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IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Issue 2 • Date June 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Comments, with reply, on "Minimization of reactive power under nonsinusoidal conditions" by L.S. Czarnecki

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):328 - 330
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)

    The commenter argues that ignoring compensator rating in the optimal design of a shunt LC compensator for power engineering applications is neither realistic nor physically justified. Furthermore, minimization of source reactive power only with respect to either L or C results in a not necessarily global minimum. Computation and var specification errors were also found and corrected. For compariso... View full abstract»

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  • A digital hygrometer

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):300 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)

    A digital hygrometer using a polyimide capacitive humidity sensor is developed. The capacitance change of the sensor due to adsorption of water vapor in the atmosphere is detected by a switched-capacitor digital capacitance bridge controlled by a one-chip microcomputer and is displayed as relative humidity with 0.1% resolution. The accuracy of the hygrometer calibrated by a two-point method is sol... View full abstract»

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  • A technique for detecting resonance

    Publication Year: 1988
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)

    The dip-meter for detecting resonance in L-C circuits and transmission lines has all but disappeared. For those who occasionally have need to explore resonant conditions, the author has found a suitable substitute in a wideband signal generator and a sensitive RF millivoltmeter. Measurements have been made from low radio frequencies to over 2 GHz View full abstract»

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  • General formulas for calculating magnetic field at a receiving loop placed at an arbitrary position from a radiating loop in a shielded room

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):268 - 273
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    The standard magnetic field radiated by a small loop antenna is used for sensitivity testing of radio receivers. To avoid interference from external sources, the test is often carried out in a shielded room. A formula to obtain the intensity of the magnetic field at the receiving loop, when a small radiating loop antenna and the receiving loop antenna are placed at random locations in a shielded r... View full abstract»

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  • Determination of optical constants of solids by an automatic reflectometer

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):296 - 299
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)

    An absolute reflectance spectrometer was designed. The instrument is based on an Apple II microcomputer which automates data acquisition, curve fitting, Kramers-Kronig integration, and data plotting. In this system, both the positions of the sample and the detectors are fixed during measurement. The reference and sample signals are detected by scanning a mirror which is engaged with a precise step... View full abstract»

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  • An error estimate for quasi-integer-period sampling and an approach for improving its accuracy

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):219 - 222
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)

    The problem of error reduction is studied. Both synchronous and asynchronous samplings are considered, and a method is proposed for describing the error in the frequency domain. Its advantages are that the input signal does not need to be restricted to the band-limited hypothesis, and that a comparison of the various processing methods can be conveniently made. A compensation method for improving ... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of zeros and the characterization of noise

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):326 - 328
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)

    A theoretical approach is used to examine possible advantages of operating in real time instead of in the frequency domain to obtain information about the noise characteristics of sampled signals. Available instrumentation permits the practical realization of the approach. It is suggested that the use of a microprocessor will make it economical and easy to achieve apparatus that is able to process... View full abstract»

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  • Linearized thermistor thermometer using an analog multiplier

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):322 - 323
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    A scheme using an analog multiplier that provides an output voltage linearly proportional to the absolute temperature over a wide dynamic range is presented. It has the advantage of being simple and attractive in that the calibration of the output indicating meter does not depend upon the thermistor parameters. Results of measurements in the range 283-493 K are presented. The deviation from the st... View full abstract»

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  • A digital frequency synthesizer-phase sensitive detector

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):318 - 320
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    A digital-frequency-synthesizer-phase-sensitive-detector based on a Texas Instruments TMS32010 digital signal processor has been designed and constructed. It can be operated as a standalone instrument as well as under remote control from a desk-top computer through an IEEE 488 (GPIB) interface. The frequency, gain, bias, and attenuation of the instrument are programmable. A 24-character 5×7 ... View full abstract»

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  • Transient electromagnetic scattering: data acquisition and signal processing

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):263 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    A historical overview is given of the motivations and developments of transient electromagnetic scattering ranges. This is followed by a discussion of the theory and operation of the free-field transient scattering facility at the US Naval Postgraduate School. Attention is given to the concepts and methodology for the measurement and postprocessing of ultrawideband transient scattering signatures.... View full abstract»

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  • Determination of short-term error caused by the reference clock in precision time-interval measurement and generation

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):315 - 316
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)

    A simple analysis based on the randomized clock cycle T 0 yields a useful formula on its variance in terms of the Allan variance. The short-term uncertainty of the measured or generated time interval t is expressed by the standard deviation in an approximate form as a function of the Allan variance. The estimates obtained are useful for determining the measurement unce... View full abstract»

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  • Frequency of a methane-stabilized helium-neon laser

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):179 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)

    A phase-locked laser frequency chain was used to measure the absolute frequency of a HeNe/CH4 laser relative to the primary Cs standard, with measurement uncertainty less than ±1 part in 1012. The frequency depends on laser parameters; a spread of 8.3×10-11 was observed. This was attributed to the variation of Lamb dip asymmetry resulting from the gas-... View full abstract»

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  • Radome design and measurements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):292 - 295
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    Radome performance (transmission loss and boresight error) is evaluated by means of a computer code the input data of which are the geometry (radome shape, layered structure configuration, and antenna/radome relative position) and the antenna aperture magnetic current distribution. The latter is measured directly, thus avoiding the difficulty of characterizing the antenna under test. The spherical... View full abstract»

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  • On the implementation of an analog ATPG: the nonlinear case

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):252 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    In order to reduce the complexity of the fault diagnosis equations and still retain computational simplicity, a self-testing algorithm has been proposed and implemented on a VMS VAX 11/780 for linear circuits. A prototype implementation of such an algorithm for nonlinear circuits and systems is presented. The proposed analog automatic test program generator (AATPG) for nonlinear circuits and syste... View full abstract»

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  • The geometric mean of power (amplitude) spectra has a much smaller bias than the classical arithmetic (RMS) averaging

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):213 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    The statistical properties of the geometric mean of power (amplitude) spectra resulting from a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) are compared with those of arithmetic (RMS) averaging. The statistical properties are verified by means of frequency-domain and time-domain simulations. It is shown that the asymptotic bias of the geometric mean is a function of the fourth-order moments of the measurement... View full abstract»

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  • A battery operated bubble memory data-acquisition system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):305 - 308
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    A low-power microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition system, using nonvolatile bubble memory cartridges for mass data storage, is described. The system is battery powered and can operate unattended in a field environment for two months. An analog voltage, which is derived from a gamma-ray ionization chamber or other moderately high-output transducer, is the system input. By using CMOS technology... View full abstract»

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  • A cryogenic system for RF measurements on superconducting vortex flow transistors

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):274 - 276
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)

    A scheme for measuring the RF properties of the superconducting vortex flow transistor (VFT) is presented. This scheme features a low-crosstalk RF launcher with solderless contacts, a cryogenic system that permits room temperature access in close proximity to the VFT, and a circuit configuration that allow vector S-parameter measurements at power levels below -90 dBm View full abstract»

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  • A simple envelope detector

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):223 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB)

    The use of integration and differentiation as Hilbert transformers for envelope detection is considered. The resulting detectors are causal and do not require exact knowledge of carrier phase or frequency. The method requires square and square root operations, but no multiplication. An upper bound is established for magnitude error View full abstract»

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  • Adapter correction in the measurement of two-port devices

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):323 - 325
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)

    After an automatic network analyzer has been calibrated at its primary connectors, the full scattering matrices of adapters can be found with two known reflection standards in the secondary connector system. In coaxial systems, the standards can advantageously be a matched load and two `half standards'-a short for phase and an open circuit for magnitude. The method is applicable to noninsertable d... View full abstract»

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  • Digitally programmable active-C OTA-based oscillator

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):320 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)

    An active-C OTA-based oscillator circuit is introduced. The circuit features noninteractive electronic tunability, uses the minimum number of active and passive components, and has low sensitivity characteristics. The frequency of oscillation can be digitally controlled and the circuit can be easily interfaced with mini/microcomputer-based or microprocessor-based systems View full abstract»

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  • Fast generation of a white and normal random signal

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):316 - 318
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A novel weighting function for a digital filter is proposed for generating a white and normal random signal from a binary signal. The weighting function is derived from an even-shift orthogonal sequence. A filter with this weighting function can generate a white and normal random signal very quickly View full abstract»

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  • A new cavity configuration for cesium beam primary frequency standards

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):185 - 190
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    In the design of cesium beam frequency standards, the presence of distributed cavity phase shifts (associated with residual running waves) in the microwave cavity, due to the small losses in the cavity walls, can become a significant source of error. To minimize such errors in future standards, it has been proposed that the long Ramsey excitation structure be terminated with ring-shaped cavities i... View full abstract»

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  • Sinusoidal frequency doublers using operational amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):259 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)

    A simple sinusoidal frequency-doubling circuit is proposed which incorporates operational amplifiers (op amps) with resistors as the only external components. The realization method makes use of the inherent translinear loop at the input stage of the op amp as a means to perform frequency doubling. The response of the circuit is discussed and experimentally demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic techniques for measurements on coal combustors

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):309 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)

    A microwave interferometric technique for measuring the density in the free-board space of a fluid bed combustor is described. A method for measuring the unburnt coal content in the ashes of a coal combustor is proposed. In the first case, the density measurement is obtained by evaluating the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave which propagated through the space under test. In the second case, ... View full abstract»

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  • A power measurement standard for W-band at 94 GHz

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):277 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A dry monoload microcalorimeter and standard barretter mounts with effective efficiencies exceeding 85% have been used in the development of a 94-GHz power standard. The effective efficiencies of the standard barretter mounts are measured by a calorimeter with an uncertainty of 0.16%. A bolometer mount under test is calibrated to the standard barretter mounts with an uncertainty of 0.23%. Measurem... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
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alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
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