IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Issue 2 • June 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Comments, with reply, on "Minimization of reactive power under nonsinusoidal conditions" by L.S. Czarnecki

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):328 - 330
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)

    The commenter argues that ignoring compensator rating in the optimal design of a shunt LC compensator for power engineering applications is neither realistic nor physically justified. Furthermore, minimization of source reactive power only with respect to either L or C results in a not necessarily global minimum. Computation and var specification errors were also found and corrected. For compariso... View full abstract»

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  • Adapter correction in the measurement of two-port devices

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):323 - 325
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)

    After an automatic network analyzer has been calibrated at its primary connectors, the full scattering matrices of adapters can be found with two known reflection standards in the secondary connector system. In coaxial systems, the standards can advantageously be a matched load and two `half standards'-a short for phase and an open circuit for magnitude. The method is applicable to noninsertable d... View full abstract»

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  • Linearized thermistor thermometer using an analog multiplier

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):322 - 323
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    A scheme using an analog multiplier that provides an output voltage linearly proportional to the absolute temperature over a wide dynamic range is presented. It has the advantage of being simple and attractive in that the calibration of the output indicating meter does not depend upon the thermistor parameters. Results of measurements in the range 283-493 K are presented. The deviation from the st... View full abstract»

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  • A microprocessor-based switched-battery capacitance meter

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):191 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)

    A microprocessor-based, switched-battery capacitance meter has been developed. It consists of an analog part, based on a previously designed capacitance meter, and a digital part in which a microprocessor and a timer perform the main functions. The capacitance is measured indirectly by means of a time constant measurement. Two phases of the measurement process are involved in measuring the capacit... View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic techniques for measurements on coal combustors

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):309 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)

    A microwave interferometric technique for measuring the density in the free-board space of a fluid bed combustor is described. A method for measuring the unburnt coal content in the ashes of a coal combustor is proposed. In the first case, the density measurement is obtained by evaluating the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave which propagated through the space under test. In the second case, ... View full abstract»

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  • Digitally programmable active-C OTA-based oscillator

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):320 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)

    An active-C OTA-based oscillator circuit is introduced. The circuit features noninteractive electronic tunability, uses the minimum number of active and passive components, and has low sensitivity characteristics. The frequency of oscillation can be digitally controlled and the circuit can be easily interfaced with mini/microcomputer-based or microprocessor-based systems View full abstract»

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  • A new cavity configuration for cesium beam primary frequency standards

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):185 - 190
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    In the design of cesium beam frequency standards, the presence of distributed cavity phase shifts (associated with residual running waves) in the microwave cavity, due to the small losses in the cavity walls, can become a significant source of error. To minimize such errors in future standards, it has been proposed that the long Ramsey excitation structure be terminated with ring-shaped cavities i... View full abstract»

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  • General formulas for calculating magnetic field at a receiving loop placed at an arbitrary position from a radiating loop in a shielded room

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):268 - 273
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    The standard magnetic field radiated by a small loop antenna is used for sensitivity testing of radio receivers. To avoid interference from external sources, the test is often carried out in a shielded room. A formula to obtain the intensity of the magnetic field at the receiving loop, when a small radiating loop antenna and the receiving loop antenna are placed at random locations in a shielded r... View full abstract»

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  • A battery operated bubble memory data-acquisition system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):305 - 308
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    A low-power microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition system, using nonvolatile bubble memory cartridges for mass data storage, is described. The system is battery powered and can operate unattended in a field environment for two months. An analog voltage, which is derived from a gamma-ray ionization chamber or other moderately high-output transducer, is the system input. By using CMOS technology... View full abstract»

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  • A digital frequency synthesizer-phase sensitive detector

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):318 - 320
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    A digital-frequency-synthesizer-phase-sensitive-detector based on a Texas Instruments TMS32010 digital signal processor has been designed and constructed. It can be operated as a standalone instrument as well as under remote control from a desk-top computer through an IEEE 488 (GPIB) interface. The frequency, gain, bias, and attenuation of the instrument are programmable. A 24-character 5×7 ... View full abstract»

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  • Frequency of a methane-stabilized helium-neon laser

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):179 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)

    A phase-locked laser frequency chain was used to measure the absolute frequency of a HeNe/CH4 laser relative to the primary Cs standard, with measurement uncertainty less than ±1 part in 1012. The frequency depends on laser parameters; a spread of 8.3×10-11 was observed. This was attributed to the variation of Lamb dip asymmetry resulting from the gas-... View full abstract»

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  • An efficient algorithm to compute Allan variance from spectral density

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):240 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)

    An efficient algorithm is presented for conversion of spectral density, the measure of signal purity commonly used in the design process, to another popular measure, Allan variance. Curves are presented that show the relationship between parameters controlling the degree of approximation and the resulting inaccuracy. A flow chart of the algorithm is given. Execution times for a sample problem are ... View full abstract»

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  • Transient electromagnetic scattering: data acquisition and signal processing

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):263 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    A historical overview is given of the motivations and developments of transient electromagnetic scattering ranges. This is followed by a discussion of the theory and operation of the free-field transient scattering facility at the US Naval Postgraduate School. Attention is given to the concepts and methodology for the measurement and postprocessing of ultrawideband transient scattering signatures.... View full abstract»

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  • A simple envelope detector

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):223 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB)

    The use of integration and differentiation as Hilbert transformers for envelope detection is considered. The resulting detectors are causal and do not require exact knowledge of carrier phase or frequency. The method requires square and square root operations, but no multiplication. An upper bound is established for magnitude error View full abstract»

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  • A digital hygrometer

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):300 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)

    A digital hygrometer using a polyimide capacitive humidity sensor is developed. The capacitance change of the sensor due to adsorption of water vapor in the atmosphere is detected by a switched-capacitor digital capacitance bridge controlled by a one-chip microcomputer and is displayed as relative humidity with 0.1% resolution. The accuracy of the hygrometer calibrated by a two-point method is sol... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of zeros and the characterization of noise

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):326 - 328
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)

    A theoretical approach is used to examine possible advantages of operating in real time instead of in the frequency domain to obtain information about the noise characteristics of sampled signals. Available instrumentation permits the practical realization of the approach. It is suggested that the use of a microprocessor will make it economical and easy to achieve apparatus that is able to process... View full abstract»

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  • De-embedding two-port noise parameters using a noise wave model

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):195 - 200
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)

    Equations are presented, suitable for computer or calculator, for accurately de-embedding the noise parameters of both the first and the second two-port in a cascade of noisy two-parts from known values of the noise parameters of the cascade. The derivations are presented in terms of a noise wave model for two-ports, using transfer scattering small signal parameters. A numerical example is present... View full abstract»

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  • Determination of short-term error caused by the reference clock in precision time-interval measurement and generation

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):315 - 316
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)

    A simple analysis based on the randomized clock cycle T 0 yields a useful formula on its variance in terms of the Allan variance. The short-term uncertainty of the measured or generated time interval t is expressed by the standard deviation in an approximate form as a function of the Allan variance. The estimates obtained are useful for determining the measurement unce... View full abstract»

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  • A cryogenic system for RF measurements on superconducting vortex flow transistors

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):274 - 276
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)

    A scheme for measuring the RF properties of the superconducting vortex flow transistor (VFT) is presented. This scheme features a low-crosstalk RF launcher with solderless contacts, a cryogenic system that permits room temperature access in close proximity to the VFT, and a circuit configuration that allow vector S-parameter measurements at power levels below -90 dBm View full abstract»

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  • Digital spectra of nonuniformly sampled signals: fundamentals and high-speed waveform digitizers

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):245 - 251
    Cited by:  Papers (194)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    A digital spectral representation of a nonuniformly sampled signal is derived, and a spectrum analysis of a nonuniformly sampled sinusoid is presented. It is found that the spectrum of a nonuniformly sampled sinusoid comprises uniformly spaced line spectra; in addition, the signal-to-noise ratio is obtained in closed form. The theories are then applied to analyze the harmonic distortion introduced... View full abstract»

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  • A programmable self-adaptive digital frequency multiplier

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):227 - 230
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    Existing self-adaptive frequency multipliers work well if the master clock frequency is an integral multiple of the input signal frequency; otherwise they lose an output pulse after a certain interval of time. The frequency of this missing pulse could be as high as half of the input frequency. Since existing self-adaptive frequency multipliers are not programmable, the multiplication factor can no... View full abstract»

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  • A technique for detecting resonance

    Publication Year: 1988
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)

    The dip-meter for detecting resonance in L-C circuits and transmission lines has all but disappeared. For those who occasionally have need to explore resonant conditions, the author has found a suitable substitute in a wideband signal generator and a sensitive RF millivoltmeter. Measurements have been made from low radio frequencies to over 2 GHz View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of confidence intervals for high-voltage impulse reconstruction

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):201 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)

    An algorithm designed to calculate confidence intervals for solutions to ill-posed problems subject to unequality constraints is applied to the calculation of confidence intervals for a high-voltage impulse distorted by a divider system. Applications of the method to measurements made with resistive and capacitive dividers illustrate its value for obtaining useful stochastic error bounds for high-... View full abstract»

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  • Fast generation of a white and normal random signal

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):316 - 318
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A novel weighting function for a digital filter is proposed for generating a white and normal random signal from a binary signal. The weighting function is derived from an even-shift orthogonal sequence. A filter with this weighting function can generate a white and normal random signal very quickly View full abstract»

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  • A power measurement standard for W-band at 94 GHz

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):277 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A dry monoload microcalorimeter and standard barretter mounts with effective efficiencies exceeding 85% have been used in the development of a 94-GHz power standard. The effective efficiencies of the standard barretter mounts are measured by a calorimeter with an uncertainty of 0.16%. A bolometer mount under test is calibrated to the standard barretter mounts with an uncertainty of 0.23%. Measurem... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Editor-in-Chief

SHERVIN SHIRMOHAMMADI
School of EECS
University of Ottawa
800 King Edward Ave.
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