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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2004

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

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  • Indirect measurement within dynamical context: probabilistic approach to deal with uncertainty

    Page(s): 1449 - 1454
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the general question of indirect measurement within dynamical continuous context. The proposed answer is of probabilistic nature in the sense that: the modeling, which is the first element of the answer, consists in transforming the initial model into a stochastic differential equation (SDE) such that, estimating the probability density function (pdf) of its process achieves the measurement, which is indeed the second element of the answer. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of dependability in a task allocation problem

    Page(s): 1455 - 1463
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The task allocation on various components or processing units composing an automation system needs a design-aided methodology in order to obtain both relevant architecture of this automation system and a sufficiently efficient task allocation. The dependability, mainly illustrated in our approach by the availability of the process and by the reliability that characterizes the risk of incidents or accident occurrences, can be taken into account in the earliest stage of the automation system design. The main interest is that it allows for the definition of reliable operational and functional architectures. To achieve the task allocation, the search method used must integrate a notion of cost that includes both technological and functional aspects and those linked to the dependability. A genetic approach is used for the task allocation, giving a very satisfactory result in a reasonable computational time. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the repair of system-on-chip (SoC) using connectivity

    Page(s): 1464 - 1472
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new model for analyzing the repairability of reconfigurable system-on-chip (RSoC) instrumentation with the repair process. It exploits the connectivity of the interconnected cores in which unreliability factors due to both neighboring cores and the interconnect structure are taken into account. Based on the connectivity, two RSoC repair scheduling strategies, Minimum Number of Interconnections First (I-MIN) and Minimum Number of Neighboring Cores First (C-MIN), are proposed. Two other scheduling strategies, Maximum Number of Interconnections First (I-MAX) and Maximum Number of Neighboring cores First (C-MAX), are also introduced and analyzed to further explore the impact of connectivity-based repair scheduling on the overall repairability of RSoCs. Extensive parametric simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed RSoC repair scheduling strategies; thereby manufacturing ultimately reliable RSoC instrumentation can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A tunable split resonator method for nondestructive permittivity characterization

    Page(s): 1473 - 1478
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The split cylinder resonator method is improved for nondestructive and accurate measurement for low permittivity materials at multiple frequency points. The dielectric constants of flat substrate materials are calculated based on a rigorous mode match analysis of the TE011 mode. The loss tangent is also approximately calculated. The dielectric properties of two commercial substrates have been measured at multiple frequencies. The results demonstrate that this technology is capable of accurately characterizing the dielectric properties of flat substrate materials versus frequency in a nondestructive way. View full abstract»

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  • Detective quantum efficiency [DQE(0)] of CZT semiconductor detectors for digital radiography

    Page(s): 1479 - 1484
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector samples for digital radiography has been measured. Specifically, this study is aimed at investigating the zero-frequency DQE(0) under different X-ray tube and detector parameters. The experimental results of this study indicate that the DQE(0) of the CZT samples is strongly dependent upon the irradiation geometry. This is attributed to the incomplete charge collection process, which can be further improved by controlling the purity of the samples and the contact type. View full abstract»

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  • Digital calibration for monotonic pipelined A/D converters

    Page(s): 1485 - 1492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The original digital calibration approach for 1 b/stage and 1.5 b/stage pipeline analog-digital converters produces missing or nonmonotonic digital codes with the device and circuit impairments typical of modern deep submicrometer CMOS technologies. Two digital calibration algorithms are introduced to improve pipeline performance when using low-voltage low-gain nonlinear operational amplifiers and high random dc offset voltage comparators. The first technique computes calibration coefficients for each stage at actual transition points of the residue characteristic to assure converter monotonicity in the presence of random comparator offset voltages. The second augments a conventional pipelined architecture with an input-dependent level-shifting stage and additional digital calibration circuitry to achieve high differential and integral linearity with low-gain nonlinear operational amplifiers. View full abstract»

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  • Moisture determination in single peanut pods by complex RF impedance measurement

    Page(s): 1493 - 1496
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An assessment was made of estimating the moisture content (mc) of single peanut pods (in-shell peanuts) by measuring the complex impedance of a parallel-plate capacitor with a single pod between the plates. Capacitance (C), phase angle (θ) and/or dissipation factor (D) were measured at 1.0 and 5.0 MHz, and the measured values at these two frequencies were used in a derived empirical equation to calculate the mc. Previous research had determined that the mc of single and small samples of shelled peanuts (kernels) could be determined by similar measurements at 1 and 4.5 MHz. In this paper, the mc of the pods tested was between 5% and 25%. The predicted mc of the pods was within 1% of the standard air-oven values for about 85% of the single pods. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor technology advances and future trends

    Page(s): 1497 - 1501
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    Recent advances of sensor technologies have been powered by high-speed and low-cost electronic circuits, novel signal processing methods, and advanced manufacturing technologies. The synergetic interaction of new developments in these fields provides promising technical solutions increasing the quality, reliability, and economic efficiency of technical products. With selected examples, we will give an overview about the significant developments of methods, structures, manufacturing technologies, and signal processing characterizing today's sensors and sensor systems. Predominantly observed development trends in the future are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A novel, compact, low-cost, impulse ground-penetrating radar for nondestructive evaluation of pavements

    Page(s): 1502 - 1509
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the development of a novel, compact, low-cost, impulse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and demonstrate its use for nondestructive evaluation of pavement structures. This GPR consists of an ultrashort-monocycle-pulse transmitter (330 ps), an ultrawide-band (UWB) sampling receiver (0-6 GHz), and two UWB antennas (0.2-20 GHz)-completely designed using microwave-integrated circuits with seamless electrical connections between them. An approximate analysis is used to determine the signal loss and power budget. Performance of this GPR has been verified through the measurements of relative permittivity and thicknesses of various samples, and a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results has been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • On-chip rise-time measurement

    Page(s): 1510 - 1516
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The on-chip rise-time measurement method for an exponentially decaying signal is proposed. By employing a differentiator, the method circumvents the challenges associated with directly measuring a signal's rise time. The method can be used as the on-chip test instrument as part of a built-in self-testing (BIST) framework, or independently. CMOS circuits and layouts for implementation of the proposed method on a 0.25-μm technology have been developed. View full abstract»

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  • PCA-based feature selection scheme for machine defect classification

    Page(s): 1517 - 1525
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The sensitivity of various features that are characteristic of a machine defect may vary considerably under different operating conditions. Hence it is critical to devise a systematic feature selection scheme that provides guidance on choosing the most representative features for defect classification. This paper presents a feature selection scheme based on the principal component analysis (PCA) method. The effectiveness of the scheme was verified experimentally on a bearing test bed, using both supervised and unsupervised defect classification approaches. The objective of the study was to identify the severity level of bearing defects, where no a priori knowledge on the defect conditions was available. The proposed scheme has shown to provide more accurate defect classification with fewer feature inputs than using all features initially considered relevant. The result confirms its utility as an effective tool for machine health assessment. View full abstract»

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  • A system for high-resolution, nondestructive, ultrasonic imaging of weld grains

    Page(s): 1526 - 1532
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of nondestructive evaluation is to detect degradation so that corrective action can be taken before the degradation challenges the structural integrity of an industrial system or one of its components. Accurate characterization is required to distinguish progressive degradation from benign material conditions. In nondestructive evaluation, characterization includes quantification and description of location, dimensions, shape, orientation, and composition of an indication of degradation. An imaging system that uses synthetic aperture focusing is one choice for detection and characterization of degradation in welded assemblies. In this paper, the ultrasonic imaging of the intended weld microstructure is reported. New technology invented for this purpose is described. This paper reviews how an ultrasonic imaging system that uses a synthetic lens can have a resolution that approaches the diffraction limit. A constrained solution to the coherent summation problem is presented for near real-time performance in high-resolution synthetic aperture focusing. Data are included to show that nondestructive, ultrasonic imaging of weld grains is practical. View full abstract»

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  • A near-field-sensing transceiver for intrabody communication based on the electrooptic effect

    Page(s): 1533 - 1538
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a near-field-sensing transceiver for intrabody communication, in which the human body is the transmission medium. The key component of the transceiver is an electric-field sensor implemented with an electrooptic crystal and laser light. This sensor is suitable for detection of the small and unstable electric fields produced by the human body because it has extremely high input impedance. This transceiver enables IEEE 802.3 half-duplex communication of 10 Mb/s through a person's body in an operating range of about 150 cm between the hands. The packet error rate of 0.04% is obtained at packet size of 1070 octet. This paper explains the configuration and performance of the transceiver and presents results of a communication test. View full abstract»

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  • A wavelet-based multisensor data fusion algorithm

    Page(s): 1539 - 1545
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a wavelet transform-based data fusion algorithm for multisensor systems. With this algorithm, the optimum estimate of a measurand can be obtained in terms of minimum mean square error (MMSE). The variance of the optimum estimate is not only smaller than that of each observation sequence but also smaller than the arithmetic average estimate. To implement this algorithm, the variance of each observation sequence is estimated using the wavelet transform, and the optimum weighting factor to each observation is obtained accordingly. Since the variance of each observation sequence is estimated only from its most recent data of a predetermined length, the algorithm is self-adaptive. This algorithm is applicable to both static and dynamic systems including time-invariant and time-varying processes. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated using a piecewise-smooth signal and an actual time-varying flow signal. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement information for authors

    Page(s): 1546
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    Page(s): 1547
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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

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  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society Information

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703