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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • So Long, T-RA!

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 377 - 378
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  • Fuzzy supervisory control of manufacturing systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 379 - 389
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A supervisory controller is derived for scheduling (single/multiple-part-type, reentrant) production networks. The supervisory controller is used to tune a set of lower level distributed fuzzy control modules that reduce work-in-process (WIP) and synchronize the production system's operation. The overall production-control system is viewed as a two-level surplus-based system with the overall control objective to keep the WIP and cycle time as low as possible, while maintaining quality of service by keeping backlog to acceptable levels. The production rate in each production stage is controlled to satisfy demand, avoid overloading, and eliminate machine starvation or blocking. The system's improvement is demonstrated using a set of performance measures. Extensive simulation results show that the supervisory controller, when compared with the single-level distributed fuzzy controllers reduces WIP and cycle time while keeping backlog to acceptable levels. View full abstract»

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  • Mechatronic design of an actuated biomimetic length and velocity sensor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 390 - 398
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biological designs offer roboticists a rich source of mechanisms for the challenge of controlling movement. Our device draws upon this resource, modeling the muscle spindle, a biological sensor which transduces muscle length and velocity for kinesthetic awareness and movement control. The three core neural and mechanical elements of the muscle spindle are identified and implemented in precision engineering hardware using performance specifications derived from biological literature. Intrafusal muscle is modeled by a linear actuator fast enough to replicate muscle dynamics. Its step response exhibits 27 ms rise time and 9.2% overshoot. Sensory region transduction of strain into voltage is modeled by a strain-gauged cantilever 51 μm thick. A voltage-controlled oscillator, encoding voltage as a frequency-modulated square wave, models action potential frequency encoding. The transducer exhibits the desired linear response with a 34-nm/Hz sensitivity. The three subsystems were combined to perform integrated systems testing. Driving the actuator with simple position control, the device detects trajectory-tracking errors introduced by phase lag and perturbation. Driving the actuator with physiologically based force control, the device successfully replicates the major features of muscle spindle response under ramp and sinusoidal position inputs. Applications include motor control research and novel sensor design for prosthetics and engineering. View full abstract»

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  • Workspace generation of hyper-redundant manipulators as a diffusion process on SE(N)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 399 - 408
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hyper-redundant manipulators have a large number of redundant degrees of freedom. They have been recognized as a means to improve manipulator performance in complex and unstructured environments. However, the high degree of redundancy also causes difficulty in the calculation of workspaces and inverse kinematics. This paper develops a diffusion-based algorithm for workspace generation of hyper-redundant manipulators. This algorithm makes the workspace generation problem as simple as solving a diffusion equation which has an explicit solution. This diffusion equation is a partial differential equation defined on the motion group SE(N), and describes the evolution of the workspace density function, depending on manipulator length and kinematic properties. This paper also solves the inverse kinematics problem in an elegant way by dividing the manipulator into virtual segments and cascading the corresponding workspace densities generated by the diffusion equation. View full abstract»

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  • Motion planning for metamorphic systems: feasibility, decidability, and distributed reconfiguration

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 409 - 418
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address a number of issues related to motion planning and analysis of rectangular metamorphic robotic systems. We first present a distributed algorithm for reconfiguration that applies to a relatively large subclass of configurations, called horizontally convex configurations. We then discuss several fundamental questions in the analysis of metamorphic systems. In particular, the following two questions are shown to be decidable: 1) whether a given set of motion rules maintains connectivity; 2) whether a goal configuration is reachable from a given initial configuration (at specified locations). In the general case in which each module has an internal state, the following is shown to be undecidable: given a set of motion rules, whether there exists a certain type of configuration called a uniform straight-chain configuration that yields a disconnected configuration. View full abstract»

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  • The sampling-based neighborhood graph: an approach to computing and executing feedback motion strategies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 419 - 432
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a sampling-based approach to computing and executing feedback-motion strategies by defining a global navigation function over a collection of neighborhoods in configuration space. The collection of neighborhoods and their underlying connectivity structure are captured by a sampling-based neighborhood graph (SNG), on which navigation functions are built. The SNG construction algorithm incrementally places new neighborhoods in the configuration space, using distance information provided by existing collision-detection algorithms. A termination condition indicates the probability that a specified fraction of the space is covered. Our implementation illustrates the approach for rigid and articulated bodies with up to six-dimensional configuration spaces. Even over such spaces, rapid online responses to unpredictable configuration changes can be made in a few microseconds on standard PC hardware. Furthermore, if the goal is changed, an updated navigation function can be quickly computed without performing additional collision checking. View full abstract»

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  • A real-time expectation-maximization algorithm for acquiring multiplanar maps of indoor environments with mobile robots

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 433 - 443
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a real-time algorithm for acquiring compact three-dimensional maps of indoor environments, using a mobile robot equipped with range and imaging sensors. Building on previous work on real-time pose estimation during mapping, our approach extends the popular expectation-maximization algorithm to multisurface models, and makes it amenable to real-time execution. Maps acquired by our algorithm consist of compact sets of textured polygons that can be visualized interactively. Experimental results obtained in corridor-type environments illustrate that compact and accurate maps can be acquired in real time and in a fully automated fashion. View full abstract»

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  • Leader-to-formation stability

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 443 - 455
    Cited by:  Papers (261)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper investigates the stability properties of mobile agent formations which are based on leader following. We derive nonlinear gain estimates that capture how leader behavior affects the interconnection errors observed in the formation. Leader-to-formation stability (LFS) gains quantify error amplification, relate interconnection topology to stability and performance, and offer safety bounds for different formation topologies. Analysis based on the LFS gains provides insight to error propagation and suggests ways to improve the safety, robustness, and performance characteristics of a formation. View full abstract»

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  • Road-boundary detection and tracking using ladar sensing

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 456 - 464
    Cited by:  Papers (73)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Road-boundary detection is an integral and important function in advanced driver-assistance systems and autonomous vehicle navigation systems. A prominent feature of roads in urban, semi-urban, and similar environments, such as in theme parks, campus sites, industrial estates, science parks, and the like, is curbs on either side defining the road's boundary. Although vision is the most common and popular sensing modality used by researchers and automotive manufacturers for road-lane detection, it can pose formidable challenges in detecting road curbs under poor illumination, bad weather, and complex driving environments. This paper proposes a novel method based on extended Kalman filtering for fast detection and tracking of road curbs using successive range/bearing readings obtained from a scanning two-dimensional ladar measurement system. As compared with millimeter wave radar methods reported in the literature, the proposed technique is simpler and computationally more efficient. This is the first of its kind reported in the literature. Qualitative experimental results are presented from the application of the technique to a campus site environment to demonstrate the viability, effectiveness, and robustness. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous control of position and orientation for ball-plate manipulation problem based on time-State control form

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 465 - 480
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    This paper deals with the ball-plate manipulation problem considered as a typical but complicated model of a driftless nonholonomic system. Due to a strong nonlinearity of the ball-plate system, a state equation of the kinematic model cannot be transformed into a chained form, which is known to be effective in constructing a feedback control law for some driftless nonholonomic systems. To address this problem, we utilize a time-state control form, a kind of canonical form which covers a broader class of systems than the chained form. This form is first applied to two separate subproblems, position control, in which the planar position of the ball is controlled but not the orientation, and orientation control, in which the orientation is controlled without changing the positional relation between the ball and the plates. It turns out that there exists a linearly uncontrollable subspace in the transformed subsystem, which turns into controllable by a change of coordinates. This implies that the system has the structure of a system with two generators. We propose a control strategy using iterative changes of coordinates, ensuring convergence in the neighborhood of the origin. Finally, we unify the subproblems into simultaneous control of position and orientation, i.e., the whole configuration of the system. The important idea in the simultaneous control is the coordinate transformation, which enables us to avoid a singular point. Results of simulations show that the proposed method achieve robustness to a measurement noise and perturbation of radius of the ball. View full abstract»

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  • Passive compensation of nonlinear robot dynamics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 480 - 488
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we derive a coordinate-free formulation of a passive controller that makes a mechanical system track reference curves in a potential field. Contrary to conventional reference tracking, we do not specify a single time-varying trajectory that the system has to track. Instead, we specify a whole curve that the system has to stay on at all times. Using tools from differential geometry, we first derive a controller that makes the system move along arbitrary (smooth enough) reference curves while keeping the kinetic energy constant. We then apply the results to the case of movement in an artificial potential field, in which case, the reference curves are completely determined by the potential field and cannot be chosen arbitrarily. Simulation then shows the performance of the controller on a benchmark robot with two degrees of freedom. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance control for elastic joints industrial manipulators

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 488 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An impedance controller for industrial manipulators is presented in this paper. Special attention has been paid to all the aspects that qualify an industrial robot, including decentralized proportional-integral-derivative position control, torsional flexibility, and friction at the joints. A discussion of a single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) case is first presented. The selection of the impedance parameters is based on the behavior in contact and makes reference to a new design parameter, the compliance bandwidth. The single-DOF analysis is then used in the design of the impedance controller for a complete manipulator. A rotational impedance based on a geometrically consistent representation of the orientation is used. Several experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF industrial robot, equipped with a force/torque sensor, are presented. The experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in several conditions, including contact with an extremely stiff surface and noncontact/contact transition. View full abstract»

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  • Ground-space bilateral teleoperation of ETS-VII robot arm by direct bilateral coupling under 7-s time delay condition

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 499 - 511
    Cited by:  Papers (39)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A bilateral teleoperation experiment with Engineering Test Satellite 7 (ETS-VII) was conducted on November 22, 1999. Round-trip time for communication between the National Space Development Agency of Japan ground station and the ETS-VII was approximately seven seconds. We constructed a bilateral teleoperator that is stable, even under such a long time delay. Several experiments, such as slope-tracing task and peg-in-hole task, were carried out. Task performance was compared between the bilateral mode and the unilateral mode with force telemetry data visually displayed on a screen. All tasks were possible by bilateral control without any visual information. Experimental results showed that kinesthetic force feedback to the operator is helpful even under such a long time delay, and improves the performance of the task. View full abstract»

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  • Design for robust component synthesis vibration suppression of flexible structures with on-off actuators

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 512 - 525
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a development of component synthesis vibration suppression (CSVS) method for control of flexible structures. The proposed method eliminates unwanted flexible modes of vibration while achieving the desired rigid body motion. The robustness to uncertainties of dynamic modeling parameters is analyzed. Unlike traditional input shaping, in which a numerical optimization is used, design for CSVS commands is based on analytic methodology and is relatively easy to implement. A case study is performed on a time-fuel optimal control strategy using constant amplitude reaction jet thrusters. Both simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear antiwindup applied to Euler-Lagrange systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 526 - 537
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear antiwindup scheme to guarantee stability and local performance recovery on Euler-Lagrange systems subject to input magnitude saturation. The antiwindup scheme consists in a dynamic augmentation to the baseline control system which, based on nonlinear analysis, is shown to induce global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability on the overall control scheme. To induce desirable closed-loop performance on a specific system, two parameters of the antiwindup law can be tuned for each position variable of the Euler-Lagrange system, similar to the tuning procedure for proportional-derivative gains. Simulation results are reported showing the behavior of the proposed antiwindup law on the model of a popular industrial robot. The resulting responses confirm the effectiveness of the antiwindup scheme, both for set-point regulation tasks and for trajectory tracking tasks where the saturation nonlinearity is repeatedly activated. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal kinematic design of 2-DOF parallel manipulators with well-shaped workspace bounded by a specified conditioning index

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 538 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a hybrid method for the optimum kinematic design of two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) parallel manipulators with mirror symmetrical geometry. By taking advantage of both local and global approaches, the proposed method can be implemented in two steps. In the first step, the optimal architecture, in terms of isotropy and the behavior of the direct Jacobian matrix, is achieved, resulting in a set of closed-form parametric relationships that enable the number of design variables to be reduced. In the second step, the workspace bounded by the specified conditioning index is generated, which allows only one design parameter to be determined by optimizing a comprehensive index in a rectangular workspace. The kinematic optimization of a revolute-jointed 2-DOF parallel robot has been taken as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach. View full abstract»

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  • A numerical test for the closure properties of 3-D grasps

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 543 - 549
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a numerical test for the closure properties (force closure and form closure) of multifingered grasps. For three-dimensional (3-D) grasps with frictional point contacts or soft contacts, the numerical test is formulated as a convex constrained optimization problem without linearization of the friction cone. For 3-D frictionless grasps, it can be calculated by solving a single linear program. The proposed numerical test (along with the rank of the grasp matrix) provides an efficient tool for the analysis of the force-closure property and the relative force-closure property. View full abstract»

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  • Grasping-force optimization for multifingered robotic hands using a recurrent neural network

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 549 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Grasping-force optimization of multifingered robotic hands can be formulated as a problem for minimizing an objective function subject to form-closure constraints and balance constraints of external force. This paper presents a novel recurrent neural network for real-time dextrous hand-grasping force optimization. The proposed neural network is shown to be globally convergent to the optimal grasping force. Compared with existing approaches to grasping-force optimization, the proposed neural-network approach has the advantages that the complexity for implementation is reduced, and the solution accuracy is increased, by avoiding the linearization of quadratic friction constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed neural network can achieve optimal grasping force in real time. View full abstract»

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  • On the feasibility of using wireless ethernet for indoor localization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 555 - 559
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE 802.11b wireless Ethernet is becoming the standard for indoor wireless communication. This paper proposes the use of measured signal strength of Ethernet packets as a sensor for a localization system. We demonstrate that off-the-shelf hardware can accurately be used for location sensing and real-time tracking by applying a Bayesian localization framework. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated sensing and filter design for a single-link flexible manipulator

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 559 - 564
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of using different sensors in filter design that can simultaneously satisfy multiple specifications. A novel approach is taken in the design paradigm that integrates the sensing strategy with the filter design, which improves the filtering performance. An application to the estimation of the endpoint vibration rate of a single-link flexible manipulator is presented with experimental verifications. View full abstract»

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  • A novel gait generation for biped walking robots based on mechanical energy constraint

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 565 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    This paper proposes novel energy-based gait generation and control methods for biped robots based on an analysis of passive dynamic walking. First, we discuss the essence of dynamic walking using a passive walker on a gentle slope from the mechanical energy point of view. Second, we propose a simple and effective gait-generation method, which imitates the energy behavior in every walking cycle considering the zero-moment point condition and other factors of the active walker. The control strategy is formed by taking into account the features of mechanical energy dissipation and restoration. Following the proposed method, the robot can exhibit a natural and reasonable walk on a level ground without any gait planning and design in advance. The effectiveness of the method is examined through numerical simulations and experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic gait-pattern adaptation algorithms for rehabilitation with a 4-DOF robotic orthosis

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 574 - 582
    Cited by:  Papers (59)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents newly developed algorithms for automatic adaptation of motion for a robotic rehabilitation device. The algorithms adapt the gait pattern of patients that walk on a treadmill. Three different algorithms were developed. The first one is based on inverse dynamics and online minimization of the human-machine interaction torque. The second one is based on direct dynamics and estimation of the desired variation in the gait-pattern acceleration. The third algorithm is based on impedance control and direct adaptation of the gait pattern angular trajectories. The algorithms were tested and compared in computer simulations and actual experiments on healthy subjects and patients. In simulations, all algorithms have adapted the gait pattern toward the desired one, which led to a greater than 40% reduction of interaction torques. The impedance-control-based algorithm performed best in the experiments. View full abstract»

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  • A framework for implementing cooperative motion on industrial controllers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 583 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of two or more robots jointly manipulating a common object, termed cooperative control, has many advantages in industrial applications. Much of the previous work on cooperative control, however, has emphasized capabilities, such as joint torque control, not generally present on industrial robots. This paper applies the concept of cooperative control to industrial robots by taking advantage of those capabilities that do exist on industrial robots. Specifically, a design approach that makes use of tool-based coordinate systems, trajectory generation, real-time modification, and distributed control of multiple robots is presented. These concepts are implemented on a system of two industrial robots using an adaptive fuzzy controller, and the results are discussed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 2004. The current retitled publications areIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope