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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 7 • Date July 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE celebrating 92 years of in-depth coverage on emerging technologies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1009
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1010
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  • Special Issue on Pulsed Power: Technology and Applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1011 - 1013
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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  • Modern Pulsed Power: Charlie Martin and Beyond

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1014 - 1020
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on pulsed power and its applications, background information is provided for the nonspecialist to better understand the many challenges in designing pulsed power systems, and the wide diversity of applications that are now emerging. The approach to providing a tutorial on pulsed power technology is to make available to the reader the paper written by J. C. Martin which appeared in a Special Section of the Proceedings of the IEEE on pulsed power technology in June 1992. That paper is supplemented in this introduction with additional information that complements many of the invited papers composing this Special Issue. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in pulsed power-driven radiography systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1021 - 1042
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flash X-ray radiography has undergone a transformation in recent years with the resurgence of interest in compact, high-intensity pulsed power-driven electron beam sources. The radiographic requirements and the choice of consistent X-ray sources determine the driver requirements, which can be met by demonstrated induction voltage adder technologies. This paper reviews the state of the art, the critical technologies, and the recent advances which have improved performance by over an order of magnitude in beam brightness and radiographic utility. View full abstract»

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  • Electron beam pumped krypton fluoride lasers for fusion energy

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1043 - 1056
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    High-energy electron beam pumped krypton fluoride (KrF) gas lasers are an attractive choice for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Their short wavelength and demonstrated high beam uniformity optimizes the laser-target physics, and their pulsed power technology scales to a large system. This paper presents the principals of this type of laser and the progress toward developing technologies that can meet the IFE requirements for repetition rate (5 Hz), efficiency (>6%), and durability (>3×108 shots). The Electra laser at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has produced >500 J of laser light in short 5-Hz bursts. Research on Electra and the NRL Nike laser (3000 J, single shot) has shown that the overall efficiency should be greater than 7%. This is based on recent advances in electron beam stabilization and transport, electron beam deposition, KrF laser physics, and pulsed power. The latter includes the development of a new solid-state laser triggered switch that will be the basis for a pulsed power system that can meet the IFE requirements for efficiency, durability, and cost. The major remaining challenge is to develop long-lived hibachi foils (e-beam transmission windows). Based on recent experiments, this may be achievable by periodically deflecting the laser gas. View full abstract»

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  • Materials modification using intense ion beams

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1057 - 1081
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pulsed intense ion beams have been developed for applications including surface modification and alloying, and thin-film and nanopowder synthesis. Rapid thermal processing with ions is quite promising for large-scale commercial use, due to the high specific ion energy deposition (joules per cubic centimeter) without reflection, and to the relative efficiency and low cost of the pulsed power ion-beam drivers compared to other high-kinetic energy alternatives. We discuss in this paper the basis for the use of ions in materials processing and the methods of beam formation and impingement on material to be treated, and give examples of recent and ongoing work in materials processing. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsed power-driven high-power microwave sources

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1082 - 1095
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The advent of pulsed power technology in the 1960s has enabled the development of very high peak power sources of electromagnetic radiation in the microwave and millimeter wave bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Such sources have applications in plasma physics, particle acceleration techniques, fusion energy research, high-power radars, and communications, to name just a few. This article describes recent ongoing activity in this field in both Russia and the United States. The overview of research in Russia focuses on high-power microwave (HPM) sources that are powered using SINUS accelerators, which were developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics. The overview of research in the United States focuses more broadly on recent accomplishments of a multidisciplinary university research initiative on HPM sources, which also involved close interactions with Department of Defense laboratories and industry. HPM sources described in this article have generated peak powers exceeding several gigawatts in pulse durations typically on the order of 100 ns in frequencies ranging from about 1 GHz to many tens of gigahertz. View full abstract»

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  • JOLT: a highly directive, very intensive, impulse-like radiator

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1096 - 1109
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrawideband (UWB) systems that radiate very high-level transient waveforms and exhibit operating bandwidths of over two decades are now in demand for a number of applications. Such systems are known to radiate impulse-like waveforms with rise times around 100 ps and peak electric field values of tens of kilovolts per meter. Such waveforms, if properly radiated, will exhibit an operating spectrum of over two decades, making them ideal for applications such as concealed object detection, countermine, transient radar, and communications. In this paper, we describe a large, high-voltage transient system built at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, from 1997 to 1999. The pulsed power system centers around a very compact resonant transformer capable of generating over 1 MV at a pulse-repetition frequency of ∼ 600 Hz. This is switched, via an integrated transfer capacitor and an oil peaking switch onto an 85-Ω half-impulse radiating antenna. This unique system will deliver a far radiated field with a full-width at half-maximum on the order of 100 ps, and a field-range product (rEfar) of ∼ 5.3 MV, exceeding all previously reported results by a factor of several. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma imaging and spectroscopy diagnostics developed on 100-500-kA pulsed power devices

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1110 - 1121
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss the development of high-resolution plasma imaging and spectroscopy diagnostics for the soft X-ray and ultraviolet energy ranges developed and used on 100-500 kA pulsed power facilities. Requiring just a few people to run and modest infrastructure investment, these facilities are cost-effective test beds for new ideas and technologies as well as for training students. Most of the diagnostics discussed here are presently or will soon be in use on larger scale facilities worldwide. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrashort electrical pulses open a new gateway into biological cells

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1122 - 1137
    Cited by:  Papers (135)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    An electrical model for biological cells predicts that for pulses with durations shorter than the charging time of the outer membrane, there is an increasing probability of electric field interactions with intracellular structures. Experimental studies in which human cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields of up to 300-kV/cm amplitude, with durations as short as 10 ns, have confirmed this hypothesis. The observed effects include the breaching of intracellular granule membranes without permanent damage to the cell membrane, abrupt rises in intracellular free calcium levels, and enhanced expression of genes. At increased electric fields, the application of submicrosecond pulses induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in biological cells, an effect that has been shown to reduce the growth of tumors. Possible applications of the intracellular electroeffect are enhancing gene delivery to the nucleus, controlling cell functions that depend on calcium release (causing cell immobilization), and treating tumors. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsed electric field inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in alcoholic beverages

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1138 - 1143
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, a number of new applications have emerged where pulsed power is being used in the treatment of waste and effluent, foodstuffs and beverages. One of these emerging applications is pulsed electric field (PEF) inactivation of microorganisms in liquid media. This involves the generation of electric fields of the order of 30 kV/cm across liquids contaminated with microorganisms. This induces a relatively large transmembrane potential that can lead to irreversible electroporation and consequently cell lysis. The nature of the PEF pulse profile is the subject of extensive study, and it has been reported that bipolar square waves provide superior inactivation when compared to monopolar pulses. A previous study, however, has challenged this view, and results will be presented demonstrating that more effective inactivation of bacteria can be achieved using the monopolar pulse. Results will also be given on the effect of monopolar pulse PEF applied to alcoholic beverages containing known spoilage microorganisms. This will highlight an apparent synergistic inactivation effect when microorganisms in alcoholic beverages are exposed to PEF. View full abstract»

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  • Research issues in developing compact pulsed power for high peak power applications on mobile platforms

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1144 - 1165
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pulsed power is a technology that is suited to drive electrical loads requiring very large power pulses in short bursts (high-peak power). Certain applications require technology that can be deployed in small spaces under stressful environments, e.g., on a ship, vehicle, or aircraft. In 2001, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) launched a long-range (five-year) Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) to study fundamental issues for compact pulsed power. This research program is endeavoring to: 1) introduce new materials for use in pulsed power systems; 2) examine alternative topologies for compact pulse generation; 3) study pulsed power switches, including pseudospark switches; and 4) investigate the basic physics related to the generation of pulsed power, such as the behavior of liquid dielectrics under intense electric field conditions. Furthermore, the integration of all of these building blocks is impacted by system architecture (how things are put together). This paper reviews the advances put forth to date by the researchers in this program and will assess the potential impact for future development of compact pulsed power systems. View full abstract»

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  • The RADAN series of compact pulsed power Generators and their applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1166 - 1179
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents results of development of a compact pulsed power high-voltage generators and high-current electron accelerators of the RADAN series. The basic high-voltage units of RADAN instruments are built around coaxial pulsed forming lines and efficient charging device represented by a Tesla transformer. The fields of applications in science and in practice are rather wide and include formation of nanosecond and subnanosecond voltage and ultrawideband RF pulses, high-power microwave generation, X-ray radiography, radiation physics, chemistry, and biology. The designed technique provided achievements of outstanding specific parameters of dense e-beams, microwaves, and ultrawideband pulses. View full abstract»

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  • Compact solid-State switched pulsed power and its applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1180 - 1196
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power semiconductor devices, such as insulated-gate bipolar transistors, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, and static-induction thyristors, are used in different kinds of pulsed power generators developed for different applications. In addition, the semiconductor opening switch is found to have very effective applications in pulsed power generation by inductive energy storage. Semiconductor switches have greatly extended the scales of pulsed power parameters, especially in repetition rate and lifetime. They have also enabled new areas of pulsed power applications, such as accelerators, flue-gas treatment, and gas lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Ultracompact pulsed power

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1197 - 1204
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Now more than ever, the pulsed power field is driven by size, weight, and volume constraints. In both the military and commercial arenas, there is an overwhelming need to provide more and more capability in ever smaller and lighter packages. The need for higher energy density, power density, reliability, and efficiency is driving progress in the field. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in various types of pulsed power components such as solid-state switches, capacitors, and power sources. In some cases, familiar components such as switch tubes are being replaced with whole new classes of devices. Batteries are being replaced by hydrocarbon or hydrogen-fueled mechanical systems that alter our paradigm for prime power sources. Trends over the past few years and future possibilities for ultracompact systems are discussed, including advanced techniques for heat removal and energy recovery. Finally, a few practical examples of ultracompact systems are given, emphasizing peak power and peak power density. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic flux compression Generators

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1205 - 1215
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetic flux compression generators offer the largest pulsed power output per unit size or weight when compared with other more conventional systems. They have found widespread use as pulsed power sources for hydrodynamics programs and high magnetic field research at national laboratories or in commercial applications, including exploration for oil and minerals and mine detection. Also, due to their nature as a true one-time-use device with superior energy density, a large portion of applications is defense related. A variety of basic magnetic flux compression generator designs have been developed and tested during the past four decades. All of them rely on the explosive-driven deformation of a system of conductors having an initial, preferably large, inductance. The most successful basic design is the helical flux compression generator, which is capable of producing a high-energy output into large impedance loads, just as it is needed for a practical pulsed power source. This paper will review the advances and state of the art of primarily helical magnetic flux compression generators mainly developed as pulsed power sources and will offer new insights gained as a result of a recently completed five-year AFOSR/DoD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative program that studied the basic physics and engineering aspects of helical flux compression generators. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Ernst F. W. Alexanderson

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1216 - 1219
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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1220 - 1221
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1222
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1223 - 1224
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
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  • Celebrating the vitality of technology the Proceedings of the IEEE [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c4
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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University