By Topic

Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2004

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - 313
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (44 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (37 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction to the special issue on high-power electromagnetics (HPEM) and intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 314 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (90)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new threat to civil society has recently emerged. It is known as intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) and covers the threat of intense electromagnetic disturbances that may be applied to the sophisticated electronic systems that are so important to our daily lives. This paper provides a brief background for the threat, defines important terms, describes the different types of electromagnetic threats, explores the importance of topological concepts, summarizes the current understanding of equipment susceptibility, provides an overview of protection concepts, and summarizes the ongoing work in international standardization. This paper also serves as the introduction to the IEMI papers in this special issue. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Classification of intentional electromagnetic environments (IEME)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 322 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (64)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One can classify potential intentional electromagnetic environments (IEME) threat environments into four categories, based on frequency coverage. Yet another way of categorizing IEME is based on the level of sophistication of the underlying technologies involved in producing the electromagnetic environment, as low, medium, and high-tech systems. A third way of classifying IEME is by the effects that it can have on a targeted system. This paper will examine the merits of classifying IEME in these ways and provide examples of high-power electromagnetic generators that employ current and emerging technologies, for each classification scheme. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Overview of four European high-power microwave narrow-band test facilities

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 329 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an overview of the key high-power microwave (HPM) narrow-band source technologies and their related HPM open-area radio-frequency (RF) test capabilities within four European counties (France, Germany, Sweden, and the U.K.). The test facilities are described and a brief description of further developments is given covering both power limitations and recent research interests. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Survey of worldwide high-power wideband capabilities

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 335 - 344
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wideband and ultrawideband (UWB) technologies have achieved notable progress in recent years, aided immeasurably by improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. As a result, wideband systems that were difficult or impossible to implement ten years ago are now being built for an increasingly wide variety of applications including transient radar, concealed object detection, mine clearing, pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, electronic effects testing, and communications. In this paper, we discuss current wideband source technology around the world as well as laboratory and test facilities. We also will briefly touch on frequency limitations of anechoic chambers, design of transmission line simulators, frequency regulation requirements for outdoor ranges, and personnel exposure limits. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New propagation models for electromagnetic waves along uniform and nonuniform cables

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 345 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of the propagation of electromagnetic energy along nonuniform transmission lines. This electromagnetic energy can either be transmitted signals or disturbances caused by electromagnetic interference. Emphasis is laid on the basic ideas behind the transmission-line super theory and the solution of the corresponding telegrapher equations. We show how to establish these telegrapher equations for nonuniform transmission lines and how to calculate the per-unit-length parameters. Afterwards we discuss several solution methods, like numerical integration techniques and semi-analytical approaches. With selected examples we demonstrate the application of our new tools. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • EMEC-an EM simulator based on topology

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 353 - 358
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the control of electromagnetic interference a topological approach is strongly recommended. It allows for a complex system to be structured into a feasible number of zones, each having certain levels of energy density, transient amplitudes, background noise, etc. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is reached by making sure that all system elements comply with those levels. In this paper, a simulation program is described that facilitates the EMC specification. The user interface forces the user to adapt to the topological approach. Sources, zone properties, cables, and other coupling path etc., are specified and disturbances in arbitrary locations are computed. By comparing computed results for varying system properties with known emission and immunity properties of system elements, different ways to reach EMC can be evaluated. Including actual external threats among the sources, EMC compliance means that the system is immune to intentional electromagnetic interference, high-power electromagnetics, electromagnetic pulse, lightning, etc. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Numerical coupling models for complex systems and results

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 359 - 367
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper gives a status of present electromagnetic (EM) coupling modeling capabilities. Starting from topologically designed systems, it shows how formal rules of the EM topology approach can provide guidance for EM coupling analysis or the development of protection against intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI)- related threats, even in the case of a poorly shielded system. After a review of currently available mature numerical techniques, a strategy allowing one to chain different numerical tools (including three-dimensional analysis tools, cable-networks tools, and circuit analysis procedures) is proposed in order to achieve EM coupling assessments on real complex systems. The paper also gives a status on several scientific trends likely to enhance modeling capabilities in the future. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Predicting the breakdown behavior of microcontrollers under EMP/UWB impact using a statistical analysis

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 368 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reproducible prediction of damaging effects is one of the main problems in intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). In this paper, the susceptibility of different types of single microcontrollers to unipolar fast rise time pulses [electromagnetic pulse (EMP), ultrawide band (UWB)] is determined. Therefore, pulses with rise times as fast as 100 ps and electric field amplitudes of up to 100 kV/m are applied to the devices. The results are generalized with a novel statistical procedure. Following discussion and rationale, the Weibull distribution is selected to describe the interference behavior. The statistical analysis provides a new test procedure for a confident determination of the interference behavior parameters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Susceptibility of some electronic equipment to HPEM threats

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 380 - 389
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an overview of the susceptibility of a large number of different electronic devices like computer networks, computer systems, microprocessor boards, microcontrollers, and other basic integrated circuits (ICs) to different threats like electromagnetic pulse (EMP), ultrawideband (UWB), and high-power microwave pulses (HPM) is given. The presented data will include a comparison of the HPM and UWB susceptibility of some devices and a deeper look into the destruction effects in ICs. Therefore, the ICs were opened and the destruction effects were investigated. A norm based approach to describe the threat of different pulses to electronic devices gives a theoretical explanation for the measured susceptibility data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Trends in EM susceptibility of IT equipment

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 390 - 395
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Information technology equipment and specifically personal computers (PCs) are an essential and integral part of our business and every day lives. Upset or disruption of these systems from intentional or unintentional electromagnetic interference, is untenable, especially if the equipment is used in a security or safety critical application. The susceptibility level for several PCs has been assessed using the mode stirred (reverberation) chamber technique. Results are provided which demonstrate the good repeatability of the method used and trends in the susceptibility level with respect to PC specification, build quality, and batch quality. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Susceptibility of electronic systems to high-power microwaves: summary of test experience

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 396 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For more than a decade, the Swedish Defence Authorities have, in cooperation with Swedish industry and other countries, studied the effects of high-power microwave (RPM) radiation on electronic systems. Testing at high-field levels has been carried out on military equipment as well as on civil equipment, such as cars, computers, and security systems. From these studies, it is concluded that the distance for RPM sabotage can reach about a kilometer. Experience from system testing has, besides giving information about system susceptibility, also demonstrated the need for a careful pre-analysis of the system under test. This is due to the fact that high-level testing, in most cases, includes only a small fraction of the threat parameter space, such as test frequencies and irradiation angles. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Conducted IEMI threats for commercial buildings

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 404 - 411
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While most of the emphasis has been focused on the radiated threat represented by intentional electromagnetic interference, it is clear that the threat from conducted disturbances should not be neglected. Conducted threats include those that are produced by the cable coupling of radiated fields and from the direct injection of conducted disturbances into the wiring of a building. It is well known that in the majority of cases, cables provide the most efficient means of transporting potentially damaging energy into equipment. The first part of this paper describes how electrical disturbances can impact electronic equipment inside a building through the power and earthing circuits. Measured data are summarized to illustrate how electrical signals propagate through the power and earthing circuits from the outside to the inside and what levels of signals create problems with electronic equipment. With this understanding of the impact of transient waveforms on electronic equipment and how these disturbances can propagate throughout a building, calculations are then used to evaluate different types of conducted threats to buildings. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hardware invariant protocol disruptive interference for 100BaseTX Ethernet communications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 412 - 422
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce a new concept that we refer to as hardware invariant protocol disruptive interference (HIPDI). Such interference would pose a severe threat as intentional EMI to the corresponding protocol for which it was designed. In this paper, we consider only the 100BaseTX Ethernet protocol over UTP CAT-5 cable which is used extensively in local-area networks. We show that low power, narrowband, differential-mode voltage levels on a 100BaseTX Ethernet twisted-pair can seriously degrade network throughput independent of the physical features of the network or the protocol interpreter hardware. Moreover, we show that the required parameters of disruptive interference can be derived from the protocol itself using a concept we call hardware aperture. The experimental results reported herein indicate that creating such interference is practically feasible and therefore, is a possible threat to existing communication networks. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Linear and nonlinear filters suppressing UWB pulses

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 423 - 430
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to protect electronic systems against natural or man-made electromagnetic interferences with high energies and amplitudes nonlinear protection elements like spark gaps, varistors or Z-diodes are state-of-the-art countermeasures. Most of these protection circuits are designed for well studied transient interferences like lightning electromagnetic pulse, nuclear electromagnetic pulse or electrostatic discharge pulses. It is of special interest to investigate the response of common nonlinear protection elements at ultrawideband (UWB) pulses with significant amplitudes, rise times in the picosecond range and pulse durations of a few nanoseconds. It is discussed whether traditional protection concepts provide a sufficient protection against such extremely fast pulses. Furthermore the possibility of linear filtering is presented with focus on the protection of high frequency datalines. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurement techniques for conducted HPEM signals

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 431 - 438
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-power electromagnetic (HPEM) signals are a serious threat for modern electronic systems. Intentionally generated electromagnetic interferences might cause upsets or permanent defects in electronics, particularly in the electronics' interface. There are numerous military and especially civil targets, which might be interesting for criminals or terrorists to interfere. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the overall problem by means of simulations and measurements. This paper discusses measurement procedures for conducted HPEM signals. The measurement of transmission line coupled HPEM signals with a steepness in the order of 10-10E14 V/s is a very challenging task. This paper discusses the state of the art in electromagnetic pulse measurements with a focus on conducted ultra wide band and RPEM signals respectively. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of high-power electromagnetic (HPEM) standards

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 439 - 445
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the authority for world standards in electrical and electronics engineering. The IEC technical subcommittee 77C "High-power transient phenomena" of technical committee 77 "Electromagnetic compatibility" is preparing standards and technical reports on immunity to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and currently to all categories of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). A short description is given of the IEC main objective, management, and organization of technical work. An overview is given of the subcommittee 77C structure, management, objectives, and sources. At present, the work comprises 17 projects of which 14 have been published. The publications and projects are discussed under the following main parts: general, environment, testing and measurement techniques, installation and mitigation guidelines, and generic standards. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A bulk current injection test conforming to statistical properties of radiation-induced effects

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 446 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a bulk current injection (BCI) immunity test is designed that conforms to the effects induced in the equipment under test (EUT) by a radiated electromagnetic disturbance (EMD). This is done by adopting a statistical description of the EMD and by comparing currents induced by BCI and distributed field-coupling (i.e., radiation) in the input pins of the EUT. Closed-form results are obtained that enforce equivalence of the aforementioned test procedures in terms of specific statistical estimates (e.g., expected value and dispersion) as well as for worst-case radiation-induced effects. A distributed-parameter circuit model of the system under test is adopted, composed by the EUT, auxiliary equipment (AE), and a wiring harness. In the analysis, the EMD is described via plane waves with random parameters and a uniform multiconductor transmission line model is used for the wiring harness. The EUT and AE are represented via lumped impedance matrices. Injection-probe feeding-conditions assuring equivalence are derived analytically, and involve a frequency piecewise-linear profile of the RF voltage source. The proposed BCI immunity test overcomes practical-design difficulties of previous formulations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A proposed new definition and measurement of the shielding effect of equipment enclosures

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 459 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the rationale behind a new proposed measurement of the screening effect of an equipment enclosure that takes into account the contents of the enclosure. The method uses a set of representative contents for enclosures. The representative contents are equipped with surface field probes to measure the power entering the contents. The ratio of this power to the incident power density is used to derive a quantity with the dimensions of area, termed here the shielding aperture. The measurement technique is described and examples of measurements are given along with computed comparisons with the conventional shielding effectiveness of the enclosures used. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Convergence of the reverberation chambers to the equilibrium analyzed with the finite-difference time-domain algorithm

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 469 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over recent years, reverberation chambers have been analyzed by many numerical techniques. This contribution studies how the finite-difference time-domain algorithm converges to the steady state conditions as a function of the cavity Q factor, changing the wall conductivity or the internal lossy media. By lowering the reflection coefficient of the chamber walls, the computation time could be considerably reduced without a significant effect on the field distribution for any analyzed antennas. The field distributions are strongly correlated when the conductivity of the wall is one hundredth of the copper conductivity or greater, whereas when the conductivity is lower the correlation between field distributions is low. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Complex-valued transmission-line parameters and their relation to the radiation resistance

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 477 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the telegrapher equations are extended to general modes and very high frequencies to include radiation effects. It is shown, that the new line parameters are gauge dependent. However, there is also a gauge-independent representation of these parameters. In this representation, the per-unit-length capacitance is not correlated with the radiation resistance, only the per-unit-length inductance (strictly speaking, the imaginary part of it) constitutes it. The generalization to multiconductor and to finite straight transmission lines is straightforward. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Transient analysis of a cable with low-conducting layers by a finite-difference time-domain method

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 488 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The impedance and admittance formulas of a cable with low-conducting layers have not yet been derived, and thus a transient analysis considering the layers cannot be carried out sufficiently by an existing transient analysis program such as the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program. The present brief has analyzed a transient response of a power cable including low-conducting layers using a finite-difference time-domain method. Transient current waveforms at both ends of the cable are distorted depending on the conductivity of the low-conducting layers. Also, the propagation velocity of a surge current is dependent on it. When the conductivity of low-conducting layers is around 10-3 S/m, the shunt admittance of the cable dominates the above phenomena. On the other hand, they are ascribable to the series impedance when the conductivity is about 10 S/m. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modification of engineering return-stroke models to include dispersion effects

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 493 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, Baba and Ishii (see ibid., vol.44, p.476-7, Aug. 2002) have presented a method to modify the transmission-line (TL) type model to incorporate current distortion. In this brief, we generalize their method, as well as an exponential decay return stroke speed model, to simple engineering return-stroke models, and investigate the influence of dispersion effects on associated electromagnetic fields. Results show that the proposed modification to the models eliminates the inherent discontinuity in the traveling current source (TCS) model and the Bruce-Golde (BG) model at the upward-moving front. In addition, it turns out that an increase in the current risetime with height does not have significant effect on magnetic hump, electric ramp, and distant zero crossing, while a rapid decrease in return stroke speed with height could affect these features. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (32 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch