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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Improved ZCS-PWM commutation cell for IGBTs application

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 879 - 888
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved zero-current-switching pulsewidth-modulated (ZCS-PWM) commutation cell is presented, which is suitable for high-power applications using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) as the power switches. It provides ZCS operation for active switches and zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation for passive switches. Besides operating at constant frequency and reducing commutation losses, the proposed ZCS-PWM switch cell has no additional current stress and conduction loss in the main switch. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ZCS-PWM commutation cell, it was applied to a boost converter. Operating principle, theoretical analysis, design guidelines, and a design example are described and verified by experiment results obtained from a prototype rated 1 kW and operating at 40 kHz. The PWM switch model and state-space averaging approach is also used to estimate and examine the steady-state and dynamic character of ZCS-PWM boost converter system. Finally, the application of the proposed soft-switching technique in the dc-dc nonisolated converters is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Interleaved buck converters with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 954 - 967
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1102 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes interleaved buck converters with a single-capacitor snubber to smooth out switch turn-off transition. The single-capacitor snubber is used to limit rising rate of drain-source voltage of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switch in the converters to reduce turn-off loss. In addition, the converters are operated at the boundary of continuous and discontinuous conduction modes (CCM), (DCM) to reduce turn-on loss, and in an interleaving fashion to reduce output current ripple. As compared with the counterparts of conventional converter topologies, the proposed converters have the merits of less component count, higher efficiency over a certain load range, smaller size, and they are easier to implement. Hardware measurements obtained from experimental prototypes have verified these merits. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced motion and sizing of bank in moving-bank MMAE

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 770 - 779
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The focus of this research is to provide methods for generating precise parameter estimates in the face of potentially significant parameter variations such as system component failures. The standard multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) algorithm uses a bank of Kalman filters, each based on a different model of the system. Parameter discretization within the MMAE refers to selection of the parameter values assumed by the elemental Kalman filters, and dynamically redeclaring such discretization yields a moving-bank MMAE. A new online parameter discretization method is developed based on the probabilities associated with the generalized chi-squared random variables formed by residual information from the elemental Kalman filters within the MMAE. This new algorithm is validated through computer simulation of an aircraft navigation system subjected to interference/jamming while attempting a successful precision landing of the aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • Algebraic two-satellite TOA/FOA position solution on an ellipsoidal Earth

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1087 - 1092
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A direct algebraic solution is given for estimates of the ambiguous locations of an RF emitter on the surface of an ellipsoidal Earth given time-of-arrival (TOA) and frequency-of-arrival (FOA) measurements at two satellites. View full abstract»

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  • Effective magnetic parameters in the presence of hysteresis

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1100 - 1105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hysteresis-based effective parameters (IeHys and AeHys) are described that are extracted from minor and major loop measurements, and are thus more suitable for computations involving these loops. For three commercial power ferrites, formulae are given for IeHys and AeHys of toroids with radius ratio kr between 0.2 and unity. View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous airborne navigation in unknown terrain environments

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1031 - 1045
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the issue of autonomous navigation, that is, the ability for a navigation system to provide information about the states of a vehicle without the need for a priori infrastructure such as GPS, beacons, or a map. The algorithm is known as simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) and it is a terrain aided navigation system (TANS) which has the capability for online map building, and simultaneously utilising the generated map to bound the errors in the navigation solution. Since the algorithm does not require any a priori terrain information or initial knowledge of the vehicle location, it presents a powerful navigation augmentation system or more importantly, it can be implemented as an independent navigation system. Results are first provided using computer simulation which analyses the effect of the spatial density of landmarks as well as the quality of observation and inertial navigation data, and then finally the real time implementation of the algorithm on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). View full abstract»

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  • Switching in sequential tree networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 968 - 982
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recursive analytical expressions for speedup and solution time for a multilevel tree sequentially processing a divisible load under cut through switching are developed. Such cut through switching is shown to be more efficient than store and forward switching. Aerospace applications include sensor networks, radar, and satellite imagery processing. View full abstract»

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  • Phase modulated DGPS transmitter implemented with a clamped-mode resonant converter

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 919 - 928
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A clamped-mode resonant converter (CMRC) is proposed to be used as a transmitter which broadcasts correction signals in a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). The digital information of the DGPS modulates the carrier with different modulation methods minimum shift keying (MSK) (recommended for the marine radiobeacon band), stepped binary phase shift keying (S-BPSK) and BPSK. The first two methods allow keeping the converter's operation in soft switching mode. Extensive trials under impedance mismatch and modulation conditions confirm that the soft switching mode is preserved. View full abstract»

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  • Novel scene calibration procedure for video surveillance systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1105 - 1110
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video surveillance systems require a scene calibration procedure to acquire conversion parameters from image positions to physical positions. A monocular system must resolve the 3D ambiguity by assuming that objects rest on the ground. Thus the scene calibration gives a special status to a model of the ground (assumed planar here) and to the gravitationally vertical direction. A scene calibration procedure is described, developed for use in a fast-deployment video surveillance system. The procedure uses the video system itself as the only measuring instrument. View full abstract»

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  • Robust model following control of parallel buck converters

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 983 - 997
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A robust model-following (RMF) control technique for average current mode controlled (ACC) parallel buck dc-dc converters, RMFACC, is presented. RMFACC achieves that the loop gain of the voltage loop is little sensitive to the variation of power stage parameters: number of modules, input voltage, load, and component tolerances. The design of the voltage loop is 'decoupled' from the design of the disturbance rejection transfer functions in an important degree, so that the output impedance and audio susceptibility are greatly reduced without the need of high loop gain crossover frequencies. A comparative study between conventional ACC and RMFACC is shown. View full abstract»

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  • Radar detection and preclassification based on multiple hypothesis

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1046 - 1059
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a single-scan-processing approach to the problem of detecting and preclassifying a radar target that may belong to different target classes. The proposed method is based on a hybrid of the maximum a posteriori (MAP) and Neyman-Pearson (NP) criteria and guarantees the desired constant false alarm rate (CFAR) behavior. The targets are modeled as subspace random signals having zero mean and given covariance matrix. Different target classes are discriminated based on their different signal subspaces, which are specified by their corresponding projection matrices. Performance is investigated by means of numerical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation in terms of probability of false alarm, detection and classification; the extra signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) necessary to classify once target detection has occurred is also derived. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear robust observer design for strapdown INS in-flight alignment

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 797 - 807
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A nonlinear observer is proposed for a strapdown inertial navigation system (SDINS) in-flight alignment problem using an H filter Riccati equation and a freedom parameter. The proposed observer improves the filtering stability, convergence, and performance. The characteristics of the observer are analyzed using a Lyapunov function. Simulation results demonstrate a significant reduction in alignment errors by employing the proposed nonlinear observer. The observer is developed in general such that it can be applied to estimating nonlinear systems other than the SDINS in-flight alignment. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum likelihood approach to joint array detection/estimation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1060 - 1072
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of detecting the number of (possibly correlated) narrowband sources of energy and estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of each detected source using data received by an array of sensors is investigated. A combined detection and estimation approach based on the likelihood function (LF) is used. The approach is motivated by detection theoretic considerations instead of information theoretic criteria and uses maximum likelihood (ML) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimates of hypothesized sources as detection statistics rather than maximizing the LF with a penalty function. Performance comparisons are made to unstructured and structured techniques based on Akaike information theoretic criteria (AIC), minimum description length (MDL), and Bayesian predictive density (BPD) approaches as well as the minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) approach. An important feature that distinguishes this approach is the ability to trade off detection and false alarm performance, which is not possible with the other LF-based approaches, while achieving performance levels comparable to or exceeding the LF-based and MVDR approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Active fault tolerant control with actuation reconfiguration

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1110 - 1117
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an integrated approach to fault detection, isolation, and fault tolerant control (FTC). In the proposed approach a constrained Kalman filter based fault detection and isolation (FDI) method (Larson et al., 2002) is modified to reduce its computation load and then applied to detect and isolate a faulty actuator or sensor. Explicit algorithms are derived to estimate the effectiveness factor of a detected faulty actuator or sensor. Furthermore, a design concept of actuation reconfiguration is proposed and implemented in the derived control scheme to restrain the workload of a faulty actuator while recovering the prefault system performance. Simulation results on an aircraft dynamic model have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Slowly varying bias of magnetometer based on orbit geometry

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1020 - 1030
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method is proposed to correct the induced magnetic disturbance using a set of measured magnetic field data from the three-axis-magnetometer on orbit. The magnetic field correction is based on the orbit geometry and its algorithm excludes the geomagnetic field model. The considered satellite is supposed to operate in the Earth-point mode and the Sun-point mode in accordance with the mission requirements. Particularly, the magnetic field correction is performed via static estimation based on an average method and dynamic estimation with an estimation law. Besides, the usefulness of the proposed method is investigated throughout both the simulation and the real telemetry data of KOMPSAT-1. View full abstract»

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  • Linear parametrically varying systems with brief instabilities: an application to vision/inertial navigation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 889 - 902
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of nonlinear filter design to estimate the relative position and velocity of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) with respect to a point on a ship using infrared (IR) vision, inertial, and air data sensors. Sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of a particular type of complementary filters with guaranteed stability and performance in the presence of so-called out-of-frame events that arise when the vision system loses its target temporarily. The results obtained build upon new developments in the theory of linear parametrically varying systems (LPVs) with brief instabilities - also reported in the paper - and provide the proper framework to deal with out-of-frame events. Field tests with a prototype UAV illustrate the performance of the filter and the scope of applications of the new theory developed. View full abstract»

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  • Modified Costas signal

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 946 - 953
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (927 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A modification to the Costas signal is suggested. It involves an increase of the frequency separation Δf beyond the inverse of the subpulse duration tb combined with adding linear FM (LFM) with bandwidth B, in each subpulse. Specific relationships between Δf and B will prevent autocorrelation grating lobes, that would normally appear when tbΔf>1. View full abstract»

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  • Design of the TRIO system-on-chip for aerospace

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 862 - 878
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3088 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several design and testing aspects of the TRIO smart sensor data acquisition chip, developed by JHU/APL for NASA spacecraft applications are presented. TRIO includes a 10 bit self-corrected analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 16/32 analog inputs, a front end multiplexer with selectable aquisition time, a current source, memory, serial and parallel bus, and control logic. So far TRIO is used in many missions including Contour, Messenger, Stereo, Pluto, and the generic JPL X2000 spacecraft bus. View full abstract»

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  • Array shape estimation tracking using active sonar reverberation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1073 - 1086
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper concerns the problem of array shape estimation and tracking for towed active sonar arrays, using received reverberation returns from a single transmitted CW pulse. Uniform linear arrays (ULAs) deviate from their nominal geometry while being towed due to ship maneuvers as well as ocean currents. In such scenarios, conventional beamforming performed under the assumption of a ULA can sometimes lead to unacceptably high spatial sidelobes. The reverberation leaking through the sidelobes can potentially mask weak targets in Doppler, especially when the target Doppler is close to that of the mainlobe reverberation and the reverberation-to-target ratio (RTR) is very high. Although heading sensors located along the array can be used to provide shape estimates, they may not be sufficiently available or accurate to provide the required sidelobe levels. We propose an array shape calibration algorithm using multipath reverberation returns from each ping as a distributed source of opportunity. More specifically, a maximum likelihood (ML) array shape calibration algorithm is developed, which exploits a deterministic relationship between the reverberation spatial and Doppler frequencies causing it to be low rank in the space-time vector space formed across a single coherent processing interval (CPI). In this application, a sequence of overlapped CPI length snapshots of duration less than the CW pulse is used. The ML estimates obtained for each snapshot are tracked using a Kalman filter with a state equation corresponding to the water pulley model for array dynamics. Simulations performed using real heading sensor data in conjunction with simulated reverberation suggest that 8-10 dB improvement in sidelobe level may be possible using the proposed array shape tracking algorithm versus an algorithm that uses only the available heading information. View full abstract»

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  • Sparse frequency transmit-and-receive waveform design

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 851 - 861
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A computationally efficient algorithm derives complex digital transmit and receive ultra-wideband radar and communication waveforms with excellent arbitrary frequency band suppression and range sidelobe minimization. The transmit waveform minimizes a scalar function penalizing weighted spectral energy in arbitrary frequency bands. Near constant power results from another penalty function for deviations from constant power, or constant power is enforced by a phase-only formulation. Next, a least squares solution for the receive waveform minimizes a weighted sum of suppressed band spectral energy and range sidelobes (for pulse and continuous wave operation), with a mainlobe response constraint. Both waveforms are calculated by iterative algorithms whose updates require only linear order in memory and computation, permitting quick calculation of long pulses with thousands of samples. View full abstract»

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  • Design and application of quadratic correlation filters for target detection

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 837 - 850
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a method for designing and implementing quadratic correlation filters (QCFs) for shift-invariant target detection in imagery. The QCFs are a quadratic classifier that operates directly on the image data without feature extraction or segmentation. In this sense, the QCFs retain the main advantages of conventional linear correlation filters while offering significant improvements in other respects. Not only is more processing required to detect peaks in the outputs of multiple linear filters, but choosing a winner among them is an error prone task. On the other hand, all channels in a QCF work together to optimize the same performance metric and produce a combined output that leads to considerable simplification of the postprocessing scheme. In addition, QCFs also yield better performance than their linear counterparts for comparable throughput requirements. Two different methods for designing basis functions that optimize the QCF performance criterion are presented. An efficient architecture for implementing QCFs is discussed along with a case study of the proposed approach for detecting targets in LADAR imagery. View full abstract»

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  • Robust adaptive matched filtering using the FRACTA algorithm

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 929 - 945
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An effective method is developed for selecting sample snapshots for the training data used to compute the adaptive weights for an adaptive match filter (AMF); specifically a space/time adaptive processing (STAP) airborne radar configuration is considered. In addition, a new systematic robust adaptive algorithm is presented and evaluated against interference scenarios consisting of jamming, nonhomogeneous airborne clutter (generated by the Research Laboratory STAP (RLSTAP) or knowledge-aided sensor signal processing and expert reasoning (KASSPER) high-fidelity clutter models or using the multi-channel airborne radar measurement (MCARM) clutter data base), internal system noise, and outliers (which could take the form of targets themselves). The new algorithm arises from empirical studies of several combinations of performance metrics and processing configurations. For culling the training data, the generalized inner product (GIP) and adaptive power residue (APR) are examined. In addition two types of data processing methods are considered and evaluated: sliding window processing (SWP) and concurrent block processing (CBP). For SWP, a distinct adaptive weight is calculated for each cell-under-test (CUT) in a contiguous set of range cells. For one configuration of CBP, two distinct weights are calculated for a contiguous set of CUTs. For the CBP, the CUTs are in the initial training data and there are no guard cells associated with the CUT as there would be for SWP. Initial studies indicate that the combination of using the fast maximum likelihood (FML) algorithm, reiterative censoring, the APR metric, CBP, the two-weight method, and the adaptive coherence estimation (ACE) metric (we call this the FRACTA algorithm) provides a basis for effective detection of targets in nonhomogeneous interference. For the KASSPER data, FRACTA detects 154 out of 268 targets with one false alarm (PF≈3×10-5) whereas the FML algorithm with SWP detects 11 with one false alarm. The clarvoyant processor (where each range cell's covariance matrix is known) detects 192 targets with one false alarm. View full abstract»

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  • Angle estimation for two unresolved targets with monopulse radar

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 998 - 1019
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most present-day radar systems use monopulse techniques to extract angular measurements of sunbeam accuracy. The familiar "monopulse ratio" is a very effective means to derive the angle of a single target within a radar beam. For the simultaneous estimation of the angles of two closely-spaced targets, a modification on the monopulse ratio was derived in (Blair and Pearce, 2001), while (Sinha et al., 2002) presented a maximum likelihood (ML) technique via numerical search. In this paper it is shown that the ML solution can in fact be found explicitly, and the numerical search of ((Sinha et al., 2002) is unnecessary. However, the ML solution requires the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for each target to be known, and hence we generalize it so it requires only the relative SNR. Several versions of expectation maximization (EM) joint angle estimators are also derived, these differing in the degree to which prior information on SNR and on beam pattern are assumed. The performances of the different direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimators for unresolved targets are studied via Monte Carlo, and it is found that most have similar performance: this is remarkable since the use of prior information (SNR, relative SNR, beam pattern) varies widely between them. There is, however, considerable performance variability as a function of the two targets' off-boresight angles. A simple combined technique that fuses the results from different approaches is thus proposed, and it performs well uniformly. View full abstract»

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  • Joint integrated probabilistic data association: JIPDA

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1093 - 1099
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new recursive filter for multi-target tracking in clutter is presented. Multiple tracks may share the same measurement(s). Joint events are formed by creating all possible combinations of track-measurement assignments and the probabilities for these joint events are calculated. The expressions for the joint event probabilities incorporate the probabilities of target existence of individual tracks, an efficient approximation for the cluster volume and a priori probability of the number of clutter measurements in each cluster. From these probabilities the data association and target existence probabilities of individual tracks are obtained, which allows track state update and false track discrimination. A simulation study is presented to show the effectiveness of this approach. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of moving targets in wideband SAR

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 780 - 796
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1147 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A likelihood ratio is proposed for moving target detection in a wideband (WB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. WB is defined here as any systems having a large fractional bandwidth, i.e., an ultra wide frequency band combined with a wide antenna beam. The developed method combines time-domain fast backprojection SAR processing methods with moving target detection using space-time processing. The proposed method reduces computational load when sets of relative speeds can be tested using the same clutter-suppressed subaperture beams. The proposed method is tested on narrowband radar data. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory