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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 47
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - 2509
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Compact low-cross-polarization horn antennas with serpentine-shaped taper

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2510 - 2516
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A compact horn with low cross polarization component less than -35 dB over 5% frequency bandwidth has been obtained by optimizing the taper configuration. To reduce the gain loss caused by spherical wavefront in a short length horn with a large flare angle, a serpentine-shaped taper successfully generates five higher-order modes. Such a taper configuration is represented by varying lengths of various uniform waveguides in stepwise approximation, while keeping the dimension of each step discontinuity constant. As a result, the computational time for obtaining the proposed horn is greatly reduced because scattering matrices of the step discontinuities are pre-calculated before the optimization. The verification of its high performance has been performed numerically and experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • A grating coupler for in-situ alignment of a Gaussian Beam-principle, design, and low-power test

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2517 - 2524
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a method for the alignment of a Gaussian beam. In the fusion experiment W7-X (a stellarator) under construction, a quasioptical transmission system is used to deliver high-power millimeter waves to heat the plasma. In order to be directed properly into the stellarator, each beam has to be well aligned. A low-power image of the main beam which can be used to measure the quality of the alignment and, if necessary, lead to a signal to correct the alignment, is produced by a grating coupler. In this paper, the principle of an alignment system using such a coupler is described and the design for a prototype is presented. Low-power tests are reported. Results of the measurements of the characteristics of the prototype system are given and compared with theory. View full abstract»

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  • Suspended plate antennas with shorting strips and slots

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2525 - 2531
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The suspended plate antennas (SPAs) with shorting strips and slots are presented numerically and validated experimentally. Effects of narrow shorting strips on the impedance and radiation performances of the SPAs are studied. The symmetric use of shorting and feeding strips makes the SPAs structurally symmetrical, which is conducive to the radiation performance of the SPAs. Also, effects of narrow rectangular slots cut in the center or the edges of the plates are investigated. Cutting the slots reduces size, realizes dual-band operation, and improves radiation performance of SPAs. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of a circular patch microstrip antenna on uniaxially anisotropic substrate

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2532 - 2537
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resonant characteristics of a circular patch microstrip antenna on the uniaxially anisotropic substrate are determined via spectral domain analysis. Green's functions of the structure in Hankel transform domain are determined by using Hertz vector formulation. The variations in the resonant characteristics depending on the replacement of the isotropic substrate with the uniaxially anisotropic one are analyzed for different permittivity tensor element cases. The results of the study indicate that resonant frequency and bandwidth characteristics of the antenna can be considerably changed due to proper selection of substrate anisotropy ratio and other structural parameters. Depending on the arrived results, operational performance of the antenna will be improved in future studies. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated circuit ceramic ball grid array package antenna

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2538 - 2544
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recent advances in such highly integrated RF transceivers as radio system-on-chip and radio system-in-package have called for the parallel development of compact and efficient antennas. This paper addresses the development of a new type of dielectric chip antenna known as integrated circuit package antenna (ICPA) for highly integrated RF transceivers. A compact ICPA of this type has, for the first time, been designed and fabricated in a ceramic ball grid array (CBGA) package format. The novel ICPA, except economical advantage of mass production and automatic assembly, has potential benefit to the system-level board miniaturization and the system-level manufacturing facilitation. The simulated and measured antenna performance of the ICPA is presented. The effects of the different physical parts of the ICPA on the antenna performance are investigated. Results show that the ICPA achieved impedance bandwidth of 4.1% and radiation efficiency of 72%, and gain of 4.8 dBi at 5.715 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band slot antennas with CPW feed lines: hybrid and log-periodic designs

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2545 - 2554
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In microwave and millimeter wave applications, slot antennas fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines are receiving increasing attention. These antennas have several useful properties, such as a wider impedance bandwidth compared to microstrip patch antennas, and easier integration of solid-state active devices. In this paper novel CPW-fed wideband slot antennas are presented. The design procedure of CPW-fed hybrid slot antennas (HSA) having impedance bandwidths (VSWR<2) up to 57% is described. Theoretical and measured results are shown. We also describe the design procedure of a CPW-fed log-periodic slot antenna (LPSA). The impedance matching and the radiation characteristics of these structures were studied using a method of moment technique. Simulated and measured results for different dielectrics are presented. View full abstract»

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  • RC-loaded bow-tie antenna for improved pulse radiation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2555 - 2563
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a loading technique for improving pulse radiation from bow-tie antennas is introduced. This technique allows transmission of short transient pulses with very small late-time ringing and relatively high radiation efficiency. It makes use of a combination of a constant resistive loading along the antenna and a capacitive loading with linearly increasing reactance toward the antenna ends. The constant resistive loading is applied using volumetric microwave absorbers to cover one side of the antenna and the linear capacitive loading is realized by constructing narrow slots on the antenna surface. Relatively high radiation efficiency is achieved by choosing the location of the slot nearest to the feed point in such a way that radiation from it combines constructively with radiation from the feed point. Using a 0.8-ns monocycle for excitation, the technique results in a level of late-time ringing of lower than -40 dB and at the same time the peak value of the transmitted pulse is 54% higher than that of the same antenna without loading. View full abstract»

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  • Shorted fractal Sierpinski monopole antenna

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2564 - 2570
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes novel configurations of shorted fractal Sierpinski gasket antenna. The antenna uses half the structure of a conventional Sierpinski gasket antenna and is folded over to be parallel to the ground plane, to form an element similar to that of the inverted L antenna. A quasi log periodic resonance behavior is obtained with a shorting pin placed at the far end of the antenna. Several configurations are shown and a design using two shorting pins which improves the bandwidth at the fundamental band is also demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a modified Sierpinski gasket monopole antenna printed on dual band wireless devices

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2571 - 2579
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The traditional Sierpinski gasket monopole antenna is well known for its multiband behavior, but it cannot be printed on the circuit board of a portable wireless device due to the limited space availability. In this paper a modified Sierpinski gasket monopole antenna is presented that possesses a small physical size, high efficiency and the ability to allocate both the 2.4 and 5.2 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical bands without the need of a matching network. The modified element respects the multiband behavior of the gasket since the input impedance characteristics of the upper bands maintain their symmetry. Several modification techniques are proposed making the monopole very flexible in terms of band allocation and fine-tuning. The dimensions of the ground plane are also proven to play a significant role on the operational bandwidth of the antenna system. View full abstract»

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  • A single-level dual rank IE-QR algorithm to model large microstrip antenna arrays

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2580 - 2585
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A single-level dual rank IE-QR algorithm is introduced so that the resulting dense method of moments (MOM) matrix is efficiently compressed. For a system of N equations, an amount of work of the order O(N2) has traditionally been required for both matrix assembly and matrix-vector multiplication in an iterative matrix solver. The algorithm of the present paper reduces the memory requirement and CPU time for both matrix assembly and matrix-vector multiplication to O(N32/) making it practical to solve for large antenna arrays with full wave approach. In conjunction with a "geometric-neighboring" preconditioner for matrix solution using GMRES, the current approach solves problems involving large antenna arrays using only a fraction of what are needed by conventional MOM both in term of memory and total CPU time. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of finite arrays of axially directed printed dipoles on electrically large circular cylinders

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2586 - 2595
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Various arrays consisting of finite number of printed dipoles on electrically large dielectric coated circular cylinders are investigated using a hybrid method of moments/Green's function technique in the spatial domain. This is basically an "element by element" approach in which the mutual coupling between dipoles through space as well as surface waves is incorporated. The efficiency of the method comes from the computation of the Green's function, where three types of spatial domain Green's function representations are used interchangeably, based on their computational efficiency and regions where they remain accurate. Numerical results are presented in the form of array current distributions, active reflection coefficient and far-field pattern to indicate the efficiency and accuracy of the method. Furthermore, these results are compared with similar results obtained from finite arrays of printed dipoles on grounded planar dielectric slabs. It is shown that planar approximations, except for small separations, can not be used due to the mutual coupling between the array elements. Consequently, basic performance metrics of printed dipole arrays on coated cylinders show significant discrepancies when compared to their planar counterparts. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic transmission of an oblique waveguide array

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2596 - 2602
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    Transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) wave transmissions of an oblique parallel-plate waveguide array is studied. The scattered wave is represented in terms of continuous and discrete modes based on the Fourier transform and series, respectively. The tangential field continuities at the boundary are enforced to obtain simultaneous equations for the discrete modal coefficients. Residue calculus is utilized to transform the radiation field and reflection coefficient into numerically efficient forms. Numerical computations are performed to illustrate the behavior of wave radiation and reception by an oblique waveguide array. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate analysis of two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering from multilayered periodic arrays of circular cylinders using lattice sums technique

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2603 - 2611
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A very efficient and accurate method to characterize two-dimensional (2-D) electromagnetic scattering from multilayered periodic arrays of parallel circular cylinders is presented, using the lattice sums technique, the aggregate T-matrix algorithm, and the generalized reflection and transmission matrices for a layered system. The method is quite general and applies to various configurations of 2-D periodic arrays. The unit cell of the array can contain two or more cylinders, which may be dielectric, conductor, gyrotropic medium, or their mixture with different sizes. The periodic spacing of cylinders along each array plane should be the same over all layers, but otherwise the cylinders in different layers may be different in material properties and dimensions. The numerical examples validate the usefulness and accuracy of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of two dimensions sparse multicylinder scattering problem using DD-FDTD method

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2612 - 2617
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An algorithm of two-dimensional (2-D) domain decomposition finite-difference time-domain (DD-FDTD) using in sparse multicylinders scattering problem is proposed in this paper. The idea of domain decomposition is introduced to divide the sparse problem domain into several subdomains. All of subdomains are connected by means of the 2-D time domain Green's function. As a result, a great deal of meshes memory between cylinders is removed, especially when the distances between cylinders become large. Furthermore, the coupling between cylinders can be regarded as the equivalent cylindrical wave irradiations. The incident signals of the equivalent cylindrical waves are expressed as cylindrical wave input field array (CWIFA) according to Huygens principle. Then the calculation time is significantly reduced. The near-field to far-field transformation is used to obtain the equivalent cylindrical wave; as a result, the calculation time can be reduced further. The new method has been demonstrated in 2-D multicylinders scattering problem. Numerical results are in good agreement with the results obtained using classical FDTD method and moment of methods (MM). View full abstract»

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  • Conjugate ESPRIT (C-SPRIT)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2618 - 2624
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present an algorithm to estimate the direction of the arrival angles (DOAs) from noncoherent one-dimensional (1-D) signal sources such as binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and M-ary amplitude shift keying (MASK). The proposed algorithm can provide a more precise DOA estimation and can detect more signals than well-known classical subspace-methods MUSIC and ESPRIT for the 1-D signals. The complexity is the same as that of ESPRIT since the proposed algorithm uses the same array geometry and subarray processing that ESPRIT does. The main differences between the proposed algorithm and the ESPRIT algorithm are as follows: 1) the number of overlapping array elements between two subarrays is equal to M in the proposed algorithm, while in ESPRIT the maximum number of overlapping elements is M-1, where M denotes the total number of array elements, and 2) the proposed algorithm employs the conjugate of rotation matrix (CRM) Φ* while ESPRIT uses Φ with no conjugate for the second subarray geometry. View full abstract»

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  • Soft-window averaging of Radar cross sections

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2625 - 2630
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Formulae are obtained for when the radar cross section (RCS) of a reflecting surface is smoothly averaged with respect to angle. Our results are derived using the physical optics approximation. The specific cases of near-broadside scattering from cylinders and flat plates are considered in detail. General results are derived for scattering from smooth surfaces in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the high-frequency approximations to the smooth averages we employ are significantly more accurate than those previously obtained for hard-window averages. This should allow for more efficient and effective evaluations of dynamically collected RCS data. Analogous formulae for frequency averaging are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A fast multipole method for layered media based on the application of perfectly matched layers - the 2-D case

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2631 - 2640
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient fast multipole method (FMM) formalism to model scattering from two-dimensional (2-D) microstrip structures is presented. The technique relies on a mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) formulation and a series expression for the Green functions, based on the use of perfectly matched layers (PML). In this way, a new FMM algorithm is developed to evaluate matrix-vector multiplications arising in the iterative solution of the scattering problem. Novel iteration schemes have been implemented and a computational complexity of order O(N) is achieved. The theory is validated by means of several illustrative, numerical examples. This paper aims at elucidating the PML-FMM-MPIE concept and can be seen as a first step toward a PML based multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) for 3-D microstrip structures embedded in layered media. View full abstract»

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  • A stable solution of time domain electric field Integral equation for thin-wire antennas using the Laguerre polynomials

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2641 - 2649
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (846 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a numerical method to obtain an unconditionally stable solution of the time domain electric field integral equation for arbitrary conducting thin wires is presented. The time-domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) technique has been employed to analyze electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems from thin wire structures. However, the most popular method to solve the TD-EFIE is typically the marching-on in time (MOT) method, which sometimes may suffer from its late-time instability. Instead, we solve the time-domain integral equation by expressing the transient behaviors in terms of weighted Laguerre polynomials. By using these orthonormal basis functions for the temporal variation, the time derivatives can be handled analytically and stable results can be obtained even for late-time. Furthermore, the excitation source in most scattering and radiation analysis of electromagnetic systems is typically done using a Gaussian shaped pulse. In this paper, both a Gaussian pulse and other waveshapes like a rectangular pulse or a ramp like function have been used as excitations for the scattering and radiation of thin-wire antennas with and without junctions. The time-domain results are compared with the inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) of a frequency domain analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Integral equation based analysis of scattering from 3-D inhomogeneous anisotropic bodies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2650 - 2658
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an integral equation based scheme to analyze scattering from inhomogeneous bodies with anisotropic electromagnetic properties. Both the permittivity and permeability are assumed to be generalized tensors. Requisite integral equations are derived using volume equivalence theorem with the electric and magnetic flux densities being the unknown quantities. Matrix equations are derived by discretizing these unknowns using three dimensional Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions. Reduction of the integral equation to a corresponding matrix equation is considerably more involved due to the presence of anisotropy and the use of vector basis function; methods for evaluation of the integrals involved in the construction of this matrix is elucidated in detail. The method of moments technique is augmented with the fast multipole method and a compression scheme. The latter two enable large scale analysis. Finally, several numerical results are presented and compared against analytical solutions to validate the proposed scheme. An appendix provides analytical derivations for the formulae that are used to validate numerical method, and the necessary formulae that extends the approach presented herein to the analysis of scattering bianisotropic bodies. View full abstract»

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  • Exact, closed-form representations for the time-domain surface impedances of a homogeneous, lossy half-space

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2659 - 2665
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we derive exact, closed-form representations for the transverse electric and transverse magnetic time-domain, surface impedances associated with a plane wave that is obliquely incident on a homogeneous, lossy half-space. The time-domain surface impedances are expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions and incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals. The limitations on the validity of a previously published approximate expression are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid time-domain technique that combines the finite element, finite difference and method of moment techniques to solve complex electromagnetic problems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2666 - 2674
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    This paper describes a hybrid technique directly operating in time domain that combines the finite element time domain (FETD), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and the integral-equation-based method of moments in the time domain (MoMTD) techniques to analyze complex electromagnetic problems involving thin-wire antennas radiating in the presence of inhomogeneous dielectric bodies whose shape can be arbitrary. The method brings together the ability of the FDTD scheme to deal with arbitrary material properties, the versatility of the FETD to accurately model curved geometries, and that of the MoM to analyze thin-wire structures. Working in the time domain provides wide-band information from a single execution of the marching-on-in-time procedure and simplifies the interfacing of the FE and MoM methods with the FDTD, an approach specifically designed for time domain analysis. Numerical results that validate the hybrid method and show its capabilities are presented in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Improved conditioning of finite element matrices using new high-order interpolatory bases

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2675 - 2683
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The condition number of finite element matrices constructed from interpolatory bases will grow as the polynomial degree of the basis functions is increased. The worst case scenario for this growth rate is exponential and in this paper we demonstrate through computational example that the traditional set of uniformly distributed interpolation points yields this behavior. We propose a set of nonuniform interpolation points which yield a much improved polynomial growth rate of condition number. These points can be used to construct several types of popular hexahedral basis functions including the 0-form (standard Lagrangian), 1-form (Curl conforming), and 2-form (Divergence conforming) varieties. We demonstrate through computational example the benefits of using these new interpolatory bases in finite element solutions to Maxwell's equations in both the frequency and time domain. View full abstract»

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  • High-order numerical solutions of the MFIE for the linear dipole

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2684 - 2691
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) was applied to a dipole using three different discretization methods and high-order basis functions. For moderate-order, and higher, basis functions it was found that the different discretization methods produced essentially the same results. Continuity of current and its first derivative was observed at cell boundaries even though continuity of current was not explicitly enforced there. The MFIE provided lower condition numbers than the Hallen equation over the range of dipole radii examined. In close proximity to surface discontinuities, including hidden ones, residual errors could not be significantly reduced by increasing the order of the basis functions, implying the need for better modeling at discontinuities and calling into question the use of faceting to represent curved surfaces. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung