Proceedings [1990] 31st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

22-24 Oct. 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 92
  • No better ways to generate hard NP instances than picking uniformly at random

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):812 - 821 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)

    Distributed NP (DNP) problems are ones supplied with probability distributions of instances. It is shown that every DNP problem complete for P-time computable distributions is also complete for all distributions that can be sampled. This result makes the concept of average-case NP completeness robust and the question of the average-case complexity of complete DNP problems a natural alternative to ... View full abstract»

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  • Proceedings. 31st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.90CH2925-6)

    Publication Year: 1990
    Request permission for commercial reuse | |PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Matrix decomposition problem is complete for the average case

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):802 - 811 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    The first algebraic average-case complete problem is presented. The focus of attention is the modular group, i.e., the multiplicative group SL2(Z) of two-by-two integer matrices of determinant 1. By default, in this study matrices are elements of the modular group. The problem is arguably the simplest natural average-case complete problem to date View full abstract»

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  • On graph-theoretic lemmata and complexity classes

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):794 - 801 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)

    Several new complexity classes of search problems that lie between the classes FP and FNP are defined. These classes are contained in the class TFNP of search problems that always have a solution. A problem in each of these new classes is defined in terms of an implicitly given, exponentially large graph, very much like PLS (polynomial local search). The existence of the solution sought is establi... View full abstract»

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  • On the predictability of coupled automata: an allegory about chaos

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):788 - 793 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)

    The authors show a sharp dichotomy between systems of identical automata with symmetric global control whose behavior is easy to predict and those whose behavior is hard to predict. The division pertains to whether the global control rule is invariant with respect to permutations of the states of the automaton. It is also shown that testing whether the global control rule has this invariance prope... View full abstract»

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  • Exact identification of circuits using fixed points of amplification functions

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):193 - 202 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)

    A technique for exactly identifying certain classes of read-once Boolean formulas is introduced. The method is based on sampling the input-output behavior of the target formula on a probability distribution which is determined by the fixed point of the formula's amplification function (defined as the probability that a 1 is output by the formula when each input bit is 1 independently with probabil... View full abstract»

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  • The complexity of finding medians

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):778 - 787 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    PF(#P) is characterized in a manner similar to M.W. Krentel's (1988) characterization of Pf(NP). If MidP is the class of functions that give the medians in the outputs of metric Turing machines, then it is shown that every function in PF(#P) is polynomial time 1-Turing reducible to a function in MidP and MidP⊆PF(#P); that is, PF(#P)=PF(MidP[1]). Intuitively, finding medians is as hard computa... View full abstract»

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  • ON ACC and threshold circuits

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):619 - 627 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)

    It is proved that any language in ACC can be approximately computed by two-level circuits of size 2 raised to the (log n) k power, with a symmetric-function gate at the top and only AND gates on the first level. This implies that any language in ACC can be recognized by depth-3 threshold circuits of that size. This result gives the first nontrivial upper bound on the computing ... View full abstract»

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  • Learning conjunctions of Horn clauses

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):186 - 192 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    An algorithm for learning the class of Boolean formulas that are expressible as conjunctions of Horn clauses is presented. (A Horn clause is a disjunction of literals, all but at most one of which is a negated variable). The algorithm uses equivalence queries and membership queries to produce a formula that is logically equivalent to the unknown formula to be learned. The amount of time used by th... View full abstract»

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  • Bounds on tradeoffs between randomness and communication complexity

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):766 - 775 vol.2
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)

    A quantitative investigation of the power of randomness in the context of communication complexity is initiated. The authors prove general lower bounds on the length of the random input of parties computing a function f, depending on the number of bits communicated and the deterministic communication complexity of f. Four standard models for communication complexity are considere... View full abstract»

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  • On the power of small-depth threshold circuits

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):610 - 618 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)

    The power of threshold circuits of small depth is investigated. In particular, functions that require exponential-size unweighted threshold circuits of depth 3 when the bottom fan-in is restricted are given. It is proved that there are monotone functions fk that can be computed on depth k and linear size AND, OR circuits but require exponential-size to be computed by a... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient parallel algorithms for tree-decomposition and related problems

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):173 - 182 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)

    An efficient parallel algorithm for the tree-decomposition problem for fixed width w is presented. The algorithm runs in time O(log3 n) and uses O(n) processors on a concurrent-read, concurrent-write parallel random access machine (CRCW PRAM). This result can be used to construct efficient parallel algorithms for three important classes of pr... View full abstract»

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  • Fault tolerant sorting network

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):275 - 284 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)

    A general technique for enhancing the reliability of sorting networks and other comparator-based networks is presented. The technique converts any network that uses unreliable comparators to a fault-tolerant network that produces the correct output with overwhelming probability, even if each comparator is faulty with some probability smaller than 1/2, independently of other comparators. The depth ... View full abstract»

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  • Communication complexity of algebraic computation

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):758 - 765 vol.2
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)

    The authors consider a situation in which two processors P1 and P2 are to evaluate one or more functions f1, . . ., fs of two vector variables x and y, under the assumption that processor P1 (respectively, P2 ) has access only to the value of x (respect... View full abstract»

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  • A dining philosophers algorithm with polynomial response time

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):65 - 74 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)

    Presents an efficient distributed online algorithm for scheduling jobs that are created dynamically, subject to resource constraints that require that certain pairs of jobs not run concurrently. The focus is on the response time of the system to each job, i.e. the length of the time interval that starts when the job is created or assigned to a processor and ends at the instant the execution of the... View full abstract»

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  • Uniform memory hierarchies

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):600 - 608 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)

    The authors introduce a model, called the uniform memory hierarchy (UMH) model, which reflects the hierarchical nature of computer memory more accurately than the RAM (random-access-machine) model, which assumes that any item in memory can be accessed with unit cost. In the model memory occurs as a sequence of increasingly large levels. Data are transferred between levels in fixed-size blocks (the... View full abstract»

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  • Decision problems for propositional linear logic

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):662 - 671 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)

    It is shown that, unlike most other propositional (quantifier-free) logics, full propositional linear logic is undecidable. Further, it is provided that without the model storage operator, which indicates unboundedness of resources, the decision problem becomes PSPACE-complete. Also established are membership in NP for the multiplicative fragment, NP-completeness for the multiplicative fragment ex... View full abstract»

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  • Algebraic methods for interactive proof systems

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):2 - 10 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (43)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)

    An algebraic technique for the construction of interactive proof systems is proposed. The technique is used to prove that every language in the polynomial-time hierarchy has an interactive proof system. For the proof, a method is developed for reducing the problem of verifying the value of a low-degree polynomial at two points to verifying the value at one new point. The results have implications ... View full abstract»

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  • A tree-partitioning technique with applications to expression evaluation and term matching

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):163 - 172 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)

    A tree-partitioning technique is proposed and applied to expression evaluation and term matching. It was shown recently that the problem of evaluating an arithmetic expression is in NC1, and an O(log N)-depth, O(N2 log N)-size circuit for this problem was described. The size is reduced to O(N logk N... View full abstract»

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  • Permuting

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):372 - 379 vol.1
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)

    The fundamental problem of permuting the elements of an array according to some given permutation is addressed. The goal is to perform the permutation quickly using only a polylogarithmic number of bits of extra storage. The main result is an O(n log n)-time, O(log2n)-space worst case method. A simpler method is presented for the case in whic... View full abstract»

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  • A (fairly) simple circuit that (usually) sorts

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):264 - 274 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)

    A natural k-round tournament over n=2k players is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the tournament possesses a surprisingly strong ranking property. The ranking property of this tournament is exploited by being used as a building block for efficient parallel sorting algorithms under a variety of different models of computation. Three important applications are prov... View full abstract»

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  • A time-space tradeoff for Boolean matrix multiplication

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):412 - 419 vol. 1
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)

    A time-space tradeoff is established in the branching program model for the problem of computing the product of two n× n matrices over a certain semiring. It is assumed that each element of each n×n input matrix is chosen independently to be 1 with probability n-1/2 and to be 0 with probability 1-n-1/2. Letting... View full abstract»

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  • Distributed reactive systems are hard to synthesize

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):746 - 757 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (80)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)

    The problem of synthesizing a finite-state distributed reactive system is considered. Given a distributed architecture A, which comprises several processors P1, . . ., P k and their interconnection scheme, and a propositional temporal specification φ, a solution to the synthesis problem consists of finite-state programs Π1, . . ., ... View full abstract»

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  • The mixing rate of Markov chains, an isoperimetric inequality, and computing the volume

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):346 - 354 vol. 1
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    A. Sinclair and M. Jerrum (1988) derived a bound on the mixing rate of time-reversible Markov chains in terms of their conductance. The authors generalize this result by not assuming time reversibility and using a weaker notion of conductance. They prove an isoperimetric inequality for subsets of a convex body. These results are combined to simplify an algorithm of M. Dyer et al. (1989) for approx... View full abstract»

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  • Are wait-free algorithms fast?

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):55 - 64 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)

    The time complexity of wait-free algorithms in so-called normal executions, where no failures occur and processes operate at approximately the same speed, is considered. A lower bound of log n on the time complexity of any wait-free algorithm that achieves approximate agreement among n processes is proved. In contrast, there exists a non-wait-free algorithm that solves this prob... View full abstract»

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