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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Date Aug. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover]

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  • Celebrating the vitality of technology the Proceedings of the IEEE [advertisement]

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  • Table of contents

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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

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  • On the evolution of Internet technologies

    Page(s): 1360 - 1370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Internet has been evolving from its origins in the early 1970s, based on work sponsored by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. While the basic design was known in 1973 and first published in 1974 and the system essentially deployed in the academic and military communities on January 1, 1983, much has happened in the intervening 20 years. The first commercial Internet services emerged in 1989 after the interconnection of the Internet to commercial e-mail services. By 1993, commercial versions of the World Wide Web had appeared, and by 2003, voice over IP service was growing rapidly, after its first commercial introduction around 1995 (See Vocaltec: http://www.vocaltec.com/html/about/company.shtml). The Internet of the future will be shaped by the tectonic forces of regulation, commercialization, technological change, and a wide range of policy concerns expressed at local, national, regional and international levels. In this paper, the effect of these forces is considered and an attempt made to project their effects into the future. View full abstract»

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  • The role of the standards process in shaping the Internet

    Page(s): 1371 - 1374
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the role of the standards process in shaping the future evolution of the Internet. It addresses the industry's need to develop and deploy unique functionality and how it interacts with the communicating users' need for universally available and consistently implemented services, and the role that the standard bodies play in resolving this tension. A brief overview of the organization of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and more specifically of its operating mode to promote the emergence of new standards for the Internet, is presented. An outline of some of the main topics under discussion currently is offered. The evolution of the attendance to the IETF meetings during recent years is commented upon. View full abstract»

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  • Protecting the Internet from distributed denial-of-service attacks: a proposal

    Page(s): 1375 - 1381
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the Internet becomes increasingly widely used and as individuals and businesses come to depend on it ever more, disruptions of service are less and less tolerable. Disruptions occur either because of a natural disaster, e.g., a fire or equipment failure, or because of a deliberate attack. Protecting against natural disasters is generally easier than protecting against malicious attacks. Our focus here is on the latter. Malicious attacks fall broadly into two classes. One class is penetration, whereby an unauthorized user gains access to one or more machines. Another class is denial-of-service attacks. In this paper, we analyze the nature and impact of this latter class of attacks and propose a method to reduce their threat and impact. View full abstract»

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  • Service level agreements on IP networks

    Page(s): 1382 - 1388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides an overview of service level agreements (SLAs) in IP networks. It looks at the typical components of an SLA and identifies three common approaches that are used to satisfy SLAs in IP networks. The implications of using the approaches in the context of a network service provider, a hosting service provider, and an enterprise are examined. While most providers currently offer a static insurance approach toward supporting SLAs, the schemes that can lead to more dynamic approaches are identified. View full abstract»

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  • Internet traffic, QoS, and pricing

    Page(s): 1389 - 1399
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on an analysis of the statistical nature of IP traffic and the way this impacts the performance of voice, video, and data services, we question the appropriateness of commonly proposed quality-of-service mechanisms. This paper presents the main points of this analysis. We also discuss pricing issues and argue that many proposed schemes are overly concerned with congestion control to the detriment of the primary pricing function of return on investment. Finally, we propose an alternative flow-aware networking architecture based on a novel router design called cross-protect. In this architecture, performance requirements are satisfied without explicit service differentiation, creating a particularly simple platform for the converged network. View full abstract»

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  • IPv6 on DSL: the best way to develop always-on services

    Page(s): 1400 - 1407
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    The deployment of IPv6 has become an issue of strategic importance for many economies, and telecom operators and ISPs play a key role in ensuring the availability of this new protocol on broadband access networks. It cannot be denied that the complexities exist in deploying IPv6 in an IPv4 world. Knowing this, telecom operators and ISPs have to ensure a viable transition strategy that takes into account transparent interoperability and mature integrated functionalities for deploying advanced applications on both IPv4 and IPv6. This potent combination will enable operators and ISPs to exploit the richer services offered by IPv6 while interoperating IPv4 during this long transition period, creating a new business model that will generate return on investment without waiting for the whole world to be fully IPv6 deployed. Only the use of IPv6 at the end-user site can drive differentiated services, achieving returns in not only investments, but also in services innovation and flexible communication solutions. So both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols have now to be implemented on digital subscriber line access networks. Solutions are mature and are beginning to be deployed. View full abstract»

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  • A transport layer for live streaming in a content delivery network

    Page(s): 1408 - 1419
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    Streaming media on the Internet has experienced rapid growth over the last few years and will continue to increase in importance as broadband technologies and authoring tools continue to improve. As the Internet becomes an increasingly popular alternative to traditional communications media, Internet streaming will become a significant component of many content providers' communications strategies. Internet streaming, however, poses significant challenges for content providers, since it has significant distribution problems. Scalability, quality, reliability, and cost are all issues that have to be addressed in a successful streaming media offering. Streaming content delivery networks (streaming CDNs) attempt to provide solutions to the bottlenecks encountered by streaming applications on the Internet. However, only a small number of them has been deployed, and little is known about the internal organization of these systems. In this paper, we discuss the design choices made during the evolution of Akamai's CDN for streaming media. In particular, we look at the design choices made to ensure the network's scalability, quality of delivered content, and reliability while keeping costs low. Performance studies conducted on the evolving system indicate that our design scores highly on all of the above categories. View full abstract»

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  • The emerging role of the Web for enterprise applications and ASPs

    Page(s): 1420 - 1438
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    Web technologies were initially used for Web publishing and advertising in enterprises. However, over the years Web technologies have merged with other distributed computing technologies and assumed a vital role in satisfying enterprise business needs. This paper takes a systematic and practical look at Web evolution from static HTML to Web-enabled business components that are at the foundation of currently popular Web services (WS). In particular, WS is a result of convergence of the Web with distributed object technologies and is positioned to play a central role in building and integrating enterprise applications in the future. However, the impact of WS is not limited to enterprise boundaries - business-to-business trade and outsourcing through application service providers can also be profoundly impacted. This paper highlights the key aspects of these developments because they will drive the requirements to be satisfied by the current and future Internet technologies. The possible deterrents to these developments and approaches to address these deterrents are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Video delivery technologies for large-scale deployment of multimedia applications

    Page(s): 1439 - 1451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Deployment of a large-scale multimedia streaming application requires an enormous amount of server and network resources. The simplest delivery technique allocates server resources for each specific request. This technique is very expensive and is not scalable to support a very large user community such as the Internet. Hence, the past decade has witnessed tremendous research efforts to facilitate cost-effective, large-scale deployment of multimedia streaming applications. In this paper, we describe three complementary research approaches: server transmission schemes using multicast, streaming strategies with application layer multicast, and proxy caching techniques. We discuss pros and cons of these technologies and provide our observations on current business solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Ethernet: making Ethernet carrier class for professional services

    Page(s): 1452 - 1462
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    The existing overlaid data network architecture deployed by most service providers has shown its shortcomings in supporting professional business services due to its complexity and high cost. This paper introduces a new optical transport technology that is based on Ethernet but integrates all the required features to consolidate multiple layers below the IP layer in the existing architecture into one, thus simplifying the architecture and significantly reducing the cost both in network buildout and in network operations. The paper provides the technical details on how the limitations of traditional Ethernet are overcome and how Ethernet becomes carrier class. It also introduces the new services enabled by carrier-class Ethernet and analyzes the impact of it on Internet evolution. View full abstract»

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  • Internet protocol support for telephony

    Page(s): 1463 - 1477
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the evolution of telephone networks from time-division multiplexing circuit switching to packet switching and, in particular, to packet switching-based on Internet Protocol (IP-supported telephony). We analyze IP-supported telephony design solutions by proposing a layered reference model in which each layer is associated to a subset of the functions that support telephony. We use the reference model to establish a terminology and a framework for the comparison of the design solutions. We group the design solutions in scenarios and compare them in terms of the reference model proposed. We then focus on IP telephony, in which IP is used in telephone company networks, and on Internet telephony, in which the Internet is used to support telephony. We show that they both can be seen as implementations of the same architecture, which consists of a set of components, associated to functions, and of the interactions among these components. We then consider the issue of voice-data integration and analyze the variety of design solutions that can be adopted to integrate voice and data. View full abstract»

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  • Self-aware networks and QoS

    Page(s): 1478 - 1489
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel user-oriented networked systems will simultaneously exploit a variety of wired and wireless communication modalities to offer different levels of quality of service (QoS), including reliability and security to users, low economic cost, and performance. Within a single such user-oriented network, different connections themselves may differ from each other with respect to QoS needs. Similarly, the communication infrastructure used by such a network will, in general, be shared among many different networks and users so that the resources available will fluctuate over time, both on the long and short term. Such a user-oriented network will not usually have precise information about the infrastructure it is using at any given instant of time, so that its knowledge should be acquired from online observations. Thus, we suggest that user-oriented networks should exploit self-adaptiveness to try to obtain the best possible QoS for all their connections. In this paper we review experiments which illustrate how "self-awareness," through online self-monitoring and measurement, coupled with intelligent adaptive behavior in response to observations, can be used to offer user-oriented QoS. Our presentation is based on ongoing experimental work with several "cognitive packet network" testbeds that we have developed. View full abstract»

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  • Web services architecture for user control and management of optical Internet networks

    Page(s): 1490 - 1500
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    One of the primary goals of the CA*net 4 network is to provide end users with the ability, on a peer-to-peer basis, to provision, manage, and control the routing of their own lightpaths across the network without the need to signal or request services from any central network management authority or server. A novel approach to such end-user management and control of lightpaths is described, which uses Web services architecture and grid technology. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical engineering Hall of Fame: Guglielmo Marconi

    Page(s): 1501 - 1504
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    In 1920, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) selected Guglielmo Marconi as the third recipient of its Medal of Honor. He was honored for "his pioneer work in radio telegraphy." The Italian-born inventor-entrepreneur had become world famous for his success in transmitting wireless signals over long distances in the early 20th century. The IRE Medal of Honor was by no means his first award. He had, in fact, shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1909 for his important contributions to radio science and engineering. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Page(s): 1505 - 1506
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 1507 - 1508
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

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  • Check out our October issue

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The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

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Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University