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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2004

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 465 - 466
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  • A piezoelectric micromotor using in-plane shearing of PZT elements

    Page(s): 467 - 473
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    A torsional micromotor, 3×4×8.5mm, was developed using planar bulk lead zirconium titantate placed upon a small rectangular prism made from phosphor bronze, with a tapered conical horn and a machined interior. By using a new measurement technique, the torque and efficiency versus speed were measured at several combinations of applied voltage and preload. At 87.1-mN preload, up to 0.1-N·mm torque and 425r/min in both directions were obtained by driving the system at resonance, 186.3kHz for counter-clockwise rotation, and 240.6kHz for clockwise rotation, while the overall efficiency peaked at slightly above 40%. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a plate type multi-DOF ultrasonic motor and its self-oscillation driving circuit

    Page(s): 474 - 480
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    Multi-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) actuators have become more useful in the field of robotics, as a result of the increasing number of DOFs of systems. The general features of ultrasonic motors are suitable for constructing a direct-drive multi-DOF actuator. However, previously developed ultrasonic motors do not have advantages in volume and weight in contrast to multi-DOF motion units composed of plural electromagnetic motors. In the present study, authors developed a novel multi-DOF ultrasonic motor with a compact plate stator and spherical rotor. First, a new driving principle of the motor is proposed. Next, the stator geometry is designed in detail using the finite element method, and a prototype of the multi-DOF ultrasonic motor is produced. Then, vibration characteristics of the stator and driving characteristics of the motor have been measured, respectively. The results confirm that the motor successfully provides the desired multi-DOF motion of the rotor around orthogonal axes driven by a single plate stator. Finally, a novel self-oscillation driving circuit for the motor is proposed and driving tests using the circuit are conducted. View full abstract»

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  • Optimized friction drive controller for a multi-DOF ultrasonic nanopositioner

    Page(s): 481 - 490
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    This paper presents a new generation of compliant multi-degrees-of-freedom piezoelectric nanopositioner for positioning, transport, alignment of micro-objects under the field of view of a microscope. It is based on the cooperation of arrayed direct-drive standing-wave ultrasonic actuators (microSWUMs). A number of nonlinearities exist in the actuator due to its macro- and microdynamics. An optimized friction drive multidimensional controller is proposed based on a closed-loop electromagnetic field-based preload controller ensuring optimal preload, and a feedforward pulsewidth modulation (PWM) controller with input shaping for driving force control. These techniques are applied to reduce the effects of low-speed-low-force instabilities due to stick-slip and friction pairs which lead to output oscillations during nanometric stepping motion. The closed-loop positioning system designed with microSWUMs produced 10-nm resolution and 5% displacement repeatability in a low-speed-low-force region; unlimited travel with velocities of 0.3 m.s-1 and driving forces around 2 mN in a high-speed-high-force region. View full abstract»

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  • On the gain scheduling for networked PI controller over IP network

    Page(s): 491 - 498
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    The potential use of networks for real-time high-performance control and automation is enormous and appealing. Replacing a widely used proportional-integral (PI) controller by a new networked controller for networked control capability can be costly and time-consuming. This paper proposes a methodology based on gain scheduling with respect to real-time IP traffic conditions to enhance the existing PI controller so it can be used over IP networks with a general network protocol like Ethernet. This paper first describes the gain scheduling approach based on constant network delays using a rational function approach. The formulation is extended to random IP network round-trip time (RTT) delays by using the generalized exponential distribution model. Simulation results show that the PI controller with gain scheduling provides significantly better networked control system performance. View full abstract»

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  • A real-time optical sensor for simultaneous measurement of three-DOF motions

    Page(s): 499 - 507
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    The need for simultaneous measurement of multiple degree-of-freedom (DOF) motions can be found in numerous applications such as robotic assembly, precision machining, optical tracking, wrist actuators, and active joysticks. Conventional single-axis encoders, though capable of providing high-resolution (linear or angular) measurements, rely on mechanical linkages (that often introduce frictions, backlashes, and singularities) to constrain the device so that the three-DOF (3-DOF) motion can be deduced from the individual orthogonal measurements. We present here a noncontact optical sensor for 3-DOF planar and spherical orientation measurements. We begin with the operational principle of a microscopic-surface-based optical sensor. The design concept and theory of a dual-sensor system capable of measuring 3-DOF planar and spherical motions in real time are then presented. Along with a detailed analysis, the concept feasibility of two prototype 3-DOF dual-sensor systems for measuring the instantaneous center of rotation and the angular displacement of a moving surface is demonstrated experimentally. It is expected that the analysis will serve as a basis for optimizing key design parameters that could significantly influence the sensor performance. View full abstract»

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  • A smart microrobot on chip: design, identification, and control

    Page(s): 508 - 519
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    This paper deals with the microrobot on chip (MOC) concept which corresponds to the development of compact, inexpensive, and easily "plug and use" microrobotic components (as it is the usual case with electronic chips). A first prototype of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) piezoelectric micromanipulator MOC (MMOC) illustrates this concept: one scanning piezostage can move the gripper in x-y axes and the piezoelectric microgripper itself has two y-z DOF per finger. An embedded optical fiber connected to a CCD camera and a force self-sensing system allowing force feedback. The first prototype of MMOC is electrically and mechanically connected to a smartcard reader. In order to be able to manipulate safely and accurately micro-objects, a force/position closed-loop controller is proposed taking into account the static and dynamic behavior of the microgripper. Hysteresis compensation is obtained through Preisach model and then an adaptive inverse control method is employed for open-loop control strategy. Numerical and experimental results which validate the theoretical developments are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible assembly work cooperating system based on work state identifications by a self-organizing map

    Page(s): 520 - 528
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    This paper presents a method of realizing flexible assembly work cooperation where the assembler is free to carry out the work, without constraints in the process. To realize such systems, there exists an issue of identifying work states during the assembly and to determine when and what kind of support is necessary. As an approach to solve such issues we took a self-organizing approach in constructing a work model, as an abstract model describing typical work states during the assembly. The necessity of support is judged by detecting uncommon work states occurring, and the type of support is determined by detecting the work state. Examples of work state identifications by the self-organized map are shown. We carried out experiments to evaluate the judgment of situational necessity of support and to verify the correct identification rate of typical work states. Finally a robotic support system was constructed that gives supports of autonomously holding and handing out assembly pieces by the judging of situational necessity of support. View full abstract»

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  • Environment-type robot system "RoboticRoom" featured by behavior media, behavior contents, and behavior adaptation

    Page(s): 529 - 534
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    This paper proposes a concept of "Robotic Room" of the environment-type robot system for human service and describes the feasibility of novel functions by constructed three prototype robot systems taking account of the features of the environment-type robot system. The features are: 1) a spatial system; 2) a human-robot symbiosis system; and 3) a distributed system. Novel functions of the Robotic Room based on the research fields of a) Behavior Media and b) Behavior Contents and Behavior Adaptation is revealed by constructed prototype system of "Robotic Room 1 (Robotic Sick Room)," "Robotic Room 2 (Sensing Room)," and "Robotic Room 3," taking account of the stated features of the systems. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperation of distributed intelligent sensors in intelligent environment

    Page(s): 535 - 543
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    We propose an architecture of intelligent space based on distributed intelligent sensors. Intelligent space is an environmental system able to support humans in informative and physical ways. Since an intelligent space should adapt to the various sizes and shapes of an environment, an architecture based on distributed intelligent sensors is designed. The proposed architecture satisfies not only scalability but also reconfigurability, modularity, easy maintenance, and affinity problems in building an intelligent space. Intelligent sensors are distributed among a space and they provide functions based on position information. According to the particular situation, cooperation among intelligent sensors or cooperation among function modules in the intelligent sensors are performed. Selected demonstrations are described in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Driver-compatible steering system for wide speed-range path following

    Page(s): 544 - 552
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    This paper presents a method of realizing driver-compatible steering systems in ITS, for vehicles that have capabilities of carrying out path following tasks. The method aims to maintain steering smoothness from high to low vehicle speed, including nonhighway environments, which may involve tighter turns. Multiple look-ahead points are introduced, which allows to guide the vehicle with minimum steering corrections, while maintaining the tracking accuracy. The look-ahead points, one for recognizing the path deviation for the error-cancel feedback control and the other for predicting the necessary steering for feedforward control, are varied independently according to vehicle speed. This appropriately distributes the controls and determines the final output of the steering system. The look-ahead distance for feedforward is extended longer than the look-ahead distance for feedback at low velocities, and is shortened according to velocity increase. The look-ahead distance for the feedback acts the opposite. The steering control system was implemented onto an experimental vehicle and tests were conducted. The results of path following experiments show that the method is capable of realizing smooth steering control when tracking paths involving various turns, in a wide speed range, while maintaining tracking accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Improved velocity estimation for low-speed and transient regimes using low-resolution encoders

    Page(s): 553 - 560
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    This paper presents a new estimation method, entitled the asynchronous sampling pulse method (ASPM), for determining velocity in systems with low but variable speeds, and/or with low-resolution encoders. The ASPM forces the estimator procedure to synchronize with the actual encoder pulse input, thus eliminating encoder positioning error independent of target velocity variations. This method is based on using an auxiliary sampling period to measure the time interval between the moment of encoder input and the control sampling instant, and its precision is shown to be dependent only on this auxiliary sampling period. Thus, the ASPM improves over existing methods in which estimator performance is dependent on both target acceleration and encoder resolution. Simulation and experimental results are used to verify the method. View full abstract»

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  • Motion control of a tendon-based parallel manipulator using optimal tension distribution

    Page(s): 561 - 568
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    This paper presents the motion control of a six degree-of-freedom tendon-based parallel manipulator, which moves a platform with high speed using seven cables. To control the motion of the platform along desired trajectories in space, nonlinear feedforward control laws in the cable length coordinates are used. Taking account of the effect of redundancy on actuation, the optimal tension distribution should be considered to the advantage of the control laws. Using a method based on the analysis of the workspace condition, tension constraints and limiting torque constraints of actuators, an analytical solution for optimum tension distribution was found and used to compute the force in each cable for compensation of dynamic errors. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed control laws reduce the energy consumption of the actuators and satisfy the path tracking accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Control system design on a power-split CVT for high-power agricultural tractors

    Page(s): 569 - 579
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    The problem considered in this paper is the design and tuning of the control system of a power-split continuously variable transmission (CVT) used in high-power tractors. Power-split CVTs are characterized by the combination of a traditional mechanical transmission and by a continuously-variable transmission. This guarantees, at the same time, smooth variations of the transmission-ratio and high efficiency of the overall transmission system. The control architecture of an hydrostatic power-split CVT is constituted by three main parts: 1) servo-controller on the current of the valve which drives the hydraulic transmission; 2) a servo-controller on the hydraulic transmission-ratio; and 3) a synchronizer which coordinates the hydraulic and the mechanical parts of the CVT. In this work, these three controllers are fully developed, including: design, implementation, and evaluation on an experimental system. View full abstract»

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  • Practical implementation of a novel anti-windup scheme in a HDD-dual-stage servo-system

    Page(s): 580 - 592
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    Two novel discrete anti-windup (AW) techniques are applied to a dual-stage actuator of an experimental hard disk drive system. The techniques, one low order, the other full order, employ convex l2-performance constraints in combination with linear-matrix-inequality-optimization methods. It is shown that the AW compensators can improve the performance of the nominal dual-stage servo-system when the secondary actuator control signal saturates at its allowable design limits. Also, stability is achieved despite saturation of both the secondary actuator and the voice-coil-motor actuator. Practical results show that the performance of each AW compensator is superior to another well-known ad-hoc AW technique, the internal model control AW scheme. The main contribution of the paper is the application of theoretically rigorous AW methods to an industrially relevant servo system. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of a new adaptive slicing algorithm for the rapid prototyping manufacturing system

    Page(s): 593 - 600
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    Rapid prototyping is an automated manufacturing process that quickly builds physical models from three-dimensional (3-D) prototype computer-aided design files. It dramatically speeds up design and manufacturing processes and substantially reduces the cost. This paper presents a new adaptive slicing algorithm for rapid prototyping (RP) processes. The proposed adaptive slicing approach determines the layer thickness based on comparing the contour circumference or the center of gravity of the contour with those of the adjacent layer. Most commercial rapid prototyping systems use uniform slicing procedures with a fixed layer thickness to build parts. To implement the adaptive slicing algorithm, we developed a thermal extrusion based RP mechatronics system equipped with a linear planar servo motor. The RP material is wax. The XYZ table is controlled using a PC based multi-axis DSP motion controller. The RP material flow rate for the thermal extrusion head is controlled using a dc servo motor and motion controller. The Taguchi method was used to analyze the process parameters for the proposed RP system to improve the quality of the RP part. Based on the experimental results, the proposed RP mechatronics system can produce good quality RP parts with the adaptive slicing algorithm. The proposed RP system also implements the high-precision exterior, high-speed interior slicing strategy for STL models. View full abstract»

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  • Support vector machine networks for friction modeling

    Page(s): 601 - 606
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    This paper presents a novel model-free approach for modeling friction for servo-motion systems. The proposed approach uses the support vector machine networks to parameterize the static friction mapping. The procedure of constructing such networks from a finite amount of training (sampling) data is developed based on support vector machine regression (SVMR). The validity of the proposed approach has been experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics Information for authors

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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr