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NanoBioscience, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience publication information

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  • Elastic scattering and light transport in three-dimensional collagen gel constructs: a mathematical model and computer Simulation approach

    Page(s): 85 - 89
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mathematical modeling approach for elastic scattering and light propagation is presented, which can be used to obtain the scattering coefficient, the index of refraction, and the distribution of the collagen fibrils in a gel. Collagen fibrils can be realistically represented by small cylindrical particles. The analysis of the scattering of light by such particles provides the scattering coefficient. Light transport in multilayered tissues has been modeled and the collagen fibrils scattering coefficient has been considered as main input parameters. Assuming that a gel is composed of fibrils with the same diameter, it is possible to obtain all the input parameters of the model and, therefore, a simulated spectrum. This can be repeated for several diameters. Considering a gel composed of fibrils with different diameters, it is possible to obtain a best-fitting simulated spectrum as a weighted sum (least-square-error based) of the spectra corresponding to several fibril diameters, and, therefore, obtain an estimate of the percentages of fibrils of each diameter in the gel. Moreover, the scattering coefficient and refractive index, which are also provided by the model, are relevant parameters as they relate to tissue properties in their own right. View full abstract»

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  • A parallel-plate flow chamber to study initial cell adhesion on a nanofeatured surface

    Page(s): 90 - 95
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    Cells in the human body come across many types of information, which they respond to. Both material chemistry and topography of the surface where they adhere have an effect on cell shape, proliferation, migration, and gene expression. It is possible to create surfaces with topography at the nanometric scale to allow observation of cell-topography interactions. Previous work has shown that 100-nm-diameter pits on a 300-nm pitch can have a marked effect in reducing the adhesion of rat fibroblasts in static cultures. In the present study, a flow of cell suspension was used to investigate cell adhesion onto nanopits in dynamic conditions, by means of a parallel-plate flow chamber. A flow chamber with inner nanotopography has been designed, which allows real-time observation of the flow over the nanopits. A nanopitted pattern was successfully embossed into polymethylmethacrylate to meet the required shape of the chamber. Dynamic cell adhesion after 1 h has been quantified and compared on flat and nanopitted polymethylmethacrylate substrates. The nanopits were seen to be significantly less adhesive than the flat substrates (p<0.001), which is coherent with previous observations of static cultures. View full abstract»

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  • Shape recovery of an optically trapped vesicle: effect of flow velocity and temperature

    Page(s): 96 - 100
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    A new biophysical approach based on optical tweezers is developed to measure the time-dependent shape transformation and recovery of a single liposome, which is induced by the sudden stop of a moving liposome from various flow velocities at constant temperature. A simple viscoelastic model has been applied to correlate the temporal geometric parameter of the deformed liposome with a characteristic time constant, i.e., the ratio of membrane viscosity to elasticity. Our results show that membrane viscosity becomes dominant in governing the shape recovery rate when sample temperature goes beyond the main phase transition temperature of the phospholipid bilayer. More importantly, flow speed and vesicle size are demonstrated as key physical determinants for the shape recovery of liposome. View full abstract»

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  • A magnetocaloric pump for microfluidic applications

    Page(s): 101 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (503 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A magnetocaloric pump provides a simple means of pumping fluid using only external thermal and magnetic fields. The principle, which can be traced back to the early work of Rosensweig, is straightforward. Magnetic materials tend to lose their magnetization as the temperature approaches the material's Curie point. Exposing a column of magnetic fluid to a uniform magnetic field coincident with a temperature gradient produces a pressure gradient in the magnetic fluid. As the fluid heats up, it loses its attraction to the magnetic field and is displaced by cooler fluid. The impact of such a phenomenon is obvious: fluid propulsion with no moving mechanical parts. Until recently, limitations in the magnetic and thermal properties of conventional materials severely limited practical operating pressure gradients. However, recent advancements in the design of metal substituted magnetite enable fine control over both the magnetic and thermal properties of magnetic nanoparticles, a key element in colloidal-based magnetic fluids (ferrofluids). This paper begins with a basic description of the process and previous limitations due to material properties. This is followed by a review of existing methods of synthesizing magnetic nanoparticles as well as an introduction to a new approach based on thermophilic metal-reducing bacteria. We compare two compounds and show, experimentally, significant variation in specific magnetic and thermal properties. We develop the constitutive thermal, magnetic, and fluid dynamic equations associated with a magnetocaloric pump and validate our finite-element model with a series of experiments. Preliminary results show a good match between the model and experiment as well as approximately an order of magnitude increase in the fluid flow rate over conventional magnetite-based ferrofluids operating below 80°C. Finally, as a practical demonstration, we describe a novel application of this technology: pumping fluids at the "lab-on-a-chip" microfluidic scale. View full abstract»

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  • A novel MEA/AFM platform for measurement of real-time, nanometric morphological alterations of electrically stimulated neuroblastoma cells

    Page(s): 111 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Studies of electrically induced morphological changes in neurons have either been limited by the resolution of light microscopy or the cell fixation required for electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), however, mechanically maps cell topography, offering exquisite resolution of evolving processes in three dimensions. In this paper, we present a microelectrode array (MEA) based platform for the real-time detection of subtle, electrically induced variations in neuronal morphology, with AFM. This platform required the customized design and production of a silicon-based MEA, integration with a commercial AFM, and the development of biological techniques for culture of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells onto the device. Biphasic pulse trains (1 Hz) of electric current were delivered to a microelectrode interfaced with a neuroblastoma cell, and the AFM continuously recorded a cross-sectional height profile. Proof-of-principle experiments demonstrate that electric stimulation may induce fluctuations ranging in the 100-300-nm range, 75-fold greater than the systemic resolution, but smaller than the resolution of light microscopy modalities. In addition, the real-time capabilities of AFM captured a collapse (30%-40%) of a neurite cross section, seconds after electric stimulation. Ultimately, this platform can be used to nanocharacterize cell responses to electric stimulation and other biochemical cues, for use in neuronal patterning and regeneration studies. View full abstract»

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  • Encapsulation of purple membrane patches into polymeric nanofibers by electrospinning

    Page(s): 118 - 120
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    The formation of beaded nanofibers containing purple membrane (PM) by electrospinning of polymer solutions is reported. Electrospinning is known as a versatile method to produce polymeric fibers with diameters on the nanometer scale. Embedding of particles significantly larger than the fiber diameter is unexpected because a breakdown of the spinning process is expected when microscaled particles in the polymer solution pass the nozzle. Presumably due to the flexibility of PM patches, the embedding of the membrane patches into the fibers becomes possible. Embedding into nanofibers may be an alternative to microencapsulation for biomolecules. View full abstract»

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  • P450scc mutant nanostructuring for optimal assembly

    Page(s): 121 - 128
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    Molecular modeling and protein engineering were synergically employed to improve the fabrication of cytochrome P450scc mutant nanostructures for biodevice assembly. The optimization of protein three-dimensional structure by molecular modeling was performed using two models: in vacuum and simulating the presence of a polar solvent. Calculations were performed on a model to predict a P450scc mutant which could improve the process of molecules' immobilization onto solid supports. Engineerized cytochrome P450scc thin films were prepared and characterized by various biophysical techniques such as π-A isotherms, surface potential measurements, Brewster angle microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, nanogravimetry, and electrochemical analysis. This paper takes into consideration biomolecules modified by protein engineering that represent a new and powerful approach for obtaining synthetic simpler artificial structures with new or improved properties (i.e., specificity, stability, sensitivity, etc.) useful for biosensors development. View full abstract»

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  • All-optical biomolecular parallel logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin

    Page(s): 129 - 136
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    All-optical two input parallel logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin (BR) protein have been designed based on nonlinear intensity-induced excited-state absorption. Amplitude modulation of a continuous wave (CW) probe laser beam transmission at 640 nm corresponding to the peak absorption of O intermediate state through BR, by a modulating CW pump laser beam at 570 nm corresponding to the peak absorption of initial BR state has been analyzed considering all six intermediate states in its photocycle using the rate equation approach. The transmission characteristics have been shown to exhibit a dip, which is sensitive to normalized small-signal absorption coefficient (β), rate constants of O and N intermediate states and absorption of the O state at 570 nm. There is an optimum value of β for a given pump intensity range for which maximum modulation can be achieved. It is shown that 100% modulation can be achieved if the initial state of BR does not absorb the probe beam. The results have been used to design low-power all-optical parallel NOT, AND, OR, XNOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates for two cases: 1) only changing the output threshold and 2) considering a common threshold with different β values. View full abstract»

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  • 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    Page(s): 137 - 140
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  • IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience publishes basic and applied papers dealing both with engineering, physics, chemistry, modeling and computer science and with biology and medicine with respect to molecules, cells, tissues. The content of acceptable papers ranges from practical/clinical/environmental applications to formalized mathematical theory.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Henry Hess
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Columbia University