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Spectrum, IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 4 of 4
  • Video compression makes big gains

    Page(s): 16 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    How new standards for video compression and new IC chips will change the worlds of computing, broadcasting, and communication is discussed. An explanation of how video compression works is given. The three digital video standards that have been proposed are described. They are the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard for still picture compression, the Consultative Committee on International Telephony and Telegraphy (CCITT) Recommendation H.261 for video teleconferencing, and the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) for full-motion compression on digital storage media. Some available chip sets are described, and the issue of design flexibility is considered.<> View full abstract»

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  • Teaching information networking

    Page(s): 22 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (323 KB)  

    An integrated master's degree program on information networking is described. Business and public policy, as well as computers and telecommunications, are studied in this program. Typical technology courses include such traditional electrical engineering courses as communications engineering and computer architecture, plus courses like circuit and packet switching developed specifically for the program and computer science courses in operating systems and distributed systems. Business principles are covered in an introductory course. Other business courses focus on management information systems, corporate telecommunications networks, and systems design and implementation. A major goal is to prepare students to design the electronic information systems of the future.<> View full abstract»

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  • Optical lithography stalls X-rays

    Page(s): 24 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    The revival in optical lithography resulting from continuing advances in photoresists, phase-shifting masks, high-numerical-aperture step-and-repeat optical systems, multilevel-resist processing, and top-surface imaging techniques is discussed. Optical lithography is being used to make advanced IC chips, with 0.35 mu m geometries in research, 0.5 mu m in production. Ultraviolet (UV) light in the 200-400 nm range is the predominant system for IC manufacturing technology. Deep-UV lithography is not yet accepted for production processes, mostly due to the lack of commercially available positive and negative-tone photoresist systems for deep-UV wavelengths. In addition, negative-tone resists are temperature-sensitive and therefore hard to handle in a manufacturing environment, extensive gas-handling facilities are required for deep-UV excimer laser sources, and optical components have to be replaced often because the intense laser energy devitrifies lenses quickly.<> View full abstract»

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  • Magnetism without magnets

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB)  

    The earliest discoveries of electromagnetism are briefly recounted. The work of Volta (primary battery), Oersted (generating a magnetic field by a current) and Ampere (solenoid) is described.<> View full abstract»

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