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Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering publication information

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  • Direct current electrical conduction block of peripheral nerve

    Page(s): 313 - 324
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    Electrical currents can be used to produce a block of action potential conduction in whole nerves. This block has a rapid onset and reversal. The mechanism of electrical nerve conduction block has not been conclusively determined, and inconsistencies appear in the literature regarding whether the block is produced by membrane hyperpolarization, depolarization, or through some other means. We have used simulations in a nerve membrane model, coupled with in vivo experiments, to identify the mechanism and principles of electrical conduction block. A nerve simulation package (Neuron) was used to model direct current (dc) block in squid, frog, and mammalian neuron models. A frog sciatic nerve/gastrocnemius preparation was used to examine nerve conduction block in vivo. Both simulations and experiments confirm that depolarization block requires less current than hyperpolarization block. Dynamic simulations suggest that block can occur under both the real physical electrode as well as adjacent virtual electrode sites. A hypothesis is presented which formulates the likely types of dc block and the possible block current requirements. The results indicate that electrical currents generally produce a conduction block due to depolarization of the nerve membrane, resulting in an inactivation of the sodium channels. View full abstract»

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  • Producing preferred format Material From microsoft word

    Page(s): 325 - 330
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    This paper presents a set of tools that are integrated with a word processor to produce documents in a visually impaired person's "preferred format." The paper considers the motivation for producing such tools and describes tools to perform spoken transcription (to cassette tape) and intelligent large print production. View full abstract»

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  • Conversion of EEG activity into cursor movement by a brain-computer interface (BCI)

    Page(s): 331 - 338
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Wadsworth electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) uses amplitude in mu or beta frequency bands over sensorimotor cortex to control cursor movement. Trained users can move the cursor in one or two dimensions. The primary goal of this research is to provide a new communication and control option for people with severe motor disabilities. Currently, cursor movements in each dimension are determined 10 times/s by an empirically derived linear function of one or two EEG features (i.e., spectral bands from different electrode locations). This study used offline analysis of data collected during system operation to explore methods for improving the accuracy of cursor movement. The data were gathered while users selected among three possible targets by controlling vertical [i.e., one-dimensional (1-D)] cursor movement. The three methods analyzed differ in the dimensionality of the cursor movement [1-D versus two-dimensional (2-D)] and in the type of the underlying function (linear versus nonlinear). We addressed two questions: Which method is best for classification (i.e., to determine from the EEG which target the user wants to hit)? How does the number of EEG features affect the performance of each method? All methods reached their optimal performance with 10-20 features. In offline simulation, the 2-D linear method and the 1-D nonlinear method improved performance significantly over the 1-D linear method. The 1-D linear method did not do so. These offline results suggest that the 1-D nonlinear or the 2-D linear cursor function will improve online operation of the BCI system. View full abstract»

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  • Computer control using human intracortical local field potentials

    Page(s): 339 - 344
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    We describe the use of human cortical control signals to operate two assistive technology tools-a virtual keyboard speller and a computer-simulated digit. The cortical signals used for control are local field potentials recorded through an implanted neurotrophic electrode. In this system, the patients' cortical signals are transmitted wirelessly to a receiver and translated by computer software into either a computer cursor movement (for the virtual keyboard) or flexion of a cyber digit on a virtual hand. This report focuses on the progress of two subjects toward effective use of their "virtual" neuro-prosthetic devices to meet their assistive technology needs. View full abstract»

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  • Acute peripheral nerve recording Characteristics of polymer-based longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes

    Page(s): 345 - 348
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (90 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We examined the recording characteristics of two different types of polymer-based longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs) in peripheral nerve: single-stranded (s-polyLIFEs) and multistranded (m-polyLIFEs). Recordings were also made from Pt-Ir wire-based electrodes (PtIrLIFEs) as a control. The electrodes were implanted in either tibial or medial gastrocnemius branches of the rabbit sciatic nerve, and in the sciatic nerve of rats. Recorded neural activity induced by manually elicited afferent neural activity showed that both polyLIFE versions performed comparably to PtIrLIFEs. View full abstract»

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  • A two-input sliding-mode controller for a planar arm actuated by four pneumatic muscle groups

    Page(s): 349 - 359
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    Multiple-input sliding-mode techniques are applied to a planar arm actuated by four groups of pneumatic muscle (PM) actuators in opposing pair configuration. The control objective is end-effector tracking of a desired path in Cartesian space. The inputs to the system are commanded input pressure differentials for the two opposing PM groups. An existing model for the muscle is incorporated into the arm equations of motion to arrive at a two-input, two-output nonlinear model of the planar arm that is affine in the input and, therefore, suitable for sliding-mode techniques. Relationships between static input pressures are derived for suitable arm behavior in the absence of a control signal. Simulation studies are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting postural responses to sinusoidal sensory inputs: a statistical approach

    Page(s): 360 - 366
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    A common way for understanding sensory integration in postural control is to provide sinusoidal perturbations to the sensory systems involved in balance. However, not all subjects exhibit a response to the perturbation. Determining whether or not a response has occurred is usually done qualitatively, e.g., by visual inspection of the power spectrum. In this paper, we present the application of a statistical test for quantifying whether or not a postural sway response is present. The test uses an F-statistic for determining if there is significant power in postural sway data at the stimulus frequency. In order to describe the application of this method, 20 subjects viewed sinusoidal anterior-posterior (A-P) optic flow at 0.1 and 0.25 Hz, while their A-P head translation was measured. The test showed that significant postural responses were detected at the stimulus frequency in 12/20 subjects at 0.1 Hz and 13/20 subjects at 0.25 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on ion channels–bio-nanotubes

    Page(s): 367
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  • IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology

    Page(s): 368
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the rehabilitative and neural aspects of biomedical engineering.

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Editor-in-Chief
Paul Sajda
Columbia University