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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Discussion of "The electrohydrodynamic origin of turbulence in electrostatic precipitators

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 700 - 701
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB)  

    The commenter disagrees with P. Atten et. al. (ibid., vol.23, no.4, p.705-11, 1987) on their prediction of turbulence degree and precipitation efficiency, independent of aerodynamic properties of the electrostatic precipitator. In replying the authors claim their arguments to be valid in zones where the space charge due to the particles is relatively high.<> View full abstract»

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  • Pulse energization system of electrostatic precipitator for retrofitting application

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 708 - 716
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    A pulser module has been developed for electrostatic precipitators for upgrading the performance of existing plants. The module is inserted between the existing DC power supply and corona electrodes. A sawtooth voltage appears on the corona electrodes at a switching frequency, including at its leading edge a transient LC oscillation with a very sharp first peak and fast-decaying amplitude. This acts as the submicrosecond pulse energization, producing very active negative streamers in uniform distribution along the entire length of corona wires of the conventional construction. The average of the sawtooth voltage produces a DC field between the corona and the collecting electrodes. This direct-coupled pulse energization indicates in present laboratory tests exactly the same collection performance as the hitherto most effective submicrosecond pulse energization using a coupling capacitor and a DC bias voltage. A specific feature of the present pulse energization system is its simplicity in construction and low initial and operating costs View full abstract»

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  • Single-stage AC electrostatic precipitation

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 717 - 724
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    Measurements are reported on the collection efficiency of a laboratory-scale single-stage electrostatic precipitator (3 cm plate spacing) excited by AC voltages (Vrms~8 kV, f =20→500 Hz) biased to give no time-average. With f=60 Hz, an effective migration velocity of 3.5 cm/s is observed. Previously published works on the charging and migration of particles in AC coronas and on the effects of finite turbulent diffusivity on the precipitation process are combined to predict the experimentally observed dependence of the efficiency on the magnitude and frequency of the applied voltage. When applied to the experimental situation reported here, the model reduces to one of complete mixing, with the effective particle migration velocity being predicted in terms of the velocity that is achieved with DC charging and a charging time constant that is either estimated or obtained from charging experiments View full abstract»

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  • The effect of particle charge on penetration in an electret filter

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 725 - 731
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    Experiments were performed to identify collection mechanisms for 0.5 μm diameter particles in electret filter media and to determine the effect of particle charge on penetration. Highly monodisperse polystyrene particles were charged to various levels, and their penetration through charged to various levels, and their penetration through charged and discharged electret filters was measured with an optical particle counter. Particle penetration through charged filters was significantly lower than through discharged filters. Also, in charged filters large decreases in penetration were observed with increasing particle charge, while in discharged filters much smaller decreases occurred. Based on these results it is concluded that electrophoresis played a dominant role in the collection of charged particles, dielectrophoresis was important only at very low charge levels, and mechanical collection processes were relatively unimportant. The experimental data were compared to theoretical penetration predictions of R.C. Brown (1981). Although measured values of penetration were found to be significantly higher than those calculated from theory, the data show a systematic dependence on a single dimensionless parameter that is predicted by theory View full abstract»

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  • Particle speed distribution measurement in an electric particulate suspension

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 732 - 739
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Particle speed distribution has been measured in an electric particulate suspension by leaking spherical copper particles (44-53 μm, 63-75 μm, and 105-125 μm) from a small hole located on top of the suspension test section. Different ranges of particle speeds are determined by capturing the particles on epoxy-coated glass slides which are placed at various heights above the sampling hole. Curve fits of the experimental data suggest that a Maxwellian speed distribution applies to the particle motion in the direction of the applied electric field. Calculations based on this speed distribution lead to the particle number density of the suspension. An independent check on the particle number density is provided by a laser beam attenuation measurement. Agreement is found between the two methods within the limits of experimental error View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of the particle space charge in the outlet of an electrostatic precipitator using an electric field mill

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 702 - 707
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    It is shown that for certain conditions the concentration of the escaping particles can be related to the space-charge field in the outlet duct. The theory of operation along with a discussion of the sensitivity of the method is presented. The design and performance characteristics of a self-purging field mill are described and preliminary measurements based on field testing are reported. The results of three preliminary tests carried out in an industrial environment confirm the usefulness of the device for monitoring instantaneous emission levels View full abstract»

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  • Effective use of a personal computer for small apparatus design and other engineering uses

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 560 - 567
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    The concern of computer-aided design (CAD) presented is primarily on the anatomy, rather than the technical content, of engineering programs to run personal computers. The author supplements his own ideas with suggestions by clients and borrows from user-friendly features found in current commercial personal computer software. For the design of small motors, or similar apparatus, the author strongly recommends an interactive approach due to the flexibility and training it offers. He emphasizes how valuable a word processor can be to an engineer for writing, editing, or debugging a Fortran program, or simply for writing a technical report or preparing a paper View full abstract»

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  • Infrared thermography of negative DC and negatively enhanced AC point-to-plane corona discharge in air

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 745 - 748
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)  

    Corona discharge for point-to-plane gaps in air was investigated with emphasis given to thermographic analysis of the air gap using an infrared scanning system. Corona discharge was generated under two conditions: using negative voltage on the point and a grounded plane, and using 60 Hz AC voltage on the point and positive DC voltage on the plane (negative enhancement of AC corona). Changes in the infrared images of the air gap were observed as the corona discharge current increased. These images showed the region of the gap with the elevated apparent temperature indicating a source of infrared radiation in the gap. The relationship between the pattern in the air gap and corona discharge current was studied. It was observed that the intensity of the infrared signal generated in the gap increased with the discharge current. Temperature distribution on the anode surface was measured. In the case of the negatively enhanced AC corona, fluctuation of the region with elevated apparent temperature was observed View full abstract»

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  • Cathodic protection of existing URD systems

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 598 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    The corrosion control experiences of the author with underground rural distribution (URD) systems are presented. The discussion includes (1) survey testing procedures, (2) designing of cathodic protection (CP) systems, (3) criteria for selecting material, (4) installation and maintenance procedures of CP systems, and (5) an economical evaluation of CP system installations. It is the opinion of the author that impressed current systems, supplemented by galvanic sacrificial anodes, can provide economical corrosion protection for existing direct-buried copper concentric neutral wires View full abstract»

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  • Large mill power outages caused by potential transformer ferroresonance

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 635 - 640
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)  

    Investigative procedures relating to a subtle 30 Hz ferroresonant instability of high-voltage potential transformers, which has caused several costly power outages to a large paper mill are reported. Included are unusual field oscillograms of this instability. Corrective measures were developed which have been implemented. An alternate recommended approach is to be incorporated in a similar high-voltage supply to a new mill to eliminate this instability as a possible jeopardy to selective ground-relay protection View full abstract»

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  • Finite-element analysis of a constant-force solenoid for fluid flow control

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 574 - 581
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    A model for constant-force solenoids based on the finite-element method is presented. The total force exerted by the solenoid is calculated and compared with test results. The force calculation algorithm is also used to determine the force distribution pattern around the plunger surface, and to provide a detailed analysis of the solenoid structure. The model was successfully implemented to improve a solenoid design. The finite-element package is shown to be a powerful design tool, capable of accurate performance prediction. The analysis process shows the importance of the truncated-cone shape of the plunger, of balancing the forces produced by the tapered and flat portions of the plunger surface, and of matching the respective positions of the plunger and of the facing pole View full abstract»

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  • A model for predicting motor load for an armored face-conveyor drive

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 649 - 659
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB)  

    A formula for calculating the power requirements of an armored face conveyor (e.g. for coal mining applications) is presented. Techniques to determine the conveyor speed-torque curve and to estimate the acceleration time for a loaded conveyor are also given. Using this information, an algorithm to estimate the maximum length for a face conveyor is developed. An application of the algorithm to power system analysis is presented. By using the developed algorithm, the performance as well as the maximum length of a longwall face conveyor can be readily evaluated View full abstract»

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  • Effects of changing line voltage with various fluorescent systems

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 692 - 699
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    Standards as well as low-energy-type lamps were investigated on F40 96-in instant start and 96-in output systems using electromagnetic as well as electronic high-frequency ballasts. In all cases, reducing the line voltage reduces the input wattage, but in some cases the line current increases with decreasing line voltage. Although all the ballasts discussed herein have 120 V inputs, the 277 V versions tested exhibited the same characteristics View full abstract»

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  • Performance characteristics of brushless DC drives

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 568 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    A simulation model for the performance prediction of brushless DC drives is used to investigate the speed control obtained from modulation index and commutation advance variations for a motor of complex magnetic circuit geometry powered by a sine-coded PWM (pulsewidth modulation) inverter. The results of the study show the effects of motor model complexity on voltage and torque. Optimum performance conditions in the field-weakening mode are determined, and the value of motors using sinusoidal induced voltages is explored View full abstract»

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  • Considerations for ground fault protection in medium-voltage industrial and cogeneration systems

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 548 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    Several aspects are presented of system grounding and the limitations of some systems with respect to applying ground fault protection to industrial distribution networks. Relays cannot prevent damage by themselves, nor can they be applied to compensate for design deficiencies. It is pointed out that there is no one absolute solution to system grounding and/or protection, but judgment can be exercised by considering some of the major phenomena described herein. The typical methods for grounding of medium-voltage neutral systems (high resistance, low resistance, and ungrounded) as well as methods used to detect the presence of ground faults are reviewed. Also, the effects of charging current and how the ground fault protection method could affect conductor railings are analyzed View full abstract»

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  • Closed-loop control of stepping motor systems

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 685 - 691
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    The performance of a multimotor system with single common closed loop control has been investigated with particular reference to a two-motor system. The system was found to be unstable, with the velocities of the motors oscillating with increasing amplitude. The origin of the oscillations is discussed, and methods for their elimination are presented. It is concluded that the simple control strategy used is inadequate for stable operation of a multimotor system View full abstract»

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  • The application of adjustable-frequency controllers to forced-draft fans for improved reliability and energy savings

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 628 - 634
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)  

    A method of utilizing an adjustable-frequency controller (AFC) with a line bypass, to provide the energy saving potential of an AFC coupled with the inherent reliability of a simple magnetic starter, is presented. The proposed system allows the transfer of the motor between the AFC and the power line, even after a controller fault or power interruption, without causing a significant loss of air. A specific operating application is reviewed. The operating experience for the first year for this AFC on a forced draft (FD) fan has met the expectations of the user and manufacturer. When operating this FD fan from the main control panel, the operating procedure remains the same in either the AFC or bypass mode View full abstract»

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  • Surge limiters for vacuum circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 554 - 559
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    Computer modeling was used to confirm the applications which require surge protection and to verify that surge limiters installed within the switchgear will provide this protection. The basic phenomena which cause vacuum-switchgear-related surges are reviewed, and the need for surge limiters is discussed. Also described is the design of these surge limiters. Information and performance data for their applications are provided. The potential sources of switching overvoltages are reviewed and the basic requirements of surge limiters are described View full abstract»

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  • Detection of extremely small particles in the nanometer and ionic size range

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 740 - 744
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    A high-sensitivity aerosol detector using pre-onset positive corona pulses has been constructed. It is expected to be used for the detection of very fine particles in a size range down to the nanometer and ionic. Preliminary tests of the detector to find the correlation between the pulses and the particles (or ions) have revealed that three different kinds of pulses exist. Large pulses, which have the highest peak value of the three, appear only in the moist air; they do not respond to ions or particles. Small pulses, with a much smaller height, are observed in both dry air and moist air. No definite relation is observed between their number and the number of particles coming into the detector. Micropulses with the smallest height have been found to appear in response to negative ions or negatively charged particles. Using an ion filter which separates ions according to their electrical mobilities, the lowest mobility of the negative ions in the the sample air has been measured to be 0.6-0.8 cm2/Vs from the micropulses. The lower limit of the mobility of the particles detectable with the present detector is 2×10-3-4×10-3 cm2/V s View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to ANSI/IEEE standard 668-1987: IEEE recommended practice for electrical heating applications to melting furnaces and forehearths in the glass industry

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 682 - 684
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    This recommended practice, which has been in force since 1976, was adopted in 1987 as an ANSI/IEEE standard to be applied in the glass industry. Its purpose is to present procedures and positions preferred by the IEEE for the use of electric heating in glass furnaces and forehearths, to provide agreed definitions of equipment and operations, and to provide criteria for the safe operation of these electrical heating applications. The standard was prepared under the sponsorship of the Glass Industry Committee of the IAS. A brief outline of topics covered by the standard is given View full abstract»

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  • Improved determination of microseismic source location using a simplex technique

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 666 - 671
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    The monitoring of microseismic activity in geological formations of underground mines is discussed. The accuracy of a particular monitoring technique is subject to limitations of measurement precision, and errors in the determination of the correct phase of the incoming signal associated with the first arrival of the seismic wave. The value of the simplex technique for microseismic monitoring is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results in the determination of source location for a series of known-source test blasts. It is concluded that a careful analysis of the errors affecting each particular microseismic installation is a necessary step in understanding the capabilities of this particular system View full abstract»

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  • A novel approach for determining temperature in an appliance without using a sensor

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 607 - 612
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    An electronic control design is described which approximates the temperature of a heating element without measuring it. Because no sensor or closed-loop electronics are utilized, and because the control uses the same circuits and ROM of an existing electronic control system, the incremental cost is zero. The control system monitors the power setting selected by the user and then utilizes an electronic counter (called the heater energy counter), which is incremented or decremented at a rate that is approximately proportional to the rate of increase or decrease of temperature of the heating element for that power setting. By knowing the user setting and counting zero crossover points, the raw power into the heating unit is determined, and by empirically determining the thermal losses for different power levels, the effective energy in the heating unit is determined View full abstract»

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  • The construction, testing, and installation of a 6500 r.p.m. 15000-hp adjustable-speed electric drive for a centrifugal gas compressor

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 620 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    A power electronic converter is applied to control the speed of a 5 kV motor. The motor is directly coupled to a 6500 r.p.m. compressor and replaces a steam turbine. Dual converters are used in a twelve-pulse arrangement at both the utility and the motor. The motor is of solid rotor construction, with dual 30° displaced stator windings. Finite-element analysis is used to optimize the motor design for use with a variable-frequency static converter. Full-power tests are completed which confirm theoretical predictions on losses, performance, and operation. The electrical drive takes up considerably less space and is much more efficient than the steam turbine it replaces View full abstract»

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  • Geared versus gearless adjustable-speed drive systems in the pulp and paper industry

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 641 - 648
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    The advantages, disadvantages, and system considerations of DC and AC adjustable-speed drive systems are examined. The steps that must be taken to evaluate the economics of a direct drive are identified. Much of the discussion focuses on motor operation while considering total system operation. AC versus DC systems are not compared-only geared versus gearless are compared for each technology. It is found that gearless DC drives offer many advantages over the common geared systems and are widely applicable in the pulp and paper industry. Gearless AC drives also offer advantages over geared systems, but disadvantages do however exist. Direct-drive AC systems are found to be more limited in their applicability View full abstract»

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  • Starting pipeline motors under severe power system constraints

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 613 - 619
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    The conventional methods of limited kVA starting are reviewed and compared to the application of an adjustable-speed drive sized for starting duty only. The use of this relatively new application is described with reference to an actual installation. The economics of the method are explored in order to provide some guidelines for future applications. A case study is also presented which is a conglomerate of the applications of conventional methods used over a number of years. Since the use of adjustable-speed drives for starting duty is relatively new for pipeline applications, the study, for clarity, deals with one specific case View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck