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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Rapid turn-on of shelf-stored tubes: an update

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2244 - 2251
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    The authors discuss the poisoning during shelf storage, of cathode surfaces as a result of adsorption of ambient gas residuals. The magnitude of the poisoning depends on the type of cathode and residual gas and follows the same order in which these different cathodes adsorbed the various ambient gases (i.e. sticking coefficients). Turn-on consists of several simultaneous processes. These involve t... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the 425-MHz Klystrode

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2212 - 2220
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    The results of analyses performed on a 500-kW peak power, 425-MHz Klystrode are presented. The Klystrode is an RF amplifier with three basic components; a gated-emission gun, a resonator (output cavity), and a spent-beam collector. The principal goal of the analysis is to understand the factors that limit the efficiency of the Klystrode and to suggest approaches to achieving improved efficiency. N... View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturized liquid metal ion source (MILMIS)

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2364 - 2367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    Introductory remarks are presented on liquid metal ion sources (LMISs), and basic features are outlined. A special by-product of field-emission electric space propulsion by a liquid metal ion thruster, is the slit emitter, which may be qualified as a semiminiaturized LMIS. The state-of-the-art technology of field emitter arrays common in vacuum microelectronics is applied to the fabrication of min... View full abstract»

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  • Novel techniques for the thermal management of space-based, high-power microwave tubes

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2252 - 2263
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB)  

    This work is based in part on a study (M.F. Rose et al., 1989) by the authors to determine the applicability of several concepts to the cooling of high-power linear microwave tubes operating in space under a variety of conditions. The authors focus on: direct radiation to space, beam exit to space, thermal storage, secondary coolant loops/heat pipes and the use of supercritical hydrogen as a coola... View full abstract»

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  • Aspects of field emission from silicon diode arrays

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2323 - 2328
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    The authors studied the field emission of arrays of lithographically fabricated silicon tips both by electrical characterization and by direct imaging of the spatial emission pattern. The authors describe experiments and analyses which support the supposition that the emitting tips are simply those which have the smallest values out of a Poisson distribution of tip radii created by the etching pro... View full abstract»

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  • Sealed vacuum devices: fluorescent microtip displays

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2320 - 2322
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    Emission uniformity and reliability are critical to the successful application of vacuum microelectronics to flat-panel displays. The authors discuss two techniques that address these issues. The first technique uses a series resistance to limit tip current and the second involves the partitioning of the emitting tips. Used together, they have caused a substantial improvement in current uniformity... View full abstract»

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  • Emission gated device issues

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2221 - 2228
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    A review of linear and nonlinear analyses applicable to emission gated devices is provided with an explicit declaration of the physical assumptions for each model. The authors consider density gating, not velocity modulation, emphasizing high-power and high-efficiency applications. Increased efficiency through the use of density gating for the RF input bunching of an electron beam is expected. The... View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic interactions between RF sources and LINAC cavities with beam loading

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2264 - 2274
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)  

    The issues of space-based, high-average-power, high-energy linear accelerators (LINACs) are addressed in connection with the associated RF power interaction problems. The basic operating principles of three types of LINACs are reviewed. Models of the RF source/accelerator cavity interaction, including beam loading, are presented. A one-port, single-mode cavity model is shown. Sufficient theoretica... View full abstract»

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  • The methodology of simulating particle trajectories through tunneling structures using a Wigner distribution approach

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2337 - 2347
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)  

    The authors introduce a trajectory methodology to describe elementary space- and time-dependent events in a tunneling process in the resonant tunneling diode (RTD). A methodology for constructing quantum particle trajectories is presented. The trajectories for a RTD are presented and their behavior, as a function of scattering and self-consistency, is shown to be consistent with the steady-state c... View full abstract»

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  • Field emission from metal-coated silicon tips

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2329 - 2333
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    Microfabrication processes previously described by D. Stephani and J. Eibl (1989) were refined and used to fabricate silicon tips coated with layers of titanium, tantalum, or platinum using physical vapor deposition techniques. The emphasis was upon creating tips with a large ratio of length to diameter. The emission properties of various groupings of emitters thus formed were investigated using a... View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of micro-triode performance

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2383 - 2388
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    A computer code for the simulation of electron beams from field emitter cathodes has been applied to typical micro-cathode configurations. The program (SPEED) solves Poisson's equation using relaxation techniques on a rectangular mesh for triodes with arbitrary, axisymmetric electrode shapes. It employs the Fowler-Nordheim law at emitter surfaces to determine the emission current density distribut... View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of geometrical change effects on electrical characteristics of micrometer-size vacuum triode with field emitters

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2392 - 2394
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    Change in the electrical characteristic of a micro-vacuum triode with a field electron emitter, due to a change in physical dimension which may appear in the fabrication process, has been simulated. It has been found that the variation of the grid opening size more strongly affects the electrical characteristics of the triodes than the misalignment between the emitter tip and the center of the gri... View full abstract»

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  • Silicon avalanche cathodes and their characteristics

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2377 - 2382
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    A highly doped shallow p-n junction (⩽300 Å) is used to fabricate a silicon avalanche cathode (SAC) to serve as an electron source for a micro-vacuum diode. Single and arrayed SACs are integrated on the same chip with separate bias configurations. Since the device fabrication is fully compatible with Si IC processing, high repeatability and reliability are achieved. The device structure ... View full abstract»

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  • Vacuum microelectronics: what's new and exciting

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2276 - 2283
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    It is argued that the key factor required to make vacuum microelectronics successful is closely related to an understanding and control of the physics, materials and microfabrication technology for field emitter arrays (FEAs). The topics discussed are the optimization and theoretical limit of the FEA; thermal stability of the FEA and the mesoscopic FEA; fabrication and materials of FEAs; and chara... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of emission noise from silicon field emitters

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2348 - 2349
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    A calculation is made of the spectral density of emission fluctuations for silicon emitter tips for two emission mechanisms: emission mainly from surface states, and emission mainly from the conduction band edge. In both cases surface-state occupancy fluctuations, calculated from the generalized Nyquist formula, modulate the field emission current. The basic idea is that emission is likely to come... View full abstract»

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  • RF tubes for space-based accelerators

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2190 - 2204
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1256 KB)  

    The authors analyze and classify high-power RF tubes for possible application to space-borne linear accelerators at frequencies of 425, 850 and 1700 MHz. Devices considered include relatively conventional tubes such as klystrons, klystrodes, magnetrons and crossed-field amplifiers; various novel devices such as the trirotron, timatron, lasertron and gigatron; Soviet accelerator tubes (the martotro... View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication and characterization of lateral field-emitter triodes

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2334 - 2336
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    The author fabricated a field-emitter triode with tungsten electrodes arranged laterally on a quartz glass substrate by using the photolithography and dry etching techniques. The device consists of an array of 170 field-emitter tips with a 10-μm pitch, a columnar gate, and an anode. The emission characteristics followed the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling theory. The mutual conductance was about 0.02... View full abstract»

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  • A fabrication method for the integration of vacuum microelectronic devices

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2294 - 2303
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)  

    The sharply pointed tip of the emitter is the only physical structure in typical field emission vacuum microelectronic devices that is not commonly produced by standard integrated circuit fabrication processes. The authors suggest the use of a cusp which naturally forms when a hole is filled with a conformal film, as a mold to create the sharply pointed emitter. Not only is this tip formation meth... View full abstract»

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  • Proceedings of 1990 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Vacuum Micro-electronics

    Publication Year: 1991
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (56 KB)  

    The following topics were dealt with: vacuum microelectronic device fabrication; field emission, cold cathode emission properties; field emitter arrays; emission noise theory high-vacuum test station; miniaturised liquid metal ion source; lateral field emitter microtriodes; oxidation; sharpened emitter array process; miniature electron-optical columns; display applications View full abstract»

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  • Miniature electron-optical columns

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2284 - 2288
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    Miniaturized electron-optical systems based on a field emission microsource and a microlens for probe forming have been studied. The performance of systems with dimensions (length and diameter) in the submillimeter to millimeter range can exceed that of a conventional system over a wide range of potentials (100 V to 10 kV) and working distances (up to 10 mm). Electron-optical studies show that not... View full abstract»

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  • Fast- and super-fast-warm-up cathodes using novel APG/APBN heaters

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2239 - 2243
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    A fast-warm-up heater/cathode approach for microwave tubes is described. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite (APG) deposited onto anisotropic pyrolytic boron nitride (APBN) was used to fabricate heater wafers. Both planar and spherical heaters can be produced. APG/APBN characteristics are discussed along with methods for heater fabrication. Measured fast-warm-up thermal cycling data are presented for 4... View full abstract»

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  • A high-power Klystrode with potential for space application

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2205 - 2211
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    A 500-kW peak power 50-kW average 425-MHz Klystrode has been designed and built as part of a major program on Klystrode development. The evolution of a high-power Klystrode design is discussed. An attempt was made to determine experimentally if a Klystrode would be a viable device in space applications at a 500-kW power level at 425 MHz. Testing proceeded in three phases. The initial testing was d... View full abstract»

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  • Field-emitter arrays for vacuum microelectronics

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2355 - 2363
    Cited by:  Papers (87)  |  Patents (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    An ongoing program on microfabricated field-emitter arrays has produced a gated field-emitter tip structure with submicrometer dimensions and techniques for fabricating emitter arrays with tip packaging densities of up to 1.5×107 tips/cm2. Arrays have been fabricated over areas varying from a few micrometers up to 13 cm in diameter. Very small overall emitter size, mate... View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of low voltage field emission

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2304 - 2308
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    The authors describe field emission from a thin-film field emitter array. The process used to fabricate the field emitters is based on the mold technique described by H.F. Gray and R.F. Greene (US patent 4,307,507). Each emitter chip consists of a 10×10 square array of field emitter tips and associated lead bonding pads. There is a 10-μm spacing between emitter tips. The bare chips were p... View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic behavior and instability of field emitter surfaces

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 2317 - 2319
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    The instability of field emission current arises from the atomic changes of the field emitter surface which can be induced by the sputtering of the secondary ions, by surface diffusion of containment atoms, and by the dynamical behavior of the emitter surface itself. There are three major causes of the instability: (1) the ion-bombardment- or ion-sputtering-induced surface changes, (2) contaminati... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Meet Our Editors

Acting Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Paul K.-L. Yu

Dept. ECE
University of California San Diego