Scheduled System Maintenance:
On Monday, April 27th, IEEE Xplore will undergo scheduled maintenance from 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET (17:00 - 19:00 UTC). No interruption in service is anticipated.
By Topic

Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date Oct. 2004

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (50 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (41 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 533 - 534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (34 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Cell attachment and spreading processes monitored by the thickness shear-mode quartz sensor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 535 - 542
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Kinetics of attachment and spreading processes of adherent living cells are investigated using the thickness shear-mode quartz-crystal sensor technique. Within the framework of the transmission line representation and its variant the lumped element model, experimental results of the shear electrical motional resistance derived from the Butterworth-Van Dyke equivalent circuit in the vicinity of the sensor mechanical resonant frequency have shown that the increase of this parameter is strongly correlated with the evolving surface coverage during attachment and spreading of the adherent living cells on the quartz sensor surface. Both the dependence of the shear electrical motional resistance on the cell concentration and the contribution of the extracellular matrix proteins on the shear acoustical response of the thickness shear-mode quartz sensor are analyzed. Shear acoustical results are further correlated to both optical microscopic observation and cell counting technique. Finally, the ability of the thickness shear-mode quartz resonator technique to monitor specific cell-substrate interactions is discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of smart tongue devices for measurement of liquid properties

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 543 - 550
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the design and characterization of shear horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for the analysis of liquid samples. Devices were fabricated on both 36° rotated Y-cut X-propagating LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 substrates. The design consists of a dual delay-line configuration where one delay line is metallized and shielded, while the other is left electrically active. Experiments to characterize the devices in terms of sensitivity, temperature dependence, and mass loading have been conducted and the results presented. Different liquid samples, i.e., water, orange juice, and milk, are 100% linearly separable using principal components analysis. In addition, it is possible to measure the fat content (±0.1%) as well as the freshness of full (whole) milk. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A PDA-based wireless biosensor using industry standard components

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 551 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the conception, design, implementation, and validation of an original, fully functional biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. We present the motivation for building this sensor followed by the system specification, a brief overview of the theory of operation for SPR physics, and then give a detailed description of the hardware design, software design, and immunoassay design. We present a novel, graphical approach for tracking shifts in SPR center frequency with an autocorrelation feature that minimizes component variation. Additionally, we present the wireless communications aspects of our design, which adds to its appeal for remote system deployment and autonomous operation. Our success demonstrates the immediate availability of all the hardware, software, and biological components required to construct a fully functional biosensor with industrial application. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electrodeposited biotinylated polypyrrole as an immobilization method for impedimetric immunosensors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 559 - 567
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB)  

    The potentialities of an electrodeposited biotinylated polypyrrole film as an immobilization matrix for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensors are described. Biotinylated antibody (anti-human IgG), used as a model system, was attached to free biotin groups on the electrogenerated polypyrrole film using avidin as a coupling reagent. The resulting recognition interface consisted of a highly oriented monolayer immobilized onto the polymer surface. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the polymer film. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the morphology of the immobilized material. This immobilization method allows the obtention of a highly reproducible and stable device. The resulting immunosensor has a linear dynamic range of 10-80 ng.ml-1 of antigen and a detection limit of 10 pg.ml-1. Furthermore, this immunosensor exhibited minor loss in response after two regeneration steps. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Manipulation of microenvironment with a built-in electrochemical actuator in proximity of a dissolved oxygen microsensor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 568 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biochemical sensors for continuous monitoring require dependable periodic self diagnosis with acceptable simplicity to check its functionality during operation. An in-situ self-diagnostic technique for a dissolved oxygen microsensor is proposed in an effort to devise an intelligent microsensor system with an integrated electrochemical actuation electrode. With a built-in platinum microelectrode that surrounds the microsensor, two kinds of microenvironments, called the oxygen-saturated or oxygen-depleted phases, can be created by water electrolysis, depending on the polarity. The functionality of the microsensor can be checked during these microenvironment phases. The polarographic oxygen microsensor is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate (Kapton) and the feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated in a physiological solution. The sensor responds properly during the oxygen-generating and oxygen-depleting phases. The use of these microenvironments for in-situ self-calibration is discussed to achieve functional integration, as well as structural integration, of the microsensor system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Simulation of microelectrode impedance changes due to cell growth

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 576 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Observation of impedance changes caused by cell growth on microelectrodes provides information about cell coverage and other important quantities, such as the cell-electrode gap. In this paper, we use finite-element simulations to calculate the impedance changes caused by cell growth on electrodes comparable in size to the cell. Parameters describing the impedance of the electrode without cells are derived from measurement. The results show that the impedance magnitude is expected to increase by at least 100% for partial cell coverage. We also report the frequency dependence of the magnitude and phase of the impedance and compare the simulation results with a lumped-element model. The simulation results are important for the design and modeling of arrays of cell-sized electrodes and also for the interpretation of experiments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Filter-protected photodiodes for high-throughput enzymatic analysis

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 584 - 588
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper relates to the use of a thin film of re-crystallized (polycrystalline) silicon as a low-pass rejection filter in the ultraviolet light range and, more particularly, to the use of this layer as a protective layer for semiconductor diodes. The polycrystalline silicon filters were fabricated by laser annealing a thin film of amorphous silicon deposited by an LPCVD process. A standard component of the polysilicon-gate CMOS process is the boron phosphor silicate glass (BPSG) planarization layer. Since this layer is always applied, the possibility of using it as the isolator between the diode and the filter (and, thereby, omit one SiO2 layer) is considered. Using scanning electron microscopy, we compared the crystallization process of the LPCVD silicon film deposited on a glass substrate and on a BPSG layer. The fabrication and the characterization of the filter-protected photodiodes are described in the paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A tactile sensor sheet using pressure conductive rubber with electrical-wires stitched method

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 589 - 596
    Cited by:  Papers (121)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new type of tactile sensor using pressure-conductive rubber with stitched electrical wires is presented. The sensor is thin and flexible and can cover three-dimensional objects. Since the sensor adopts a single-layer composite structure, the sensor is durable with respect to external force. In order to verify the effectiveness of this tactile sensor, we performed an experiment in which a four-fingered robot hand equipped with tactile sensors grasped sphere and column. The sensor structure, electrical circuit, and characteristics are described. The sensor control system and experimental results are also described. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hall effect magnetic sensors based on polysilicon TFTs

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 597 - 602
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with magnetic position sensors compatible with large-area electronics using polycrystalline silicon deposited by a low-pressure chemical reaction technique. The principle of this large-area position sensor is a matrix of thin-film field effect transistors (TFTs) with two additional Hall probes. The performances of the TFT-based cells are linked to the crystalline quality of the active polysilicon layer, which depends on the deposition conditions and on technological processes. Layers are made from two precursor gases, silane or disilane, and two processes. We have compared the sensitivity (absolute or relative) of devices and measured their power consumption. Sensors made from disilane have a sensitivity of 18 mV/T, and the ones made with a monolayer process a sensitivity of 28 mV/T. We propose a simple model, which describes the bias dependency of the sensitivity. The effect of geometry and layer morphology on the offset voltage is also studied. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of winged microscanners: architecture and performance

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 603 - 611
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two-dimensional scanners have a variety of applications in displays, barcode readers, optical data storage devices, and free-space optical interconnects. In this paper, the modeling, simulation, fabrication, and testing of a MEMS-based winged microscanner are described. The microscanner is controlled using electrostatic force distributed across multiple electrodes. Compared to previous cantilever designs, the symmetric spring on the beam is adapted to reduce the spring constant of the suspension beam and increase flexibility. In addition, wings are added to further reduce the actuation voltage. A thorough finite element analysis (both static and dynamic) has been completed to study key design parameters such as driving voltage, operating frequencies, and tilt angle. The focus of this work was on the performance analysis of the microscanner, including squeeze film damping effects. Prototype microscanners and four different microscanner arrays were fabricated using the MUMPS process (MEMSCAP). The dynamic performance of the microscanner was then investigated. For a single electrode actuation, the pull-in voltage of the winged microscanner is as low as 4 V, and it is further reduced to 3 V with only two driving electrodes used to actuate the microscanner, which makes it compatible with off-the-shelf control logic circuits. The initial testing results demonstrated that the maximum tilt angle is approximately 2.5°. To increase this tilt angle, a customized process is now being developed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Novel optical distance sensor based on MSM technology

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 612 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a novel distance-sensor concept based on photodiodes in metal-semiconductor-metal technology (MSM). MSM photodiodes can be operated as electrooptical mixers functioning similar to the so-called photonic mixing device (PMD). This paper employs the correlation techniques previously used with the PMD to the MSM. First, experimental results obtained with the MSM inserted into the authors' standard laboratory setup are provided. Additionally, different configurations well suited for mixer operation of the MSM are pointed out. Throughout this paper, similarities between the PMD and MSM are pointed out, as well as key differences. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An optical fiber sensor for the detection of germicidal UV irradiation using narrowband luminescent coatings

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 619 - 626
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A narrowband luminescent coating for germicidal 254-nm ultraviolet optical fiber sensors has been developed. A mixture of phosphor and epoxy is used for this coating. The luminescent-clad sensing principle uses a fiber, which has had its cladding and jacket both removed, and a photoluminescent coating replacing the cladding. As the coating luminesces, part of the emission is coupled to the fiber core through evanescent wave coupling. The combined absorption spectrum of the phosphor and the transmission spectrum of the epoxy result in a narrow sensitivity band of wavelengths being detected, centered around 254 nm. The absorption of the 254-nm radiation incident on the coating is emitted as visible light in the optical fiber sensor. This paper describes the development and testing of this narrowband coating using a spectrophotometer to examine its responsivity, and a luminescent-coated optical fiber sensor is compared with a UV photodiode when illuminated by a UV lamp. This optical fiber sensor monitors the output of UV lamps for stabilization and control purposes. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Geometrical modeling of a two-dimensional sensor array for determining spatial position of a passive object

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 627 - 642
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model of an active sensor array which can determine the spatial position of a passive object by illuminating the object via a small set of emitters and measure the intensity of the reflection by means of a small set of receivers. All emitters and receivers are located in the same two-dimensional plane. The model is based on geometrical observations and provides a mapping of the measured reflected intensities to spatial position. The mapping is derived from intersection sets of prolate spheroids with emitters and receivers in the focal points, and it is shown that the mapping, therefore, has a series of interesting properties. The optimal positions of emitters and receivers are also derived. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A novel feature extraction algorithm for asymmetric classification

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 643 - 650
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A linear feature extraction technique for asymmetric distributions is introduced, the asymmetric class projection (ACP). By asymmetric classification is understood discrimination among distributions with different covariance matrices. Two distributions with unequal covariance matrices do not, in general, have a symmetry plane, a fact that makes the analysis more difficult compared to the symmetric case. The ACP is similar to linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in the respect that both aim at extracting discriminating features (linear combinations or projections) from many variables. However, the drawback of the well-known LDA is the assumption of symmetric classes with separated centroids. The ACP, in contrast, works on (two) possibly concentric distributions with unequal covariance matrices. The ACP is tested on data from an array of semiconductor gas sensors with the purpose of distinguish bad grain from good. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimal fusion of multiple nonlinear sensor data

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 651 - 663
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A framework for the detection of bandlimited signals by optimally fusing the multinonlinear sensor data is developed. Though most sensors used are assumed to be linear, none of them individually or in series gives the truly linear relationship, and errors are inevitable as a result of the assumption of linearity. A new approach, which takes the actual nonlinear characteristics of sensors into account, is advocated. Though the fusion of redundant information can reduce the overall uncertainty and, thus, serves to increase the accuracy of the process measurements, identifying the faulty readings and fusing only the reliable data are very difficult and challenging. An optimal multiple nonlinear sensor data fusion scheme in which multisensor data fusion is done by scheduling the sensor measurements is proposed. The main idea of the multisensor fusion schemes proposed in this paper is to pick only the reliable data for the fusion and disregard the rest. The proposed theoretical framework is supported by illustrative examples and simulation data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development trends in the sensor technology: a new BCG matrix analysis as a potential tool of technology selection for a sensor suite

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 664 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)  

    This paper presents a new variant of the Boston Consulting Group matrix analysis and applies it on sensor technologies. This classifies technologies in four classes on the basis of application growth rate of technology on one axis and competence available on the other. The quadrant, with high competence and increasing application growth rate, will be the most favored one and called star. The star technologies need application-oriented research with low risk, but they need money for design and development. A new sensor suite can select these technologies if the product development time available is roughly two to three years. The quadrant with low competence but high application growth rate is the question mark. The question mark technologies need intense R&D efforts, and they involve money and high to moderate risk. These technologies can be selected if product development time available is roughly more than three years. The technologies with low or falling application growth rate, but high competence available, are cash cows. These technologies are readily available (sometimes with production agencies), need absolutely no research, and a little bit of design or application orientation. In the cases where products are immediately needed, they have to be cheaper and do not need to last long technology wise; these can be selected. Finally, the quadrant with low competence and low application growth rate is called dogs, and such technologies can be left during consideration. Time and cost frames have also been well discussed. The role of development trends in prediction of technological evolution through a new BCG matrix is a new aspect introduced in this paper. As an example, this paper applies the above analysis in the area of night vision. This analysis can broadly guide the design of future sensor suites. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • SOI CMOS compatible low-power microheater optimization for the fabrication of smart gas sensors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 670 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an original design of a polysilicon loop-shaped microheater on a 1-μm thin-stacked dielectric membrane is presented. This design ensures high thermal uniformity and insulation and very low power consumption (20 mW for heating at 400°C). Moreover, the use of completely CMOS compatible tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide-based bulk-micromachining techniques allows an easy, smart gas sensor integration in SOI-CMOS technology. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fiber-based UV laser-diode fluorescence sensor for commercial gasolines

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 681 - 690
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on an optical fiber probe, coupled to a 404-nm laser diode, as a fluorescence sensor for monitoring of commercial gasolines. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on quantifying the intensity of the Stokes-shifted fluorescence from some of the heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons CxHy,(x,y) ≥ (14,10) present in gasolines as minor constituents. The normalized efficiency of the optical fiber probe, as a function of its geometry, is calculated in the cases of single-fiber and parallel dual-fiber designs. The spatial and temporal resolutions achievable by the sensor are discussed as a function of design parameters The performance of the sensor is investigated experimentally for commercial gasolines in the liquid and gas phase. The optimal excitation wavelength for such sensors is investigated in the range of 350-400 nm. The linear sensitivity to vapor concentrations of retail gasoline fuel is demonstrated in the range of 4%-125% of combustion stoichiometry at 10 bar and 180°C. Statistical processing of the data from the sensor allows distinction to be made between different forecourt gasoline suppliers, as well as fuel varieties (unleaded, low sulfur, etc.). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Tactile sensor based on piezoelectric resonance

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 691 - 697
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss here the realization of tactile sensors based on the principle of change in piezoelectric resonance frequency with the applied pressure. An array of electrodes has been adopted on either side of the PZT material to have independent resonators. The common areas sandwiched between the electrodes and excitable at resonance frequency of the PZT material are used to form the sensitive area of the tactile sensor. The electrodes were deposited using sputtering technique. Tactile sensors with 3×3, 7×7, and 15×15 array of electrodes are developed with different electrode dimensions and separation between the electrodes. The tactile sensor has been interfaced to computer for the convenience of automatic scanning and making it more user interactive. The tactile sensors developed with different spatial resolution were tested for different shaped objects placed in contact with the sensor. The 3×3 matrix tactile sensor showed relatively poor spatial resolution, whereas the 15×15- matrix tactile sensor showed improved spatial resolution. The sensor with 7×7 matrix elements was tested for its sensitivity to different extents of applied force/pressure. The output response study carried out on the sensors indicated that these sensors can provide information not only about the extent of force/pressure applied on the object, but also the contour of the object which is in contact with the sensor. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • LEOS 2004 the 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 698 - 699
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (579 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The 3rd IEEE International Conference on Sensors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 700
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (96 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Sensors Council Information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.