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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 309 - 310
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  • From "macro" to "micro" manipulation: models and experiments

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 311 - 320
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses various problems related to manipulation in the micro domain, a field which is increasingly important for research and application. Grasping and manipulating parts with size ranging between a few micrometers and about 1 millimeter (defined in this paper as "micro parts") are required for an increasing number of applications: the assembly of micro systems and micro machines; and the operation in tiny and unpredictable environments, such as for inspection and interventions in pipes and for micro surgery. The aim of this work is to find out similarities and differences between traditional manipulation and micro manipulation, by investigating which requirements are still valid and which must be redefined when the object size scales down. The similarities between the two application domains "macro" and "micro" are pointed out along with the differences, and both are taken into account for the evaluation of different grasping typologies. Dedicated models for the adhesion forces arising at the micro level are presented, preliminarily tested, and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic microassembly system assisted by vision servoing and virtual reality

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 321 - 333
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We proposed an automated micromanipulation workcell for visually servoed teleoperated microassembly assisted by virtual reality techniques. It is composed of two micromanipulators equipped with microtools operating under a light microscope. Visual servoing techniques are applied for efficient and reliable position/force feedback during microassembly tasks. First, a pushing-based micromanipulation strategy for the microobject to follow a planned trajectory is proposed under vision based-position control. Then, we present the cooperation control strategy of the microhandling operation under vision-based force control integrating a sensor fusion framework approach. A guiding-system based on virtual microworld exactly reconstructed from the CAD-CAM databases of the real environment being considered is presented for the imprecisely calibrated microworld. Finally, a planned scenario is executed and experimental results of microassembly tasks performed on millimeter-sized components are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Polymer MEMS actuators for underwater micromanipulation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 334 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional MEMS actuators are not suitable for underwater applications such as cell grasping due to two main reasons: 1) their required actuation voltage are typically higher than 2 V, which would cause electrolysis in water and 2) they have small displacement/deflection due to their inherent driving principles. In this paper, three-different types of novel polymer-based MEMS underwater actuators developed in our laboratory are discussed: 1) ionic conducting polymer films (ICPF) actuator, which actuates by stress gradient induced by ionic movement due to electric field; 2) parylene thermal actuator, which actuates due to the induced stress gradient across a structure made of different layers of materials with different thermal expansion coefficients; and 3) polyaniline (PANI) actuator, which actuates due to its volumetric change caused by a reversible electrochemical oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction. All these polymer micro actuators can be actuated underwater with large deflections and require less power input than conventional MEMS actuators. The experimental results from characterizing these prototype actuators are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Atomic force microscope probe based controlled pushing for nanotribological characterization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 343 - 349
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe as a nanomanipulator, micrometer- and nanometer-sized objects, especially particles, are pushed on substrates for characterizing the object-substrate friction parameters and behavior in various environments, e.g., air, liquid, and vacuum. Two possible nanotribological characterization methods are proposed in this paper: 1) sliding the micro/nano-object on the substrate while it is attached to an AFM probe and 2) nanorobotic pushing of the micro/nano-object with the sharp tip of an AFM probe. The modeling of these methods are realized and experiments are conducted for the latter method using a piezoresistive AFM probe as a one-dimensional force sensor and nanomanipulator. In the experiments, 500-nm radius gold-coated latex particles are pushed on a silicon substrate. Preliminary results show that different frictional behavior such as sliding, rolling, and rotation could be observed, and shear stresses and frictional behavior could be estimated using these techniques at the nanoscale. View full abstract»

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  • Destructive constructions of nanostructures with carbon nanotubes through nanorobotic manipulation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 350 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
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    Nanostructures are constructed with destructively fabricated nano building blocks based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes through three-dimensional nanorobotic manipulation in free space. In situ mechanical property characterization is applied for the selection of a nanotube with desired elasticity. Destructive fabrication is demonstrated as an effective way to obtain layered and/or sharpened structures of nanotubes for the applications as nanobearings and probe tips, linear nanobearing motion has been observed, and a method is shown by using surface clamping van der Waals forces for the better control of the geometries of the nanotubes with destructive fabrication. The prepared building blocks are positioned together with nanorobotic manipulators under real-time observation with a field-emission scanning electron microscope, and are constructed through electron-beam-induced deposition. View full abstract»

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  • Development of augmented reality system for AFM-based nanomanipulation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 358 - 365
    Cited by:  Papers (105)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a nanomanipulation tool has been discussed for more than a decade. However, its lack of real-time visual feedback during manipulation has hindered its wide application. Fortunately, this problem has been overcome by our recently developed augmented reality system. By locally updating the AFM image based on real-time force information during manipulation, not only can this new system provide real-time force feedback but also real-time visual feedback. The real-time visual display combined with the real-time force feedback provides an augmented reality environment, in which the operator not only can feel the interaction forces but also observe the real-time changes of the nano-environment. This augmented reality system capable of nanolithography and manipulation of nano-particles helps the operator to perform several operations without the need of a new image scan, which makes AFM-based nano-assembly feasible and applicable. View full abstract»

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  • Electrokinetics in micro devices for biotechnology applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 366 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (84)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB)  

    Electrokinetics is the study of the motion of bulk fluids or selected particles embedded in fluids when they are subjected to electric fields. With the recent developments in microfabrication, electrokinetics provides effective manipulation techniques in the micro and nano domains, which matches the length scale of various biological objects. The ability to manipulate objects down to molecular levels opens new avenues to exploit biological science and technology. Understanding of the fundamental characteristics and limitations of the forces becomes a crucial issue for successful applications of these force fields. In this paper, we review and examine the range of influence for electrokinetically manipulated biological objects in microdevices, which can lead to interesting applications in biotechnology. View full abstract»

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  • Manipulation of microparticles using new modes of traveling-wave-dielectrophoretic forces: numerical Simulation and experiments

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 377 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a microchip device which uses traveling-wave-dielectrophoretic (twDEP) forces for the manipulation of microparticles and yeast cells. The dielectrophoretic forces generated under different operating conditions are simulated numerically, and the electric field distributions, force distributions and microparticle traces are investigated thoroughly. The paper presents two innovative modes of microparticle manipulation using positive (only one electrode is active at any instant in time, while the other three electrodes are all switched off) and negative (one electrode is "off", and the other electrodes are "on") dielectrophoretic forces. Micromachining techniques are used to fabricate micro-twDEP chips. The capability of electrode arrays in manipulating bioparticles is demonstrated by driving yeast cells in a suspension medium. The current experimental data confirm that dielectrophoretic forces can be used successfully for the collection, alignment, step-wise movement and general manipulation of cells. View full abstract»

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  • Six-axis nanopositioning device with precision magnetic levitation technology

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 384 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the design, control, and testing of a 6 degrees-of-freedom magnetically-levitated system with nanometer-precision positioning capability and several-hundred-micrometer travel range. This system levitates a triangular single-moving-part platen, and produces the six-axis motion with six single-axis linear actuators. One of the prominent advantages of this magnetic levitation (maglev) system is that there is no physical contact between the moving part and the stator, which eliminates friction, wear, backlash, and hysteresis. As compared to other traditional devices, the present system is very compact with the minimum number of actuators for six-axis motion generation. The maglev device presented herein shows the position resolution better than 5 nm with 2-nm rms position noise, and is capable of a velocity of 0.5 m/s and an acceleration of 30 m/s2. The nominal power consumption is only 15 mW by each horizontal actuator, and 320 mW by each vertical actuator. The actuators are sized to be able to orient and position a maximum payload of 1 kg. The key application of this maglev device is the manipulation at nanoscale for microassemblies and manufacture of their parts. Other potential applications are stereolithography, vibration-free delicate instrumentation, and microscale rapid prototyping. View full abstract»

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  • The design and characterization of a novel piezoelectric transducer-based linear motor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 392 - 398
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Before microminiature robots can be realized, new direct drive micromotor systems must be developed. In this research, a linear motor system for a miniature jumping robot was desired. However, current systems must display better force/torque characteristics than is currently available. This paper deals with the design, construction, and testing, of a macro-scale, unidirectional, direct drive linear piezomotor that operates like an inchworm. It uses a parallel arrangement of unimorph piezoelectric transducers, in conjunction with passive mechanical latches, to perform work on a coil spring. Experimental results showed that the linear piezomotor achieved a maximum no-load velocity of 161 mm/s, and a blocked force of 14 N, at a drive signal frequency of 100 Hz. Thereafter, back slip in the latch assembly restricted the forward motion. Based on the results obtained with the macro-level linear piezomotor, it is concluded that smaller direct drive piezomotor designs based on unimorph piezoelectric transducers are achievable. System scalability will be addressed in a future publication. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a high-resolution quartz resonator force and weight sensor with increased reliability

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 399 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Test-analyze-and-redesign method is employed to develop a quartz crystal resonator (QCR) force and weight sensor with increased reliability for batch production. The sensor, which mainly consists of a QCR and a metal diaphragm structure, has the advantages of high resolution, digital output, and low cost. The failure mechanism of the single-diaphragm QCR sensor has been uncovered by experiments aiming at providing insight into the failure factors. In order to eliminate the failure stress and improve reliability, the sensor has been redesigned based on failure analysis results by designing a double-diaphragm structure. Life testing experiments for validating the effect of the corrective action show that reliability has been improved five times, and after redesign, the reliability satisfies the requirement of practical use. Accelerated life testing is performed to find acceleration factors and development stresses for batch production. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilization and path following of a single wheel robot

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 407 - 419
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a single wheel, gyroscopically stabilized robot. This is a novel concept for a mobile robot that provides dynamic stability for rapid locomotion. The robot is a sharp-edged wheel actuated by a spinning flywheel for steering and a drive motor for propulsion. The spinning flywheel acts as a gyroscope to stabilize the robot and it can be steered by tilting. This robot is nonholonomic in nature, underactuated and inherently unstable in the lateral direction. In this paper, we first develop a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear dynamic model and investigate the dynamic characteristics of the robot. We conduct simulations and real-time experiments to verify the model. Both simulations and experiments show that the flywheel has a significant stabilizing effect on the robot. Then, we can decouple the longitudinal and lateral motions of the robot by linearization. We propose a linear state feedback to stabilize the robot at different lean angles, so as to control the steering velocity of the robot indirectly, because the robot steers only by leaning itself to a predefined angle. For the task of path following, we design a controller for tracking any desired straight line without falling. In the controller, we first design the linear and steering velocities for driving the robot along the desired straight line by controlling the path curvature. We then apply the linear state feedback to stabilize the robot at the predefined lean angle such that the resulting steering velocity of the robot converges to the given steering velocity. This work is a significant step toward fully autonomous control of such a dynamically stable but statically unstable system. View full abstract»

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  • A linear coupling controller for plate vibration

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 420 - 426
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A means of designing linear coupling controllers for multi-degree-of-freedom systems is developed and applied to a thin plate partially clamped on one edge and free on all other edges. The linear-coupling controller developed here is compared to other controllers. Both simulated and experimental results show that the design algorithm presented here provides control over a wider frequency range. View full abstract»

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  • A systematic procedure for the design of piezoelectric inchworm precision positioners

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 427 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Design equations are developed and integrated into a computerized design tool in order to facilitate the creation of inchworm piezoelectric based positioners. Fundamental to the development of the design tool is the piezoelectric actuator and motor frame stiffness interaction and its influence on positioner performance. A generalized motor frame configuration for each of the motor subsystems is presented and used to generate key initial positioner frame geometry. An inchworm precision positioner is implemented based on the generalized motor frame and the computerized design tool and it is shown experimentally and through finite-element analysis that the design approach is effective for precision positioner design. The prototype of the inchworm positioner developed is shown to have a stiffness in the direction of motion of 88 N/μm, a maximum thrust of 150 N and a traversing speed of up to 20 mm/s. View full abstract»

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  • Torque and velocity ripple elimination of AC permanent magnet motor control systems using the internal model principle

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 436 - 447
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of torque and velocity ripple elimination in AC permanent magnet (PM) motor control systems. The torque ripples caused by DC offsets that are present in the current sensors of the motor driver and the digital-to-analog converters of the motion controller are studied and formulated mathematically. These torque ripples eventually generate velocity ripples at the speed output and degrade the system performance. In this paper the torque ripples are modeled as a sinusoidal function with a frequency depending on the motor speed. The internal model principle (IMP) is then used to design a controller to eliminate the torque and velocity ripples without estimating the amplitude and the phase values of the sinusoidal disturbance. A gain scheduled (GS) robust two degree of freedom (2DOF) speed regulator based on the IMP and the pole-zero placement is developed to eliminate the torque and velocity ripples and achieve a desirable tracking response. Simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed GS robust 2DOF speed regulator can effectively eliminate the torque ripples generated by DC current offsets, and produce a velocity ripple-free output response. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of virtual surface stiffness on the haptic perception of detail

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 448 - 454
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB)  

    This brief presents a quantitative study of the effects of virtual surface stiffness in a simulated haptic environment on the haptic perception of detail. Specifically, the haptic perception of detail is characterized by identification, detection, and discrimination of round and square cross section ridges. Test results indicate that performance, measured as a percent correct score in the perception experiments, improves in a nonlinear fashion as the maximum level of virtual surface stiffness in the simulation increases. Further, test subjects appeared to reach a limit in their perception capabilities at maximum stiffness levels of 300 to 400 N/m, while the hardware was capable of 1000 N/m of maximum virtual surface stiffness. These results indicate that haptic interface hardware may be able to convey sufficient perceptual information to the user with relatively low levels of virtual surface stiffness. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time slip-based estimation of maximum tire-road friction coefficient

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 454 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB)  

    This paper presents a real-time maximum tire-road friction coefficient estimation method and field test results. The estimator is based on the relationship between the wheel slip ratio and the friction coefficient. An effective tire radius observer and a tire normal force observer have been designed for the computation of the slip ratio from wheel speed and vehicle speed measurements. The effective tire radius observer has been used so that the proposed method works for all driving situations. A tractive force estimator, a brake gain estimator, and a normal force observer have been used for the estimation of the friction coefficient. The proposed estimation method for the maximum tire-road friction coefficient has been implemented using a fifth wheel and typical vehicle sensors such as engine speed, carrier speed, throttle position, and brake pressure sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Contactless magnetic transmission system: vibration control and resonance compensation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 458 - 461
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work addresses the vibration control of a contactless magnetic transmission system. A learning controller is utilized in this work due to limited actuator bandwidth and uncertainties in the resonant frequencies. Performance of the controller is evaluated under self-resonance, forced oscillation, and transient response. Self-resonance is completely eliminated; while for forced oscillation, the disturbance is attenuated. Stabilization time of the transient response is also significantly reduced, thereby confirming the vibration suppression capabilities of the controller. View full abstract»

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  • Erratum

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 461
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    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 462
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    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 463
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    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 464
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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr