By Topic

Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2004

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (95 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—I: Regular Papers publication information

    Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (36 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reduction of phase noise in linear HBT amplifiers using low-frequency active feedback

    Page(s): 1417 - 1421
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of low-frequency active feedback in the 1/f phase modulation (PM) noise of a linear SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor amplifier operating at 1 GHz. The voltage gain and the output resistance of the feedback amplifier were varied and their effect on the baseband collector voltage noise reduction and PM noise reduction were observed. Our results show that the measured reduction in the baseband noise when using active feedback was in close agreement with the expected reduction (within 2 dB) for all the configurations tested. While the PM noise was also reduced when active feedback was used, in some feedback configurations the PM noise reduction was not as large as the reduction observed in the baseband noise. The best amplifier PM noise obtained when using low-frequency feedback was L(f)≅-140 dBc/Hz at 100 Hz from the carrier, a reduction of 21 dB compared to the amplifier without feedback. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spectral spurs due to quantization in Nyquist ADCs

    Page(s): 1422 - 1439
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents intuitive yet quantitative insights into the harmonics of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) output spectra. It derives the spectral signatures associated with imperfections in practical ADCs. This understanding leads to remedies based on architecture and time-averaging, which are combined to propose a calibration-free pipeline CMOS ADC that simulations show is capable of better than 100-dB spurious-free dynamic range in the presence of real-life imperfections. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Synthesis of programmable multi-input current-mode linear analog circuits

    Page(s): 1440 - 1456
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports synthesis methodologies for linear analog circuits. A generalized multi-input operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) network has been synthesized that can be easily programmed to realize different analog functions. The design of the multifunction network has been realized without any switches. The inherent characteristic of OTA as a voltage-to-current (V-I) converter with differential input has been exploited in the synthesis procedure. Efficient analog circuits synthesized with programmable OTA network are reported along with simulation results. The theoretical analysis supported by extensive experimental results confirms low sensitivity, high-frequency response, and efficient programmability of the proposed OTA network to realize different types of filters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Efficient analysis of slow-varying oscillator dynamics

    Page(s): 1457 - 1467
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new method to characterize the behavior of an oscillator's slow-varying modes, e.g., amplitude and phase. Key to the method is the projection of the original set of circuit equations onto the slow manifold defined by the oscillator's core system. The core system corresponds to the terms of the circuit equations that generate the fast-varying oscillations. The corresponding slow manifold is made up by the core system's steady-state solutions. By means of perturbation and averaging techniques, we then extract the equations that govern the oscillator's motion over the slow manifold. These equations correspond to the (slow-varying) dynamics of, for instance, the oscillator's amplitude, phase or common-mode level. In many cases, they capture that part of the oscillator's behavior that is of greatest interest. Moreover, since the method here presented explicitly separates the analysis of an oscillator's fast- and slow-varying behavior, it can be used to improve simulation efficiency or for behavioral model extraction. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Arbitrary waveform DDFS utilizing Chebyshev polynomials interpolation

    Page(s): 1468 - 1475
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new technique of arbitrary waveform direct digital frequency synthesis (DDFS) is introduced. In this method, one period of the desired periodic waveform is divided into m sections, and each section is approximated by a series of Chebyshev polynomials up to degree d. By expanding the resultant Chebyshev polynomials, a power series of degree d is produced. The coefficients of this power series are obtained by a closed-form direct formula. To reconstruct the desired signal, the coefficients of the approximated power series are placed in a small ROM, which delivers the coefficients to the inputs of a digital system. This digital system contains digital multipliers and adders to simulate the desired polynomial, as well as a phase accumulator for generating the digital time base. The output of this system is a reconstructed signal that is a good approximation of the desired waveform. The accuracy of the output signal depends on the degree of the reconstructing polynomial, the number of subsections, the wordlength of the truncated phase accumulator output, as well as the word length of the DDFS system output. The coefficients are not dependent on the sampling frequency; therefore, the proposed system is ideal for frequency sweeping. The proposed method is adopted to build a traditional DDFS to generate a sinusoidal signal. The tradeoff between the ROM capacity, number of sections, and spectral purity for an infinite output wordlength is also investigated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the design and multiplierless realization of perfect reconstruction triplet-based FIR filter banks and wavelet bases

    Page(s): 1476 - 1491
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes new methods for the efficient design and realization of perfect reconstruction (PR) two-channel finite-impulse response (FIR) triplet filter banks (FBs) and wavelet bases. It extends the linear-phase FIR triplet FBs of Ansari et al. to include FIR triplet FBs with lower system delay and a prescribed order of K regularity. The design problem using either the minimax error or least-squares criteria is formulated as a semidefinite programming problem, which is a very flexible framework to incorporate linear and convex quadratic constraints. The K regularity conditions are also expressed as a set of linear equality constraints in the variables to be optimized and they are structurally imposed into the design problem by eliminating the redundant variables. The design method is applicable to linear-phase as well as low-delay triplet FBs. Design examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, it was found that the analysis and synthesis filters of the triplet FB have a more symmetric frequency responses. This property is exploited to construct a class of PR M-channel uniform FBs and wavelets with M=2L, where L is a positive integer, using a particular tree structure. The filter lengths of the two-channel FBs down the tree are approximately reduced by a factor of two at each level or stage, while the transition bandwidths are successively increased by the same factor. Because of the downsampling operations, the frequency responses of the final analysis filters closely resemble those in a uniform FB with identical transition bandwidth. This triplet-based uniform M-channel FB has very low design complexity and the PR condition and K regularity conditions are structurally imposed. Furthermore, it has considerably lower arithmetic complexity and system delay than conventional tree structure using identical FB at all levels. The multiplierless realization of these FBs using sum-of-power-of-two (SOPOT) coefficients and multiplier block is also studied. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hardware efficient fast parallel FIR filter structures based on iterated short convolution

    Page(s): 1492 - 1500
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an iterated short convolution (ISC) algorithm, based on the mixed radix algorithm and fast convolution algorithm. This ISC-based linear convolution structure is transposed to obtain a new hardware efficient fast parallel finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure, which saves a large amount of hardware cost, especially when the length of the FIR filter is large. For example, for a 576-tap filter, the proposed structure saves 17% to 42% of the multiplications, 17% to 44% of the delay elements, and 3% to 27% of the additions, of those of prior fast parallel structures, when the level of parallelism varies from 6 to 72. Their regular structures also facilitate automatic hardware implementation of parallel FIR filters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interconnect energy dissipation in high-speed ULSI circuits

    Page(s): 1501 - 1514
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a detailed empirical study and analytical derivation of voltage waveform and energy dissipation of global lines driven by CMOS drivers. It is shown that at high clock frequencies where the output voltage at the termination point of the transmission line may not reach its steady-state value during the clock period, it is possible to reduce energy dissipation while meeting a dc noise margin by driver sizing. This is in sharp contrast with the steady-state analysis, which states that driver size has no impact on the energy dissipation per output change. In addition, we propose a new design metric which is the product of energy, delay and some measure of ringing in lossy transmission lines. In particular, this paper provides closed-form expressions for the energy dissipation, 50% propagation delay, and the percentage of maximum undershoot when the circuit exhibits an underdamped behavior. This metric is used during the driver sizing problem formulation for minimum energy-delay-ringing product. The experimental results carried out by HSPICE simulation verify the accuracy of our models. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Para-CORDIC: parallel CORDIC rotation algorithm

    Page(s): 1515 - 1524
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the parallel COrdinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) rotation algorithm in circular and hyperbolic coordinate is proposed. The most critical path of the conventional CORDIC rotation lies in the determination of rotation directions, which depends on the sign of the remaining angle after each iteration. Using the binary-to-bipolar recoding (BBR) and microrotation angle recoding techniques, the rotation directions can be predicted directly from the binary value of the initial input angle. The original sequential CORDIC rotations can be divided into two phases where the rotations in each phase can be executed in parallel. Our proposed architectures have a more regular and simpler prediction scheme compared to previous approaches. The critical path delay is reduced since the concurrently predicted rotations can be combined using multioperand carry-save addition structures. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computation of singular and singularity induced bifurcation points of differential-algebraic power system model

    Page(s): 1525 - 1538
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm to compute singular points and singularity-induced bifurcation points of differential-algebraic equations for a multimachine power-system model. Power systems are often modeled as a set of differential-algebraic equations (DAE) whose algebraic part brings singularity issues into dynamic stability assessment of power systems. Roughly speaking, the singular points are points that satisfy the algebraic equations, but at which the vector field is not defined. In terms of power-system dynamics, around singular points, the generator angles (the natural states variables) are not defined as a graph of the load bus variables (the algebraic variables). Thus, the causal requirement of the DAE model breaks down and it cannot predict system behavior. Singular points constitute important organizing elements of power-system DAE models. This paper proposes an iterative method to compute singular points at any given parameter value. With a lemma presented in this paper, we are also able to locate singularity induced bifurcation points upon identifying the singular points. The proposed method is implemented into voltage stability toolbox and simulations results are presented for a 5-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sliding-mode control design of a boost-buck switching converter for AC signal generation

    Page(s): 1539 - 1551
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a sliding-mode control design of a boost-buck switching converter for a voltage step-up dc-ac conversion without the use of any transformer. This approach combines the step-up/step-down conversion ratio capability of the converter with the robustness properties of sliding-mode control. The proposed control strategy is based on the design of two sliding-control laws, one ensuring the control of a full-bridge buck converter for proper dc-ac conversion, and the other one the control a boost converter for guaranteeing a global dc-to-ac voltage step-up ratio. A set of design criteria and a complete design procedure of the sliding-control laws are derived from small-signal analysis and large-signal considerations. The experimental results presented in the paper evidence both the achievement of step-up dc-ac conversion with good accuracy and robustness in front of input voltage and load perturbations, thus validating the proposed approach. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of modified "Bussgang" algorithms (MBAs) for channel equalization

    Page(s): 1552 - 1560
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In previous papers, we introduced two modified "Bussgang" algorithms (MBAs) for blind-channel equalization based on Bayesian iterative estimation of the source sequence. They were developed in order to reduce the computational complexity of the original "Bussgang" algorithm as well as to make it more flexible by introducing a kind of source adaptivity. However, the previous work relied on some heuristic findings, validated by a series of computer-based experiments. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical investigation of some particular aspects of the adapting equations, namely, the steady-state conditions, in order to ameliorate the performances of the MBAs and to better explain their numerical behavior. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Polynomial filtering for stochastic non-Gaussian descriptor systems

    Page(s): 1561 - 1576
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The class of stochastic descriptor systems, also named singular systems, has been widely investigated and many important results in the linear filtering theory have been achieved in the framework of Gaussian processes. Nevertheless, such results could be far from optimal, especially in the case of highly asymmetrical non-Gaussian noises. This paper solves the estimation problem for stochastic singular systems affected by non-Gaussian noises by means of a polynomial filtering algorithm based on the minimum variance criterion. The performance of the polynomial filter can be improved by increasing its degree. The filter structure is such to give back the optimal filter in the case of Gaussian noise, thus yielding a first-order polynomial filter. In the non-Gaussian case, the improvement of the polynomial filter can be highly significative, especially when the noise distribution is strongly asymmetrical. Simulations support theoretical results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Compact analytical solutions for determining the spectral characteristics of multicarrier-based multilevel PWM

    Page(s): 1577 - 1585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilevel pulsewidth modulation (PWM) has become very important in high-power applications in recent years. Many different types of topology and control strategy have been developed to cater for the increasing need. One of the major concerns of the control strategy is to reduce the undesirable harmonics in order to improve the performance and efficiency. This paper presents the derivation of analytical solutions for determining the spectral characteristics of the multicarrier-based multilevel sinusoidal PWM. By decomposing the multilevel PWM into a series of sub-PWM and followed by using double Fourier series analysis, compact analytical solutions for any level with any carrier phase disposition have been obtained. Closed-form solutions have also been derived for double-sided multilevel PWM under certain specific carrier phase settings. The analytical solutions have been cross verified extensively with simulations and the results match with each other very well. It is shown that the proposed analytical solutions are by far the most compact reported in the literature. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A general method to predict the amplitude of oscillation in nearly sinusoidal oscillators

    Page(s): 1586 - 1595
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a general methodology for predicting the amplitude of oscillation in nearly sinusoidal oscillators is presented. The method relies on the recently proposed projection technique for the computation of the center manifold and on the Hopf normal form theory to approximate the corresponding limit cycle in state space. The Colpitts oscillator is selected as a case study and, for this circuit, a closed-form expression for the amplitude of oscillation is derived as a function of the circuit parameters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Output ripple analysis of switching DC-DC converters

    Page(s): 1596 - 1611
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    State space averaging methods are used to derive time-invariant models that bound the envelope of trajectories of pulsewidth modulated (PWM) dc-dc converters. The results are compared to conventional averaging methods used in power electronics, and it is shown that, at times, designing a dc-dc converter based on the averaged output of a converter can be ineffective because peak output values sometimes significantly deviate from the averaged output. This paper attempts to quantify this deviation by using both small-signal transfer functions and nonlinear models to model the maximum and minimum values of outputs of PWM converters. Issues in simulation and control loop design are also mentioned. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reconstruction of band-limited periodic nonuniformly sampled signals through multirate filter banks

    Page(s): 1612 - 1622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A band-limited signal can be recovered from its periodic nonuniformly spaced samples provided the average sampling rate is at least the Nyquist rate. A multirate filter bank structure is used to both model this nonuniform sampling (through the analysis bank) and reconstruct a uniformly sampled sequence (through the synthesis bank). Several techniques for modeling the nonuniform sampling are presented for various cases of sampling. Conditions on the filter bank structure are used to accurately reconstruct uniform samples of the input signal at the Nyquist rate. Several examples and simulation results are presented, with emphasis on forms of nonuniform sampling that may be useful in mixed-signal integrated circuits. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A single-phase active power filter with one-cycle control under unipolar operation

    Page(s): 1623 - 1630
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, analysis and design for a single-phase active power filter (APF) with one-cycle control is presented. The proposed control method eliminates the need of sensing the load current, a nontrivial task of calculating the harmonics and reactive current components, as well as the use of multipliers, as reported by many previously reported approaches. In addition, the switching loss is reduced by employing unipolar operation, where only two out of four switches are operated at switching frequency while the other two are stationary on or off during an entire half-line cycle. The design methodology taking electromagnetic interference filter into account is also discussed in detail. The theoretical analysis is verified by experiments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Uniform approximation of periodically-varying systems

    Page(s): 1631 - 1638
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that the elements of a large class of periodically varying nonlinear input-output maps can be uniformly approximated arbitrarily well, over infinite time intervals, using a certain structure that can be implemented in many ways using, for example, radial basis functions, polynomial functions, piecewise linear functions, sigmoids, or combinations of these functions. For the special case in which these functions are taken to be certain polynomial functions, the input-output map of our structure is a generalized finite Volterra series. Results are given for the case in which inputs and outputs are defined on IR. The case in which inputs and outputs are defined on the half-line IR+ is also addressed. In both cases inputs need not be functions that are continuous. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A pure realization of loss-free resistor

    Page(s): 1639 - 1647
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Realization of a loss-free resistor element (i.e., element with resistive input characteristic and yet loss-free) by means of switched mode converters operated in discontinuous current conduction mode (DCM) is presented. Practically, the input characteristic is not pure resistive due to the ripple and filtering effects. A method which enables reduction of the ripple to negligible values and the elimination of the input filter is presented, which facilitates realization of practical circuits with nearly pure input resistive characteristic. This approach is based on the operation of a group of converters operating in power sharing interleaved mode. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Initial and boundary conditions in multidimensional wave digital filter algorithms for plate vibration

    Page(s): 1648 - 1663
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, multidimensional wave digital filter (MDWDF) structures have been proposed for the modeling of plate vibration problems. In this paper, we discuss how initial and boundary conditions may be properly embedded into such an algorithm in terms of the state quantities that are an integral part of the algorithm. Due to the essential feature of fully-local interconnectivity in the MDWDF model, different types of boundary conditions can be easily satisfied in a very simple and efficient manner. Instead of remodifying the whole algorithm, usually required by finite elements based methods, boundary conditions in terms of state outputs are simply attached to the model. This feature is especially useful when dealing with the mixed-edges boundary conditions frequently encountered in practice. Graphical results obtained from implementing the MDWDF algorithm are given to further demonstrate the capacities of the method in efficiently handling a fourth-order Mindlin plate vibration system with various types of boundary conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2005)

    Page(s): 1664
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The theory, analysis, design, and practical implementations of circuits, and the application of circuit techniques to systems and to signal processing.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Shanthi Pavan
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras