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Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1 - c2
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  • Design and implementation of PLC-based monitoring control system for induction motor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 469 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The implementation of a monitoring and control system for the induction motor based on programmable logic controller (PLC) technology is described. Also, the implementation of the hardware and software for speed control and protection with the results obtained from tests on induction motor performance is provided. The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed requested by the user and monitors the system during normal operation and under trip conditions. Tests of the induction motor system driven by inverter and controlled by PLC prove a higher accuracy in speed regulation as compared to a conventional V/f control system. The efficiency of PLC control is increased at high speeds up to 95% of the synchronous speed. Thus, PLC proves themselves as a very versatile and effective tool in industrial control of electric drives. View full abstract»

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  • Design of an integrated propulsion, guidance, and levitation system by magnetically excited transverse flux linear motor (TFM-LM)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 477 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A magnetically levitated vehicle dedicated for transportation systems requires propulsion, guidance, and levitation forces. The components used to generate these forces, such as linear motors and magnets, must have less mass especially because the magnetically levitated vehicle has to carry its own linear motor and magnet. In this paper, an integrated propulsion, guidance, and levitation system by magnetically excited transverse flux linear motor (TFM-LM) with high force and high efficiency is introduced. Analytical equations with one-dimensional magnetic equivalent circuit are developed to predict the propulsion force and to guide the design of TFM-LM. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element (FE) program calculates the propulsion force, the guidance force, and the levitation force of TFM-LM also, in order to verify the given specification. To verify the results of 3-D FE calculation, the computed propulsion force, guidance force, and levitation force are compared with the experimentally measured forces detected on the experimental setup. The calculated and measured performances of TFM-LM reveal a high potential of mass reduction for magnetic-levitated vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Online rotor mixed fault diagnosis way based on spectrum analysis of instantaneous power in squirrel cage induction motors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 485 - 490
    Cited by:  Papers (62)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Broken rotor bars and eccentricity are common faults in squirrel cage induction motors. These two faults usually occur simultaneously. This paper will deal with this kind of mixed fault. It is well known that the characteristic frequency of broken bars in the stator line current of a squirrel cage induction motor is very near to that of the fundamental component. In the spectrum of the stator line current, the characteristic components related to broken rotor bars are always submerged by the fundamental one, and it is difficult to detect the broken bar fault at an early stage. In our work, instantaneous power of the motor is used as the quantity to be monitored. Theoretical analysis indicates that the spectrum of ac level of the spectrum of the instantaneous power is clear from any component at the fundamental supply frequency, and the fault characteristics can be highlighted, which is effective toward the separation of mixed faults and the quantification of the fault extent. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative learning-based high-performance current controller for switched reluctance motors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 491 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are being considered for variable speed drive applications due to their simple construction and fault-tolerant power-electronic converter configuration. However, inherent torque ripple and the consequent vibration and acoustic noise act against their cause. Most researchers have proposed a cascaded torque control structure for its well-known advantages. In a cascaded control structure, accurate torque control requires accurate current tracking by the inner current controller. As SRM operates in magnetic saturation, the system is highly nonlinear from the control point of view. Developing an accurate current tracking controller for such a nonlinear system is a big challenge. Additionally, the controller should be robust to model inaccuracy, as SRM modeling is very tedious and prone to error. In this paper, we have reviewed various current controllers reported in the literature and discussed their merits and demerits. Subsequently, we have proposed and implemented a novel high-performance current controller based on iterative learning, which shows improved current tracking without the need for an accurate model. Experimental results provided for a 1-hp, 8/6-pole SRM, demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • On-line estimation of synchronous Generator parameters using a damper current observer and a graphic user interface

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 499 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to identify synchronous generator parameters from on-line data measured at the terminals of the machine. An observer for estimation of synchronous generator damper currents is designed and implemented. The observer-estimator is used in a Graphic User Interface (GUI) application. Possible internal machine fault conditions can be detected and remedial action can be applied. Noise filtering and bad data detection and rejection are implemented to increase the reliability of the estimates. Saturation of the synchronous generator inductances is also considered. Secondary objectives include calculation of the error characteristics of the estimation, development of an index of confidence, study of the observability of generator parameters, and evaluation of alternative GUI features. View full abstract»

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  • Operating principles of a novel multiphase multimotor vector-controlled drive

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 508 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Independent flux and torque control of an ac machine can be achieved by means of vector control, utilizing only two stator d-q current components. Consequently, in ac machines with a phase number greater than three, there exist additional degrees of freedom. Although they can be used to enhance the torque production of a multiphase machine through injection of higher stator current harmonics, an entirely different purpose is possible as well. The additional degrees of freedom can be utilized to control independently other machines within a multimotor drive system. In order to do so, it is necessary to connect stator windings of all the multiphase machines in series, with an appropriate phase transposition, apply a vector control algorithm to each machine separately, and supply the stator windings of the multi-machine system from a single current controlled voltage source inverter (VSI). Inverter current control is performed in the stationary reference frame, using inverter phase currents. The foundations of the concept are set forth in the paper, for an arbitrary odd n-phase case, using the general theory of electrical machines. Further analysis is performed for all the theoretically possible odd phase numbers and it is shown that the number of machines connectable in series depends on the properties of the phase number. Connection diagrams are illustrated next for some selected phase numbers and vector control, including the inverter reference current generation, is detailed for the multimotor drive system. The main advantages and drawbacks of the concept are discussed and verification is provided by simulation of a nine-phase four-motor drive system. View full abstract»

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  • Force density limits in low-speed PM machines due to temperature and reactance

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 518 - 525
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses two of the mechanisms that limit the attainable force density in slotted low-speed permanent-magnet (PM) electric machines. Most of the interest is focused on the force density limits imposed by heating of the windings and by stator reactance. The study is based on analytical models for the force and reactance calculations and a lumped parameter thermal model. It is found that in a machine with an indirectly cooled stator, it is difficult to achieve a force density greater than 100 kN/m2 due to temperature limits. A high force density is achieved by using deep slots, which lead to high reactance. The high reactance severely increases the converter kilovolt-ampere requirement and total system cost. It is also shown that the cost caused by the high reactance will also limit the force density reached. In machines with one slot per pole per phase, the reactance limited the useful slot depth to approximately 200 mm. However, in machines having a greater number of slots per pole per phase the reactance becomes no longer an important limiting factor for the slot depth and force density. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized generator model for transformer transfer voltage studies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 526 - 531
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surge tests were performed to derive a generator model considering its frequency characteristics. Impulse voltages were applied to one terminal of the generators after placing a variable capacitor at the same terminal. The inductances and the core-loss resistances of a generator model can be determined from the measured oscillating voltages. This paper presents a generalization of the method aimed at deriving these generator parameters. The accuracy of the proposed method is confirmed to be satisfactory after comparing measured and simulated transfer voltages. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of eddy current loss in axial field permanent-magnet machine with coreless stator

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 532 - 538
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a hybrid method for the calculation of eddy current loss in coreless stator axial field permanent-magnet (AFPM) machines. The method combines the use of two-dimensional finite element (FE) field analysis and the closed-form eddy loss formula. To account for three-dimensional field effects in an AFPM machine, a multilayer and multislice modeling technique has been devised. Experimental tests are carried out to validate the method. It is shown that the proposed method predicts the eddy current losses of a coreless stator AFPM machine with high accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • A wideband lumped circuit model of the terminal and internal electromagnetic response of rotating machine windings with a coaxial insulation system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 539 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The polyphase model can be used to simulate the terminal and internal electromagnetic response of, for example, Powerformer™: a new power generator. The circuit parameters are based on geometrical and material data. The slot leakage is modeled by means of a reluctance circuit, which is coupled to the electric circuit by means of winding templates. The capacitive current and its losses in the outer semiconducting layer of the cable are modeled with a simplified version of an RC model that has been used previously for other coaxially insulated windings. The eddy current losses were neglected; however, it is presented how they can be included in the model. The simulated frequency and transient response of the lumped circuit is compared with measurements on an 11-MVA/45-kV, 600-r/min hydro Powerformer. With exception of the damping, the agreement is good, qualitatively, up to 100 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a novel wind turbine simulator for wind energy conversion systems using an inverter-controlled induction motor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 547 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wind turbine simulator for wind energy conversion systems has been developed with a view to design, evaluate, and test of actual wind turbine drive trains including generators, transmissions, power-electronic converters and controllers. The simulator consists of a 10-hp induction motor (IM) which drives a generator and is driven by a 10-kW variable speed drive inverter and real-time control software. In this simulator, a microcontroller, a PC interfaced to LAB Windows I/O board, and an IGBT inverter-controlled induction motor are used instead of a real wind turbine to supply shaft torque. A control program based on C language is developed that obtains wind profiles and, by using turbine characteristics and rotation speed of IM, calculates the theoretical shaft torque of a real wind turbine. Comparing with this torque value, the shaft torque of the IM is regulated accordingly by controlling stator current demand and frequency demand of the inverter. In this way, the inverter driven induction motor acts like a real wind turbine to the energy conversion system. The drive is controlled using the measured shaft torque directly, instead of estimating it as conventional drives do. The experimental results of the proposed simulator show that this scheme is viable and accurate. This paper reports the operating principles, theoretical analyses, and test results of this wind turbine simulator. View full abstract»

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  • Transpositions in stator bars of large turbogenerators

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 553 - 560
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    A method to calculate circulating currents in the bars, especially double Roebel bars of the stator winding of synchronous machines is presented, different physical modeling is discussed, and results of calculations and measurements are explained. In synchronous machines, especially in large turbogenerators with direct water cooling of the stator winding, the bars consist often of two simple Roebel bars integrated in a double bar (twin bar). In these bars, circulating currents produce local losses which may lead to an overheating of the cooling medium. Double Roebel bars with cross transpositions avoid such overheating. View full abstract»

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  • Performance improvement of alternators with switched-mode rectifiers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 561 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of a switched-mode rectifier (SMR) allows automotive alternators to operate at a load-matched condition at all operating speeds, overcoming the limitation of optimum performance at just one speed , . While use of an SMR and load matching control enables large improvements in output power at cruising speed, no extra power is obtained at idle. This document introduces a new SMR modulation strategy capable of improving alternator output power at idle speed without violating thermal or current limits of the alternator. The new modulation scheme may be implemented with simple control hardware, and without the use of expensive current or position sensors. After introducing the new modulation method, we develop approximate analytical models that establish the underlying basis for the approach. Implementation considerations are addressed, and both simulation and experimental results are provided that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed control method. View full abstract»

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  • An improved control method of buried-type IPM bearingless motors considering magnetic saturation and magnetic pull variation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 569 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved control method of the buried-type interior permanent magnet (IPM) bearingless motors has been presented. It is shown that the conventional method is not applicable to this type of IPM bearingless motor for loaded conditions. In IPM bearingless motors, the armature reaction flux is present due to high magnetic permeance with thin permanent magnets and small airgap length. An increase in d-axis flux linkage is caused by armature reaction as a torque-component flux is increased. Thus, it is likely that magnetic saturation occurs in the stator teeth. In addition, a magnetic attractive force caused by the displacement force factor is dependent on the armature reaction flux. A new decoupling controller for the IPM bearingless motor considering magnetic saturation is proposed in this paper. It also considers the influence of magnetic attractive force variations. In addition, a new parameter identification method for the decoupling controller is also proposed. The new controller is found quite suitable to realize successful stable operation of the experimental IPM bearingless motor. View full abstract»

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  • A new method for synchronous generator core quality evaluation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 576 - 582
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    A new technique for detecting the presence and severity of inter-laminar short circuits as well as estimating the status of core compression (or looseness) in laminated magnetic cores of synchronous generators, with a single test equipment is demonstrated in this paper. The core loss measurement obtained from a flux injection probe that injects flux (of varying amplitude, frequency, and wave-shape) into two nominally adjacent teeth over a localized region, is used as an indicator for detecting and distinguishing the two fault conditions. An injection probe system was developed and tested, in the laboratory, using stacks of full size generator laminations with various induced fault conditions. The injection probe was shown to detect the presence of shorted laminations at the bottom of the slot and to gauge the degree of core compression or looseness. In addition, a unique differential probe was developed and tested to demonstrate the capability of detecting as few as five shorted laminations. View full abstract»

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  • Linear PM Generator system for wave energy conversion in the AWS

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 583 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (84)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Archimedes Wave Swing is a system that converts ocean wave energy into electric energy. A pilot plant of this system has been built. The generator system consists of a permanent-magnet linear synchronous generator with a current source inverter (CSI). The correlation between the measured and the calculated parameters of the designed generator is reasonable. The annual energy yield of the pilot plant is calculated from the wave distribution as 1.64 GWh. Using a voltage source inverter instead of a CSI improves the power factor, the current waveforms, the efficiency and the generator force, so that the annual energy yield increases with 18%. View full abstract»

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  • A collaborative operation method between new energy-type dispersed power supply and EDLC

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 590 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the modified Euler-type moving average prediction (EMAP) model is proposed to operate a new energy type dispersed power supply system in autonomous mode. This dispersed power supply system consists of a large-scale photovoltaic system (PV) and a fuel cell, as well as an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). This system can meet the multi-quality electric power requirements of customers, and ensures voltage stability and uninterruptible power supply function as well. Each subsystem of this distributed power supply contributes to the above-mentioned system performance with its own excellent characteristics. Based on the collaborative operation methods by EMAP model, the required capacity of EDLC to compensate the fluctuation of both PV output and load demand is examined by the simulation using software MATLAB/Simulink, and, response characteristics of this system is confirmed with simulation by software PSIM. View full abstract»

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  • Microprocessor-controlled new class of optimal battery chargers for photovoltaic applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 599 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple, fast and reliable technique for charging batteries by solar arrays is proposed. The operating point of a battery is carefully forced near the maximum power point of solar cells under all environmental (e.g., insolation, temperature, degradation) conditions. Optimal operation of solar arrays is achieved using the Voltage-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking (VMPPT) technique and the charger operating point is continuously adjusted by changing the charging current. An optimal solar battery charger is designed, simulated and constructed. Experimental and theoretical results are presented and analyzed. The main advantages of the proposed solar battery charger as compared with conventional ones are shorter charge time and lower cost. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear model identification of wind turbine with a neural network

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 607 - 612
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A nonlinear model of wind turbine based on a neural network (NN) is described for the estimation of wind turbine output power. The proposed nonlinear model uses the wind speed average, the standard deviation and the past output power as input data. An anemometer with a sampling rate of one second provides the wind speed data. The NN identification process uses a 10-min average speed with its standard deviation. The typical local data collected in September 2000 is used for the training, while those of October 2000 are used to validate the model. The optimal NN configuration is found to be 8-5-1 (8 inputs, 5 neurons on the hidden layer, one neuron on the output layer). The estimated mean square errors for the wind turbine output power are less than 1%. A comparison between the NN model and the stochastic model mostly used in the wind power prediction is done. This work is a basic tool to estimate wind turbine energy production from the average wind speed. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of a directly coupled photovoltaic water-pumping system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 613 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    The application of a stand-alone directly coupled photovoltaic (PV) electromechanical system for water pumping has increased in remote areas of developing countries. In this work, the performance of a PV-powered dc permanent-magnet (PM) motor coupled with a centrifugal pump has been analyzed at different solar intensities and corresponding cell temperature. The results obtained by experiments are compared with the calculated values, and it is observed that this system has a good match between the PV array and the electromechanical system characteristics. Through manual tracking (i.e., changing the orientation of PV array, three times a day to face the sun) the output obtained is 20% more compared to the fixed tilted PV array. It has been observed that the torque-speed curve at low solar intensities for a PV electromechanical system should be steeper than at higher solar intensities, and the load torque-speed curve should be as steep as possible in the operating region with low starting torque. The performance analysis will be helpful to select the suitable PV electromechanical system for water-pumping applications. View full abstract»

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  • Neuro-fuzzy-based solar cell model

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 619 - 624
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work describes a hybrid soft-computing modeling technique that facilitates the modeling of newly installed solar cells, or solar cells with few historical measured data, over a range of expected operating conditions. The technique uses neuro-fuzzy models to predict solar cell short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, followed by coordinate translation of a measured current-voltage response. The model can be extended beyond the bounds of measured data by incorporating a priori knowledge derived from theory and manufacturer's data. The solar cell model is developed and validated against measured data. The model requires fewer data than pure neural network models, and matches measured data more accurately than conventional solar cell models. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a generalized neuron-based PSS in a multimachine power system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 625 - 632
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An artificial neural network can work as an intelligent controller for nonlinear dynamic systems through learning, as it can easily accommodate the nonlinearities and time dependencies. In dealing with complex problems, most common neural networks have some drawbacks of large training time, large number of neurons and hidden layers. These drawbacks can be overcome by a nonlinear controller based on a generalized neuron (GN) which retains the quick response of neural net. Results of studies with a GN-based power system stabilizer on a five-machine power system show that it can provide good damping over a wide operating range and significantly improve the dynamic performance of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a stand-alone renewable energy system based on energy storage as hydrogen

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 633 - 640
    Cited by:  Papers (96)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energy (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on energy storage as hydrogen has been developed and installed at the Hydrogen Research Institute, and successfully tested for autonomous operation with developed control system and power conditioning devices. The excess energy produced, with respect to the load requirement, has been sent to the electrolyzer for hydrogen production. When energy produced from the RE sources became insufficient, with respect to the load requirement, the stored hydrogen was fed to a fuel cell to produce electricity. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated through power conditioning devices on a dc bus for autonomous operation by using a developed control system. The developed control system has been successfully tested for autonomous operation and energy management of the system. The experimental results clearly indicate that a stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production is safe and reliable. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion includes in its venue the research, development, design, application, construction, installation, operation, analysis and control of electric power generating and energy storage equipment (along with conventional, cogeneration, nuclear, distributed or renewable sources, central station and grid connection). The scope also includes electromechanical energy conversion, electric machinery, devices, systems and facilities for the safe, reliable, and economic generation and utilization of electrical energy for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption of electrical energy.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Juri Jatskevich
University of British Columbia