid test bed. Monitoring information was transferred in real time from remote execution nodes back to the submitting host and stored in a database. In scalability tests, the job submission rates supported by successive releases of R-GMA improved significantly, approaching that expected in full-scale production. View full abstract»

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  • A muon identification and combined reconstruction procedure for the ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN

    Page(s): 3030 - 3033
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Muon identification (MUID) and high-momentum measurement accuracy is crucial to fully exploit the physics potential that will be accessible with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The muon energy of physics interest ranges in a large interval from few GeV, where the b-physics studies dominate the physics program, up to the highest values that could indicate the presence of new physics. The muon detection system of the ATLAS detector is characterized by two high-precision tracking systems, namely the inner detector (ID) and the muon spectrometer, (MS) plus a thick calorimeter that ensures a safe hadron absorption filtering with high-purity muons with energy above 3 GeV. In order to combine the muon tracks reconstructed in the ID and the MS, a MUID object-oriented software package has been developed. The purpose of the MUID procedure is to associate tracks found in the MS with the corresponding ID track and calorimeter information in order to identify muons at their production vertex with optimum parameter resolution. The performance of these two combined systems has been evaluated with Monte Carlo studies using single muons of fixed-transverse momentum and with full physics events. View full abstract»

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  • Use of star tracks to determine photocathode anisotropy of PMTs and absolute pointing of the Pierre Auger fluorescence detector telescopes

    Page(s): 3034 - 3037
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    The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory consists of four groups of six telescopes, concentrated in four different buildings at the periphery of the 3000 km2 observatory site. Each telescope consists of a 3.5×3.5-m2 mirror of 3.4-m radius, an aperture of 2.2-m diameter covered by a UV filter, a corrector ring in its periphery, and an array of PMTs, disposed as a matrix of 20 columns by 22 rows in its focal surface. The pointing accuracy should be verified regularly during the whole life of the experiment, estimated to be about 20 years. Recording background-light tracks left by stars gives important information for this scope. In addition, the response along known tracks of many PMTs can be mapped by averaging the signals left by the same star in different nights. During the engineering array phase of the experiment, all PMTs have been equipped with the optically-coupled current-mirror, a novel optoelectronic system developed to perform a highly sensitive measurement of the dc or slowly varying component of the anode current, despite the fact that the PMT is biased with cathode grounded. We proved that the FD telescopes are extremely sensitive, even to 5.4 visual magnitude stars that could be clearly recorded despite the fact that a UV filter was present at the telescope aperture. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave techniques for high-density electronics interconnect bonding and hybridization

    Page(s): 3038 - 3042
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microwave Bonding Instruments, Inc. (MBI), has been investigating die-to-die (Level-0) bonding of independent devices, or device-substrate hybridization, as part of a system-on-a-package (SOP). MBI applies microwaves to selectively heat the interconnect metal to bond the substrates. MBI bonded a 320×256 array of indium bump of infrared detectors made of GaAs to the CMOS readout on silicon substrates. This selective heating technique has doubled the bump-to-bump bond strength to 0.2 g/bump and minimized the processing time (less than 15 s) at an overall low-substrate temperature (86°C). The thermal mismatch between substrates is reduced in this bonding process. The technique was also applied to higher melting temperature metals. Bonding of gold-tin-to-gold-tin all the way up to gold-to-gold has been demonstrated on parts up to 400×400 bumps. A SOP for advanced electronics requiring a variety of substrates will benefit from this technology. View full abstract»

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  • Development of the readout system for the K2K SciBar detector

    Page(s): 3043 - 3046
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Readout electronics for the scintillation bar tracking detector (SciBar) in the K2K neutrino oscillation experiment has been developed. SciBar has 14 336 scintillator bars in total. The deposited energy and timing of particles from neutrino interactions in the scintillator bars are measured by 64-channel multianode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMTs). Compact custom-designed electronics to record the MAPMT signals were developed, consisting of front-end circuit boards attached to each MAPMT and back-end electronics modules sitting in a VME crate. The front-end circuit board multiplexes pulse-height information from all 64 anodes and generates a fast triggering signal. Two sets of ASICs (IDEAS VA32HDR11 and TA32CG) are employed for these functions. The bias voltages and relay of control signals are also handled on the board. The back-end electronics module controls the front-end board by providing the control, timing, and low-voltage signals. The board also digitizes the multiplexed signal from the front-end. The electronics achieves low noise of less than 0.3 photo-electrons and good linearity up to 300 (150) photo-electrons for MAPMTs at the gain of 5×105 (106). View full abstract»

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  • CDF run IIb silicon vertex detector DAQ upgrade

    Page(s): 3047 - 3054
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1952 KB)  

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of the CDF's silicon vertex detector subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand, and operated successfully using an adapted version of the CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. We present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of trapping time constants in proton-irradiated silicon pad detectors

    Page(s): 3055 - 3062
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Silicon pad-detectors fabricated from oxygenated silicon were irradiated with 24-GeV/c protons with fluences between 2·1013 neq/cm2 and 9·1014 neq/cm2. The transient current technique was used to measure the trapping probability for holes and electrons. The measured trapping probabilities scale linearly with the fluence. Annealing, accelerated at 60°C, leads to an increased trapping for holes while electron trapping decreases. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation damage effects on CMS sensors quality assurance and irradiation tests

    Page(s): 3063 - 3068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The large hadron collider (LHC) at the Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, is a proton-proton collider with a luminosity of 1034/cm2s and will be working for ten years (starting in 2007). Compact muon solenoid (CMS) will be one of the four general-purpose detectors. The CMS tracker consists of ten barrel layers, plus 2 × 9 end cap discs, which amounts to a total of 24 328 silicon sensors with a total area of 206 m2 silicon, covering a pseudorapidity of |η|≤2.5. For the sensors close to the beam pipe, fluences of 1.6·1014n1 MeV/cm2 are expected over the ten-year lifetime. To guarantee the functionality of the single-side silicon sensors during the runtime of the LHC, quality assurance was developed. In the two Irradiation Qualification Centers (IQCs) in Karlsruhe, Germany, and Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, a fraction of 1% of the sensors are electrically qualified. In Karlsruhe, the sensors are irradiated with 26-MeV protons and in Louvain-la-Neuve with neutrons at an average energy of 20 MeV. For reasons of flux uncertainties in the CMS tracker, sensors are irradiated with a fluence 50% higher than predicted. For standard float zone silicon, large material dependencies have been observed under irradiation resulting in changes to various electrical parameters. To guarantee the functionality of the sensors in the tracker, it is very important to know these parameters. These electrical parameters have been determined before and after irradiation and are discussed in the following sections. View full abstract»

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  • A technique for the investigation of deep levels on irradiated silicon based on the Lazarus effect

    Page(s): 3069 - 3075
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique for the investigation of deep levels on irradiated silicon by measuring the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of samples from 220 down to 90 K is presented here. The temperature and time dependencies of the CCE have been measured with unprecedented precision and resolution for standard and oxygenated silicon diodes, and the data obtained have been analyzed in the framework of the Lazarus effect and polarization models, extracting information about the radiation-induced deep levels in the materials. Results are presented and discussed in terms of these models and what can be inferred from them when applied to experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Fast and compact lead tungstate-based electromagnetic calorimeter for the PANDA detector at GSI

    Page(s): 3076 - 3080
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experiments with a cooled antiproton beam at the future accelerator facility at the Gesellschaft fur Schwer Ionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany, will be performed with the 4π detector proton antiproton at Darmstadt comprising a high-resolution, compact, and fast homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter to detect photons between 10 MeV and 10 GeV energy inside a superconducting solenoid (2 T). PbWO4 (PWO) crystals, readout with large size avalanche photodiodes, represent an envisaged detector concept. The first results of a new generation of significantly improved PWO crystals, operated at different temperatures, are presented and discussed in detail. The requirements for the photo sensor are outlined based on first test measurements. A new fast hybrid photomultiplier (PLANACON 85001-501, BURLE) with channel plate amplification was investigated for comparison. View full abstract»

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  • A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    Page(s): 3081 - 3085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single-photon counting mode. The X-ray sensor is a 300-μm-thick silicon, 14×14 mm2 sensitive area, upon which a matrix of 256 × 256 (65536) square pixel, 55 μm in side, has been built. The readout chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 65536 readout channels exactly with the same geometry of the detector. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square-wave resolution function and the first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of HPGe-segmented detectors from noise measurements

    Page(s): 3086 - 3089
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We suggest that some key physical parameters of high-purity germanium (HPGe) segmented detectors, including segment capacitance and leakage current, can be derived from standard noise measurements. These parameters are relevant when designing and optimizing the front-end electronics. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental method to evaluate the dead Layer thickness of X- and gamma-ray semiconductor detectors

    Page(s): 3090 - 3093
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the classic irradiation configuration of solid-state X- and Gamma-ray detectors, where the photons impinge normally to the cathode, the electrode and detector dead layer thickness affect the detection efficiency and the spectroscopic performance of the device, mainly at the lowest incident photon energies. The concentration of defects in the near-electrode regions greatly depends on the mechanical and chemical treatments used for the surface preparation (polishing and etching), before electrode deposition, as well as on metallic diffusion in the crystal, which result in differently thick dead layers. In this paper, we evaluate, in an easy, experimental way, the dead layer thickness, irradiating a detector by a narrow photon beam, at various incident angles. The areas relevant to the 14-keV (57Co) and to 22-keV (109Cd) photopeaks, at different angles of incidence, are independently used to solve a linear equation depending on the photons absorption in the electrodes (Pt) and the dead layer (CdTe) material. As an example, data obtained with a CdTe detector 2-mm-thick and 3×10 mm2 electrode area are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of high-resistivity poly-CdZnTe thick films grown by thermal evaporation method

    Page(s): 3094 - 3097
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The high-resistivity polycrystalline CdZnTe thick films are grown by thermal evaporation method. The electrical properties of polycrystalline CdZnTe having high resistivity were investigated using time of flight technique. We have measured the average drift mobility and mobility lifetime of polycrystalline CdZnTe. In the comparison of annealed samples at different conditions, the variation of resistivity in the polycrystalline CdZnTe is considered to be related to the fluctuation of carrier concentration. From the analysis of transient photocurrent of time of flight based on multiple trapping model, we have found that the two dominant localized states which is considered to be related to the Cd vacancy (EV+0.36 eV), and grain boundary defects (EV+0.75 eV) play a dominant role in increasing resistivity through compensation process. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of detector response using 3-D position-sensitive CZT gamma-ray spectrometers

    Page(s): 3098 - 3104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two 2.25-cm3 CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers with three-dimensional (3-D) position sensitivity were constructed and tested. By using 11 × 11 pixellated anodes and depth-sensing techniques, individual spectral data for each of ∼4800 voxels were collected throughout the detector volume. Energy resolution of 1.11% and 1.14% FWHM at 662 keV were obtained for single-pixel events from these two detectors, respectively. Spatial variations of electron mobility-lifetime product, energy resolution, photopeak efficiency, and total efficiency have been observed and analyzed. This analysis provides a direct observation on the uniformity of detector response (due to material, weighting potential, and electric field distribution) in 3-D. Possible defects in the detector are identified. The impact of the spatial variation of detector response on a CZT gamma-ray spectrometer is discussed. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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