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Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Aug. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 1629
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  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part B: Cybernetics publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Adaptive neural network control for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with disturbances in discrete-time

    Page(s): 1630 - 1645
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, adaptive neural network (NN) control is investigated for a class of multiinput and multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown bounded disturbances in discrete-time domain. The MIMO system under study consists of several subsystems with each subsystem in strict feedback form. The inputs of the MIMO system are in triangular form. First, through a coordinate transformation, the MIMO system is transformed into a sequential decrease cascade form (SDCF). Then, by using high-order neural networks (HONN) as emulators of the desired controls, an effective neural network control scheme with adaptation laws is developed. Through embedded backstepping, stability of the closed-loop system is proved based on Lyapunov synthesis. The output tracking errors are guaranteed to converge to a residue whose size is adjustable. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • On combining support vector machines and simulated annealing in stereovision matching

    Page(s): 1646 - 1657
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    This paper outlines a method for solving the stereovision matching problem using edge segments as the primitives. In stereovision matching, the following constraints are commonly used: epipolar, similarity, smoothness, ordering, and uniqueness. We propose a new strategy in which such constraints are sequentially combined. The goal is to achieve high performance in terms of correct matches by combining several strategies. The contributions of this paper are reflected in the development of a similarity measure through a support vector machines classification approach; the transformation of the smoothness, ordering and epipolar constraints into the form of an energy function, through an optimization simulated annealing approach, whose minimum value corresponds to a good matching solution and by introducing specific conditions to overcome the violation of the smoothness and ordering constraints. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparative analysis against some recent global matching methods. View full abstract»

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  • Inference of reversible tree languages

    Page(s): 1658 - 1665
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    In this paper, we study the notion of k-reversibility and k-testability when regular tree languages are involved. We present an inference algorithm for learning a k-testable tree language that runs in polynomial time with respect to the size of the sample used. We also study the tree language classes in relation to other well known ones, and some properties of these languages are proven. View full abstract»

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  • Face recognition using fuzzy Integral and wavelet decomposition method

    Page(s): 1666 - 1675
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    In this paper, we develop a method for recognizing face images by combining wavelet decomposition, Fisherface method, and fuzzy integral. The proposed approach is comprised of four main stages. The first stage uses the wavelet decomposition that helps extract intrinsic features of face images. As a result of this decomposition, we obtain four subimages (namely approximation, horizontal, vertical, and diagonal detailed images). The second stage of the approach concerns the application of the Fisherface method to these four decompositions. The choice of the Fisherface method in this setting is motivated by its insensitivity to large variation in light direction, face pose, and facial expression. The two last phases are concerned with the aggregation of the individual classifiers by means of the fuzzy integral. Both Sugeno and Choquet type of fuzzy integral are considered as the aggregation method. In the experiments we use n-fold cross-validation to assure high consistency of the produced classification outcomes. The experimental results obtained for the Chungbuk National University (CNU) and Yale University face databases reveal that the approach presented in this paper yields better classification performance in comparison to the results obtained by other classifiers. View full abstract»

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  • Multioriented and curved text lines extraction from Indian documents

    Page(s): 1676 - 1684
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    There are printed artistic documents where text lines of a single page may not be parallel to each other. These text lines may have different orientations or the text lines may be curved shapes. For the optical character recognition (OCR) of these documents, we need to extract such lines properly. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, mainly based on the concept of water reservoir analogy, to extract individual text lines from printed Indian documents containing multioriented and/or curve text lines. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the cavity region of a character where water can be stored. In the proposed scheme, at first, connected components are labeled and identified either as isolated or touching. Next, each touching component is classified either straight type (S-type) or curve type (C-type), depending on the reservoir base-area and envelope points of the component. Based on the type (S-type or C-type) of a component two candidate points are computed from each touching component. Finally, candidate regions (neighborhoods of the candidate points) of the candidate points of each component are detected and after analyzing these candidate regions, components are grouped to get individual text lines. View full abstract»

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  • Generating high-speed dynamic running gaits in a quadruped robot using an evolutionary search

    Page(s): 1685 - 1696
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    Over the past several decades, there has been a considerable interest in investigating high-speed dynamic gaits for legged robots. While much research has been published, both in the biomechanics and engineering fields regarding the analysis of these gaits, no single study has adequately characterized the dynamics of high-speed running as can be achieved in a realistic, yet simple, robotic system. The goal of this paper is to find the most energy-efficient, natural, and unconstrained gallop that can be achieved using a simulated quadrupedal robot with articulated legs, asymmetric mass distribution, and compliant legs. For comparison purposes, we also implement the bound and canter. The model used here is planar, although we will show that it captures much of the predominant dynamic characteristics observed in animals. While it is not our goal to prove anything about biological locomotion, the dynamic similarities between the gaits we produce and those found in animals does indicate a similar underlying dynamic mechanism. Thus, we will show that achieving natural, efficient high-speed locomotion is possible even with a fairly simple robotic system. To generate the high-speed gaits, we use an efficient evolutionary algorithm called set-based stochastic optimization. This algorithm finds open-loop control parameters to generate periodic trajectories for the body. Several alternative methods are tested to generate periodic trajectories for the legs. The combined solutions found by the evolutionary search and the periodic-leg methods, over a range of speeds up to 10.0 m/s, reveal "biological" characteristics that are emergent properties of the underlying gaits. View full abstract»

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  • Using distributed partial memories to improve self-organizing collective movements

    Page(s): 1697 - 1707
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    Past self-organizing models of collectively moving "particles" (simulated bird flocks, fish schools, etc.) have typically been based on purely reflexive agents that have no significant memory of past movements. We hypothesized that giving such individual particles a limited distributed memory of past obstacles they encountered could lead to significantly faster travel between goal destinations. Systematic computational experiments using six terrains that had different arrangements of obstacles demonstrated that, at least in some domains, this conjecture is true. Furthermore, these experiments demonstrated that improved performance over time came not only from the avoidance of previously seen obstacles, but also (surprisingly) immediately after first encountering obstacles due to decreased delays in circumventing those obstacles. Simulations also showed that, of the four strategies we tested for removal of remembered obstacles when memory was full and a new obstacle was to be saved, none was better than random selection. These results may be useful in interpreting future experimental research on group movements in biological populations, and in improving existing methodologies for control of collective movements in computer graphics, robotic teams, particle swarm optimization, and computer games. View full abstract»

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  • Sparse kernel density construction using orthogonal forward regression with leave-one-out test score and local regularization

    Page(s): 1708 - 1717
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient construction algorithm for obtaining sparse kernel density estimates based on a regression approach that directly optimizes model generalization capability. Computational efficiency of the density construction is ensured using an orthogonal forward regression, and the algorithm incrementally minimizes the leave-one-out test score. A local regularization method is incorporated naturally into the density construction process to further enforce sparsity. An additional advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it is fully automatic and the user is not required to specify any criterion to terminate the density construction procedure. This is in contrast to an existing state-of-art kernel density estimation method using the support vector machine (SVM), where the user is required to specify some critical algorithm parameter. Several examples are included to demonstrate the ability of the proposed algorithm to effectively construct a very sparse kernel density estimate with comparable accuracy to that of the full sample optimized Parzen window density estimate. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm compares favorably with the SVM method, in terms of both test accuracy and sparsity, for constructing kernel density estimates. View full abstract»

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  • An evolutionary algorithm for large traveling salesman problems

    Page(s): 1718 - 1729
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work proposes an evolutionary algorithm, called the heterogeneous selection evolutionary algorithm (HeSEA), for solving large traveling salesman problems (TSP). The strengths and limitations of numerous well-known genetic operators are first analyzed, along with local search methods for TSPs from their solution qualities and mechanisms for preserving and adding edges. Based on this analysis, a new approach, HeSEA is proposed which integrates edge assembly crossover (EAX) and Lin-Kernighan (LK) local search, through family competition and heterogeneous pairing selection. This study demonstrates experimentally that EAX and LK can compensate for each other's disadvantages. Family competition and heterogeneous pairing selections are used to maintain the diversity of the population, which is especially useful for evolutionary algorithms in solving large TSPs. The proposed method was evaluated on 16 well-known TSPs in which the numbers of cities range from 318 to 13 509. Experimental results indicate that HeSEA performs well and is very competitive with other approaches. The proposed method can determine the optimum path when the number of cities is under 10 000 and the mean solution quality is within 0.0074% above the optimum for each test problem. These findings imply that the proposed method can find tours robustly with a fixed small population and a limited family competition length in reasonable time, when used to solve large TSPs. View full abstract»

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  • A controlled genetic programming approach for the deceptive domain

    Page(s): 1730 - 1742
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    Traditional genetic programming (GP) randomly combines subtrees by applying crossover. There is a growing interest in methods that can control such recombination operations in order to achieve faster convergence. In this paper, a new approach is presented for guiding the recombination process for genetic programming. The method is based on extracting the global information of the promising solutions that appear during the genetic search. The aim is to use this information to control the crossover operation afterwards. A separate control module is used to process the collected information. This module guides the search process by sending feedback to the genetic engine about the consequences of possible recombination alternatives. View full abstract»

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  • Reliable LQ fuzzy control for continuous-time nonlinear systems with actuator faults

    Page(s): 1743 - 1752
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the reliable linear quadratic (LQ) fuzzy control problem for continuous-time nonlinear systems with actuator faults. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to represent a nonlinear system. By using multiple Lyapunov functions, an improved linear matrix inequality (LMI) method for the design of reliable LQ fuzzy controllers is investigated, which reduces the conservatism of using a single Lyapunov function. The different upper bounds on the LQ performance cost function for the normal and different actuator fault cases are provided. A suboptimal reliable LQ fuzzy controller is given by means of an LMI optimization procedure, which can not only guarantee the stability of the closed-loop overall fuzzy system for all cases, but also provide an optimized upper bound on a weighted average LQ performance cost function. Finally, numerical simulations on the chaotic Lorenz system are given to illustrate the application of the proposed design method. View full abstract»

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  • Recognizing plankton images from the shadow image particle profiling evaluation recorder

    Page(s): 1753 - 1762
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a system to recognize underwater plankton images from the shadow image particle profiling evaluation recorder (SIPPER). The challenge of the SIPPER image set is that many images do not have clear contours. To address that, shape features that do not heavily depend on contour information were developed. A soft margin support vector machine (SVM) was used as the classifier. We developed a way to assign probability after multiclass SVM classification. Our approach achieved approximately 90% accuracy on a collection of plankton images. On another larger image set containing manually unidentifiable particles, it also provided 75.6% overall accuracy. The proposed approach was statistically significantly more accurate on the two data sets than a C4.5 decision tree and a cascade correlation neural network. The single SVM significantly outperformed ensembles of decision trees created by bagging and random forests on the smaller data set and was slightly better on the other data set. The 15-feature subset produced by our feature selection approach provided slightly better accuracy than using all 29 features. Our probability model gave us a reasonable rejection curve on the larger data set. View full abstract»

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  • Phase-based dual-microphone robust speech enhancement

    Page(s): 1763 - 1773
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dual-microphone speech-signal enhancement algorithm, utilizing phase-error based filters that depend only on the phase of the signals, is proposed. This algorithm involves obtaining time-varying, or alternatively, time-frequency (TF), phase-error filters based on prior knowledge regarding the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the speech source of interest and the phases of the signals recorded by the microphones. It is shown that by masking the TF representation of the speech signals, the noise components are distorted beyond recognition while the speech source of interest maintains its perceptual quality. This is supported by digit recognition experiments which show a substantial recognition accuracy rate improvement over prior multimicrophone speech enhancement algorithms. For example, for a case with two speakers with a 0.1 s reverberation time, the phase-error based technique results in a 28.9% recognition rate gain over the single channel noisy signal, a gain of 22.0% over superdirective beamforming, and a gain of 8.5% over postfiltering. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy utility and equilibria

    Page(s): 1774 - 1785
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A decision maker is frequently confronted with fuzzy constraints, fuzzy utility maximization, and fuzziness about the state of competitors. In this paper we present a framework for fuzzy decision-making, using techniques from fuzzy logic, game theory, and micro-economics. In the first part, we study the rationality of fuzzy choice. We introduce fuzzy constraints, and show that this can easily be combined with maximizing a fuzzy utility. The second part of the paper analyzes games with uncertainty about the state of the competitors. We implement fuzzy Cournot adjustment, define equilibria, and study their stability. Finally, we show how a play progresses where the players have uncertainty about the state of the other players, and about their utility. For a likely procedure of utility maximization, the equilibria are the same as for the game without utility maximization. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid fuzzy logic/constraint satisfaction problem approach to automatic decision making in simulation game models

    Page(s): 1786 - 1797
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    Possible techniques for representing automatic decision-making behavior approximating human experts in complex simulation model experiments are of interest. Here, fuzzy logic (FL) and constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) methods are applied in a hybrid design of automatic decision making in simulation game models. The decision processes of a military headquarters are used as a model for the FL/CSP decision agents choice of variables and rulebases. The hybrid decision agent design is applied in two different types of simulation games to test the general applicability of the design. The first application is a two-sided zero-sum sequential resource allocation game with imperfect information interpreted as an air campaign game. The second example is a network flow stochastic board game designed to capture important aspects of land manoeuvre operations. The proposed design is shown to perform well also in this complex game with a very large (billionsize) action set. Training of the automatic FL/CSP decision agents against selected performance measures is also shown and results are presented together with directions for future research. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a biomimetic robotic fish and its control algorithm

    Page(s): 1798 - 1810
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the design of a robotic fish and its motion control algorithms. A radio-controlled, four-link biomimetic robotic fish is developed using a flexible posterior body and an oscillating foil as a propeller. The swimming speed of the robotic fish is adjusted by modulating joint's oscillating frequency, and its orientation is tuned by different joint's deflections. Since the motion control of a robotic fish involves both hydrodynamics of the fluid environment and dynamics of the robot, it is very difficult to establish a precise mathematical model employing purely analytical methods. Therefore, the fish's motion control task is decomposed into two control systems. The online speed control implements a hybrid control strategy and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. The orientation control system is based on a fuzzy logic controller. In our experiments, a point-to-point (PTP) control algorithm is implemented and an overhead vision system is adopted to provide real-time visual feedback. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Online monitoring by dynamically refining imprecise models

    Page(s): 1811 - 1822
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Model-based monitoring determines faults in a supervised system by comparing the available system's measurements with a priori information represented by the system's mathematical model. Especially in technical environments, a monitoring system must be able to reason with incomplete knowledge about the supervised system, to process noisy and erroneous observations and to react within a limited time. We present MOSES, a model-based monitoring system which is based on imprecise models where the structure is known and the parameters may be imprecisely specified by numerical intervals. As a consequence, only bounds on the trajectories can be derived with imprecise models. These bounds are computed using traditional numerical integration techniques starting from individual points on the external surface of the model's uncertainty space. When new measurements from the supervised system become available, MOSES checks the consistency of this new information with the model's prediction and refutes inconsistent parts from the uncertainty space of the model. A fault in the supervised system is detected when the complete model's uncertainty space has been refuted. MOSES bridges and extends methodologies from the FDI and DX communities by refining the model's uncertainty space conservatively through refutation, by applying standard numerical techniques for deriving the trajectories of imprecise models and by exploiting the measurements as soon as possible for online monitoring. The performance of MOSES is evaluated based on examples and by online monitoring a complex heating system. View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive, self-organizing dynamical system for hierarchical control of bio-inspired locomotion

    Page(s): 1823 - 1837
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    In this paper, dynamical systems made up of locally coupled nonlinear units are used to control the locomotion of bio-inspired robots and, in particular, a simulation of an insect-like hexapod robot. These controllers are inspired by the biological paradigm of central pattern generators and are responsible for generating a locomotion gait. A general structure, which is able to change the locomotion gait according to environmental conditions, is introduced. This structure is based on an adaptive system, implemented by motor maps, and is able to learn the correct locomotion gait on the basis of a reward function. The proposed control system is validated by a large number of simulations carried out in a dynamic environment for simulating legged robots. View full abstract»

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  • Fast and reliable active appearance model search for 3-D face tracking

    Page(s): 1838 - 1853
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the three-dimensional (3D) tracking of pose and animation of the human face in monocular image sequences using active appearance models. The major problem of the classical appearance-based adaptation is the high computational time resulting from the inclusion of a synthesis step in the iterative optimization. Whenever the dimension of the face space is large, a real-time performance cannot be achieved. In this paper, we aim at designing a fast and stable active appearance model search for 3D face tracking. The main contribution is a search algorithm whose CPU-time is not dependent on the dimension of the face space. Using this algorithm, we show that both the CPU-time and the likelihood of a nonaccurate tracking are reduced. Experiments evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are reported, as well as method comparison and tracking synthetic and real image sequences. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy dynamic output feedback control with adaptive rotor imbalance compensation for magnetic bearing systems

    Page(s): 1854 - 1864
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a dynamic output feedback control with adaptive rotor-imbalance compensation based on an analytical Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model for complex nonlinear magnetic bearing systems with rotor eccentricity. The rotor mass-imbalance effect is considered with a linear in the parameter approximator. Through the robust analysis for disturbance rejection, the control law can be synthesized in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Based on the suggested fuzzy output feedback design, the controller may be much easier to implement than conventional nonlinear controllers. Simulation validations show that the proposed robust fuzzy control law can suppress the rotor imbalance-induced vibration and has excellent capability for high-speed tracking and levitation control. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid compensation control for affine TSK fuzzy control systems

    Page(s): 1865 - 1873
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes a way of designing state feedback controllers for affine Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy models. In the approach, by combining two different control design methodologies, the proposed controller is designed to compensate all rules so that the desired control performance can appear in the overall system. Our approach treats all fuzzy rules as variations of a nominal rule and such variations are individually dealt with in a Lyapunov sense. Previous approaches have proposed a similar idea but the variations are dealt with as a whole in a robust control sense. As a consequence, when fuzzy rules are distributed in a wide range, the stability conditions may not be satisfied. In addition, the control performance of the closed-loop system cannot be anticipated in those approaches. Various examples were conducted in our study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design approach. All results illustrate good control performances as desired. View full abstract»

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  • An intelligent service-based network architecture for wearable robots

    Page(s): 1874 - 1885
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    We are developing a novel robot concept called the wearable robot. Wearable robots are mobile information devices capable of supporting remote communication and intelligent interaction between networked entities. In this paper, we explore the possible functions of such a robotic network and will present a distributed network architecture based on service components. In order to support the interaction and communication between the components in the wearable robot system, we have developed an intelligent network architecture. This service-based architecture involves three major mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the use of a task coordinator service such that the execution of the services can be managed using a priority queue. The second mechanism enables the system to automatically push the required service proxy to the client intelligently based on certain system-related conditions. In the third mechanism, we allow the system to automatically deliver services based on contextual information. Using a fuzzy-logic-based decision making system, the matching service can determine whether the service should be automatically delivered utilizing the information provided by the service, client, lookup service, and context sensors. An application scenario has been implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of this distributed service-based robot architecture. The architecture is implemented as extensions to the Jini network model. View full abstract»

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  • Multisensor optimal information fusion input white noise deconvolution estimators

    Page(s): 1886 - 1893
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The unified multisensor optimal information fusion criterion weighted by matrices is rederived in the linear minimum variance sense, where the assumption of normal distribution is avoided. Based on this fusion criterion, the optimal information fusion input white noise deconvolution estimators are presented for discrete time-varying linear stochastic control system with multiple sensors and correlated noises, which can be applied to seismic data processing in oil exploration. A three-layer fusion structure with fault tolerant property and reliability is given. The first fusion layer and the second fusion layer both have netted parallel structures to determine the first-step prediction error cross-covariance for the state and the estimation error cross-covariance for the input white noise between any two sensors at each time step, respectively. The third fusion layer is the fusion center to determine the optimal matrix weights and obtain the optimal fusion input white noise estimators. The simulation results for Bernoulli-Gaussian input white noise deconvolution estimators show the effectiveness. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics focuses on cybernetics, including communication and control across humans, machines and organizations at the structural or neural level

 

This Transaction ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Eugene Santos, Jr.
Thayer School of Engineering
Dartmouth College