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Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Summer school on human-robot interaction

    Publication Year: 2004
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The first instantiation of the RAS-IFRR School on Robotics Science took place 19-23 July 2004 in Volterra, Italy. The theme for the first workshop was "human-robot interaction" (HRI), an interdisciplinary topic of significant current interest. The school, conceived as a high-quality international school to take place every summer, was organized as a full-week event at the recently renovated Dentro il Centro Studi. Given the theme of HRI, the school provided comprehensive coverage from fundamentals to applications of this emerging area. Tutorials on human-computer interaction, service robots in work and domestic environments, collaborative interfaces, cognitive modelling, multiple sensory modalities, humanoid robots are some of the topics discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Ad index

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 96
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  • Calendar

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 94
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  • Trial by fire [rescue robots]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 50 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On September 11, 2001, the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue (CRASAR) responded within six hours to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster; this is the first known use of robots for urban search and rescue (USAR). The University of South Florida (USF) was one of the four robot teams, and the only academic institution represented. The USF team participated onsite in the search efforts from 12-21 September 2001, collecting and archiving data on the use of all robots, in addition to actively fielding robots. This article provides an overview of the use of robots for USAR, concentrating on what robots were actually used and why. It describes the roles that the robots played in the response and the impact of the physical environment on the platforms. The quantitative and qualitative performance of the robots are summarized in terms of their components (mobility, sensors, control, communications, and power) and within the larger human-robot system. Lessons learned are offered and a synopsis of the current state of rescue robotics and activities at the CRASAR concludes the article. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual control - a virtual cluster tool for testing and verifying a cluster tool controller and a scheduler

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 33 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2809 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a systematic practice for verifying a scheduler and a CTC using a virtual cluster tool (VCT) model are presented, which emulates the operational behavior of a real cluster tool with high fidelity. The model architecture and modeling strategies of the VCT were also explained. This paper also presented the use of a formal model-based automatic error-detection technique and discussed experiences of verifying a real cluster tool controller using the VCT. View full abstract»

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  • Welcome to the education column

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 12
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  • Recent advances in semiconductor factory automation, part 2: equipment-level automation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 4
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  • Avoiding obstacles - multisensor navigation for nonholonomic robots in cluttered environments

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 70 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1863 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article introduces a navigation method for nonholonomic (differential drive) vehicles, based on odometry, regularly reset by a vision-based self-localization algorithm, and endowed with a sonar-based obstacle avoidance and guidance control algorithm that does not rely on path planning. The guidance controller is used in the soccer robots of the RoboCup middle-size league (MSL) ISocRob team, fully integrated in the state machine that coordinates task execution. The algorithm can be generally applied to structured indoor environments, provided that visual features can be observed by the self-localization method and that the visual information is not ambiguous. View full abstract»

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  • Shadowbowl 2003 [simulated mass-casualty exercise]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 62 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1277 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On 25-26 January 2003, a simulated mass-casualty exercise called ShadowBowl was conducted. A mass-casualty incident is an event in which local response capabilities are overwhelmed, and outside resources must be integrated as rapidly as possible to mitigate the situation. This article provides an account of the event, observations, and suggestions for improvements from the CRASAR perspective. ShadowBowl consisted of two tests, the first of which was a simulated earthquake response on 25 January 2003 and the remainder of which was an exercise conducted in parallel with Super Bowl XXXVII, with personnel and equipment on site at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, California, and across the country, in case a terrorist attack occurred. Capabilities that were demonstrated and tested include environmental monitoring (using sensors to detect radiation, water quality, and fire) and chemical hazard mitigation. This exercise was significant because it exposed a number of issues in a realistic emergency scenario, and the findings from the exercise can help to improve readiness for the next real disaster. Important lessons learned from ShadowBowl include what failed unexpectedly, the difficulty involved in performing what would otherwise be considered mundane tasks, and the ideal configuration of a local command center for specialists trying to use data coming from robots in the field. These lessons encompass critical components of reachback: communications, human factors, and adherence to standards. This article discusses the impact of unexpected failures on communications and other equipment, errant expectations, and information standards (synchronization and data formats). View full abstract»

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  • Speedy delivery - dynamic OHT allocation and dispatching in large-scale, 300-mm AMHS management

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 22 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1052 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we address the overhead hoist transport allocation and dispatching (OHTAD) problem in large-scale, 300-mm automated material handling system (AMHS) management. We propose a simulation-based, two-phase approach to solve the problem. At first, a discrete-event simulation model is built for each OHT loop. Without considering the OHT service requirements, the best OHT dispatching policy that efficiently controls OHT transports is selected among several OHT dispatching rules. For a given set of service requirements to an OHT loop, the required number of OHT vehicles in the loop can be calculated from the simulation results of this loop. However, as the total number of OHT vehicles in the fab is limited, the optimal number of OHT vehicles for each loop is then determined by leveraging the total requirements on OHT services from all the other loops. Our OHTAD objective is twofold: to meet the transport requirements of throughputs and to minimize carrier delivery times. View full abstract»

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  • Society news

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 6 - 93
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  • Finding fault - fault diagnosis on the wheels of a mobile robot using local model neural networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 83 - 90
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As mobile robots are mostly designed to act autonomously, procedures that detect and isolate faults on the various parts of a robot are essential. The most powerful approaches in fault detection and isolation (FDI) are those using a process model, where quantitative and qualitative knowledge-based models, databased models, or combinations thereof are applied. This article suggests a model-free approach to the solution of the fault detection problem. One way to deal with the absence of a mathematical model is to build a model from input-output data. In this article, local model networks (LMNs) are used for plant modeling. The key to fault detection and diagnosis is the creation of residual signals. Although the way these signals are formed varies, in all cases the residuals change their value accordingly with the presence of faults. To avoid false alarms, the residuals must be affected by factors unrelated to faults (like modeling errors) as little as possible. Change-detection algorithms are therefore used for reliable residual generation. These algorithms are designed to detect changes in signals that include noise or other types of disorders. The combination of local model networks for modeling and change-detection algorithms for residual creation provides an efficient method for fault detection and diagnosis. The method is applied on the wheels subsystem of a mobile robot. View full abstract»

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  • Scenario normalization techniques - inline stepper coordinator design

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 14 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the scenario normalization technique is addressed, which is very useful in the context of generic equipment control, where an equipment-control system (ECS) is to control several pieces of equipment, possibly of different types. This paper begins with a background introduction to a photolithographic cell and the concept of generic equipment control adopted in semiconductor fabs. The concept of message modulation that translates in semantics context the sequence flows between the high-level ECS and the low-level equipment is presented. The main idea relies on the operational scenarios modeling by the sequence diagram; message translation based on semantics analysis; the derivation of production rules and the implementation of them on an event-triggering platform. Scenarios, thus obtained and presented to the high-level ECS by the coordinator, are then in compliance with the normalized scenario as required by the generic equipment controller. The significance of the proposed normalization techniques has the following implication: when different equipment are included in a cell operation, it is not necessary to rewrite control programs but to add relatively simpler transformation sequences enabling the use of the standard ECS function. From the control point of view, the controlled systems of stepper and track can be modeled as discrete event dynamic ones if operation coordination is considered. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 0_1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From the Editor's desk

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Calls for papers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 13
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • EURON/ERF technology transfer award

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 92 - 93
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Call for papers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 95
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine is a unique technology publication which is peer-reviewed, readable and substantive.  The Magazine is a forum for articles which fall between the academic and theoretical orientation of scholarly journals and vendor sponsored trade publications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Eugenio Guglielmelli
Laboratory of Biomedical Robotics
      and Biomicrosystems
Universita' Campus Bio-Medico
      di Roma