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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May-June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 709
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Advanced SPICE modeling of large power IGBT modules

    Page(s): 710 - 716
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enhanced insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) model based on the Kraus model with new derivations based on an extra parameter accounting for p-i-n injection was developed to allow simulation of both trench and DMOS IGBT structures. Temperature dependence was also implemented in the model. The model was validated against steady-state and transient measurements done on an 800-A 1.7-kV Dynex IGBT module at 25°C and 125°C. The Spice model has also shown excellent agreement with mixed mode MEDICI simulations. The Spice model also takes into account for the first time the parasitic thyristor effect allowing the dc and dynamic temperature-dependent latchup modeling of power modules as well as their temperature-dependent safe operating area. View full abstract»

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  • Application of bi-state magnetic material to automotive offset-coupled IPM starter/alternator machine

    Page(s): 717 - 725
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates a new approach to designing high-speed interior permanent-magnet (IPM) synchronous machines using a bi-state soft magnetic material. The bi-state material can have its normally high magnetic permeability permanently reduced in localized regions to that of air by means of heat treatment. This new work significantly expands a previous investigation by considering offset-coupled IPM machines that make it possible to significantly increase the rotor speed while retaining all of the other specifications of the 6-kW starter/alternator application. Lumped-parameter models, Monte Carlo optimization, and both electromagnetic and structural finite-element analysis are used to develop new offset-coupled IPM machine designs with the new material at speeds of 40 000 r/min or higher. Results from this work demonstrate that the bi-state material offers a promising approach for designing high-speed IPM machines that offer weight and volume advantages compared to their lower speed counterparts at comparable system cost. View full abstract»

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  • An equivalent internal circuit of the induction machine for advanced spectral analysis

    Page(s): 726 - 734
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to develop a method to validate an equivalent internal circuit of the three-phase squirrel-cage induction machine for advanced signal processing including fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the computation of the stator and rotor current spectra. An experimental setup for an 11-kW induction machine was developed in order to get numerical data for voltages and currents from the stator side. The comparison between the analytical computation, the simulation, and the experimental results, shows the model capability to reproduce the electromagnetic phenomena in the induction machine with mixed time and space harmonics. The proposed model can be used to design electrical fault detection devices with low cost and noninvasive sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Fault classification and fault signature production for rolling element bearings in electric machines

    Page(s): 735 - 739
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most condition monitoring techniques for rolling element bearings are designed to detect the four characteristic fault frequencies. This has lead to the common practice of categorizing bearing faults according to fault location (i.e., inner race, outer race, ball, or cage fault). While the ability to detect the four characteristic fault frequencies is necessary, this approach neglects another important class of faults that arise in many industrial settings. This research introduces the notion of categorizing bearing faults as either single-point defects or generalized roughness. These classes separate bearing faults according to the fault signatures that are produced rather than by the physical location of the fault. Specifically, single-point defects produce the four predictable characteristic fault frequencies while faults categorized as generalized roughness produce unpredictable broadband changes in the machine vibration and stator current. Experimental results are provided from bearings failed in situ via a shaft current. These results illustrate the unpredictable and broadband nature of the effects produced by generalized roughness bearing faults. This issue is significant because a successful bearing condition monitoring scheme must be able to reliably detect both classes of faults. View full abstract»

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  • Bearing fault detection via autoregressive stator current modeling

    Page(s): 740 - 747
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method for detecting developing bearing faults via stator current. Current-based condition monitoring offers significant economic savings and implementation advantages over vibration-based techniques. This method begins by filtering the stator current to remove most of the significant frequency content unrelated to bearing faults. Afterwards, the filtered stator current is used to train an autoregressive signal model. This model is first trained while the bearings are healthy, and a baseline spectrum is computed. As bearing health degrades, the modeled spectrum deviates from its baseline value; the mean spectral deviation is then used as the fault index. This fault index is able to track changes in machine vibration due to developing bearing faults. Due to the initial filtering process, this method is robust to many influences including variations in supply voltage, cyclical load torque variations, and other (nonbearing) fault sources. Experimental results from ten different bearings are used to verify the proficiency of this method. View full abstract»

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  • Young's modulus for laminated machine structures with particular reference to switched reluctance motor vibrations

    Page(s): 748 - 754
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) has a disadvantage of higher acoustic noise, caused by stator vibrations. Techniques for noise reduction require knowledge of the modal frequencies, which depend on mechanical shapes and dimensions as well as material properties, for example, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, mass density, etc. It is found that the generally accepted value of Young's modulus is not valid for a machine with laminations and no frame. This paper introduces a simple and nondestructive method for the measurement of Young's modulus; it is then used in a finite-element (FE) program to determine the resonant frequencies of SRM stator vibration. The effects of mass density and Poisson's ratios are also discussed. The FE results are validated by vibration tests, which show good accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Design and modeling of a slotless and homopolar axial-field synchronous machine for a flywheel accumulator

    Page(s): 755 - 762
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new axial-field synchronous machine designed for a flywheel accumulator is presented herein. The armature and field windings, fixed in the air gap, are made with double-face printed circuits. A specific armature layout provides a sine-distributed magnetomotive force and solves the problem of crossing the ends of the winding. A two-dimensional semi-analytical model at the mean radius, using surfacic permeances, is then developed. Then, inductances, torque, and eddy-current losses are calculated using this model and compared with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and numerical simulation of a brushless permanent-magnet DC motor in dynamic conditions by time-stepping technique

    Page(s): 763 - 770
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method of modeling and numerical simulation of a brushless permanent-magnet dc motor using time-stepping finite-element technique is presented. In the proposed model, the electromagnetic field equations, the stator circuit equation, and the motion equation are solved simultaneously at each time step; thus, the eddy-current effect, the saturation effect, the rotor movement, and the nonsinusoidal quantities can all be taken into account directly in the system of equations. Dynamic conditions of the motor at starting, step voltage variation, and load torque changes are investigated using the proposed dynamic model. View full abstract»

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  • Design and parameter effect analysis of dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally wound, permanent-magnet machines

    Page(s): 771 - 779
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel machine family-the dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally wound, permanent-magnet (RFTPM) machine-has been proven in a previous paper to be able to improve the machine efficiency and boost the torque density. This paper will present the key design equations and design procedure of the RFTPM machines, analyze parameter effects on machine performance, and give design guidelines to achieve specific design objectives. In addition, finite-element analysis is employed to prove the effectiveness of the design equations and find the machine overload capability. Experimental measurements of a prototype, which match the design specifications well, verify the effectiveness of the design equations. View full abstract»

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  • Design of pole-change single-phase induction motor for household appliances

    Page(s): 780 - 788
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the design of a pole-change single-phase induction motor to reduce the harmonic components of the magnetic flux density in the air gap. The harmonics in the magnetic flux density distribution can have a significant detrimental effect on the characteristics of the machine such as crawling. In this paper, the magnetic flux density distribution is analyzed by analytical method and finite-element method. Discrete Fourier transform is used to analyze the harmonics and the characteristics are calculated from the equivalent circuit considering the harmonic components. The winding arrangement for the harmonic reduction is designed from the optimization method and the harmonic reduction of the improved models is verified through the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • High-efficiency line-start interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors

    Page(s): 789 - 796
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    This paper presents a successful design of a high-efficiency small but novel interior permanent-magnet motor using NdBFe magnets. It is designed to operate both at line and variable frequencies. Line start with high inertia load was a special consideration. Time-stepping finite-element analysis has been used to successfully predict the dynamic and transient performances of the prototype motors. It has been found that the proposed design has yielded successful simulation and experimental results. The maximum load inertia corresponding to the rotor-bar depth has been determined from the simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of single-phase line-start permanent-magnet motor considering iron loss and parameter variation with load angle

    Page(s): 797 - 805
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents analysis and design methodology of single-phase line-start permanent-magnet synchronous (LSPM) motors. The d-q-axes inductances of LSPM motors have a nonlinear variation according to the current and the load angle. The variation of d-q-axes inductances due to load angle is calculated by finite-element method in steady state. Iron loss is analyzed considering the harmonics of the flux density waveforms using iron loss curves. The validity of the presented analysis method considering the variation of the d-q-axes inductances is verified by comparison with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical design considerations for conventionally laminated, high-speed, interior PM synchronous machine rotors

    Page(s): 806 - 812
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses mechanical design considerations that are particular to conventionally (i.e., radially) laminated rotors of interior permanent-magnet synchronous machines. Focus is placed on applications where the radial forces due to high-speed operation are the major mechanically limiting design factor. Proper design of the lamination bridges, or ribs, at the rotor outer diameter is explained in terms of the both material considerations and electromagnetic performance impact. The tradeoff of complexity versus performance associated with using strengthening ribs in the magnet cavities is discussed. The sensitivity of the mechanical design limitations to the rotor-shaft mounting mechanism is also highlighted. These effects are then analyzed using finite-element analysis for a 150-N·m/6-kW integrated starter/alternator designed for operation up to 6000 r/min with an annular rotor to accommodate a torque converter or clutch assembly. This example demonstrates that it is possible to significantly improve the rotor's structural integrity using the techniques described in this paper with only a very modest impact on the projected machine drive cost. View full abstract»

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  • Issues in reducing the cogging torque of mass-produced permanent-magnet brushless DC motor

    Page(s): 813 - 820
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A variety of techniques are available to reduce cogging torque in permanent-magnet brushless DC motors. Theoretically, all the techniques are quite effective for minimizing the cogging torque. This paper presents the efficacy of these methods in mass production subject to manufacturing tolerances/variations. The cogging torque minimization becomes a challenging task when the requirement is very stringent in applications such as electric power steering and robotics. Some of the known techniques for reducing the cogging torque are the magnet pole design, skewing, step skewing, and dummy slots in the stator lamination. They will be discussed in this paper considering manufacturing tolerances/variations when used in mass production. Finite-element analysis is carried out to determine the worst case scenarios. The research demonstrates that the cogging torque amplitude and frequency are highly sensitive to magnet shapes, dimensions, locations and magnetization pattern, as well as slot/pole combination. In reality, the cogging torque may not be eliminated completely but minimized to a satisfactory level depending on the application requirements. View full abstract»

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  • An electronic throttle control strategy including compensation of friction and limp-home effects

    Page(s): 821 - 834
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An electronic throttle is a low-power dc servo drive which positions the throttle plate. Its application in modern automotive engines leads to improvements in vehicle drivability, fuel economy, and emissions. Transmission friction and the return spring limp-home nonlinearity significantly affect the electronic throttle performance. The influence of these effects is analyzed by means of computer simulations, experiments, and analytical calculations. A dynamic friction model is developed in order to adequately capture the experimentally observed characteristics of the presliding-displacement and breakaway effects. The linear part of electronic throttle process model is also analyzed and experimentally identified. A nonlinear control strategy is proposed, consisting of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and a feedback compensator for friction and limp-home effects. The PID controller parameters are analytically optimized according to the damping optimum criterion. The proposed control strategy is verified by computer simulations and experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Dead-time issues in predictive current control

    Page(s): 835 - 844
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current control in inverter-driven machine systems is the inner most component of the hierarchy of control loops. If the control of current in the machine is not fast and accurate then it is difficult, if not impossible, to build a high-performance drive system. Unfortunately, the implementation of current control in power electronic systems is not ideal. Practical effects can have a significant influence on its performance. This paper examines one of these effects, dead time, and considers the influence it has on the performance of predictive current controllers (PCCs). The paper presents analysis that shows that a PCC implicitly compensates for voltage loss due to dead time. Also, a modified PCC is introduced that reduces the zero-current-clamp problem caused by dead time. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the analysis and confirm the performance of the new algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A novel output filter topology to reduce motor overvoltage

    Page(s): 845 - 852
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When an induction machine is supplied with a voltage-source pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter, a ringing voltage overshoot appears at motor terminals due to steep PWM voltage pulse propagation along the motor cable. It has been reported that in particular situations, when very long motor cables are used and retrofit installations, the overvoltage could stress motors with poor insulation. This paper presents a novel inverter output filter topology consisting of an LC filter which has the star point of the common-mode capacitors clamped to the + and - dc-link rails by the means of two diodes. The proposed filter drastically reduces the voltage overshoot at the motor terminals, thus reducing motor insulation stress. This is a cheap alternative to more known industrial solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Trends in advanced motor protection and monitoring

    Page(s): 853 - 860
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Industrial manufacturers strive to maximize uptime of plant operations and processes. However, downtime can be a valuable asset and present many opportunities to address those critical maintenance items that can impact reliability. Since motors and associated driven equipment comprise almost 90% of the process loads, identifying and correcting these mechanical and electrical maintenance problems will reduce unplanned production shutdowns and significantly increase business profits. This paper explores the various protection technologies available to the plant and design engineer for implementation of a cost effective and reliability centered motor management program. View full abstract»

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  • A controlled PWM AC/DC converter for a high-speed brushless generator for minimum kVA rating

    Page(s): 861 - 868
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a control technique for an ac/dc converter and high-speed single-phase brushless ac generator topology with a reactive armature winding. An ac-to-dc pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) converter is used with phase angle control to deliver a controlled power factor for a wide speed range while maintaining a low kVA rating of the converter and the generator. The generator is a flux-switching machine, derived from a combination of the inductor alternator and the switched reluctance machine. The electrical characteristics of the generator are determined from open-circuit, short-circuit, and load tests performed on an experimental generator. A Simulink model is developed for the ac-to-dc PWM converter and the simulated voltage and current waveforms show that the kVA rating of the converter and the generator can be minimized through control of the power factor of the generator. This novel generator is shown to be simple to control and can be used for micro turbine applications and efficient low-cost independent power generation. The converter also allows the machine to be used as an integrated starter alternator. View full abstract»

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  • Summary of IEEE standard 1459: definitions for the measurement of electric power quantities under sinusoidal, nonsinusoidal, balanced, or unbalanced conditions

    Page(s): 869 - 876
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the new IEEE Standard 1459, Definitions for the Measurement of Electric Power Quantities Under Sinusoidal, Nonsinusoidal, Balanced or Unbalanced Conditions. The information is presented in the context of historical events that explain the reasons for new definitions. The new definitions originate from Se, the effective apparent power definition attributed to F. Buchholz and W. Goodhue. The resolution of Se extends from well-established concepts. The need for the separation of 60/50-Hz powers from the non-60/50 Hz-powers is emphasized. The standard serves users who want to evaluate the performance of modern equipment or to design and build the new generation of instrumentation. View full abstract»

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  • Using a microprocessor-based instrument to predict the incident energy from arc-flash hazards

    Page(s): 877 - 886
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With better understanding of arc flashes, the electrical safety industry continues to develop new safety procedures for electrical workspaces. To assess the potential arc hazards of a workspace, workers must rely on engineering fault studies to provide vital fault-current data. An instrument, based on a network impedance analyzer, determines the maximum flash-arc incident-energy exposure at a worksite within a few seconds. The digital analyzer measures the power system source impedance, X/R ratio, and the system voltage to predict the bolted fault current and incident energy, while the power distribution system is energized and in normal operation. The instrument computes the incident energy for standard electrical workspaces of an open-air arc and an enclosed box with one open side. Experiments have been conducted to verify the accuracy of the impedance and X/R ratio measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability block diagram simulation techniques applied to the IEEE Std. 493 standard network

    Page(s): 887 - 895
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is one of a series of papers discussing the application and accuracy of different analysis techniques supporting the determination of industrial and commercial power system reliability and availability. There is a need recognized in the power industry to identify and utilize a standard tool, or a set of tools, to analyze the reliability of power systems. Historically, the results of applying different reliability methodologies and tools varied significantly, and comparisons were difficult. The Reliability Analysis Techniques Working Group of the Gold Book (IEEE Std. 493-1997) developed a standard network to enable comparison of analytical techniques. This paper describes the approach of simulations via reliability block diagrams as applied to the Gold Book standard network. Reliability indexes of the load points are presented, and are compared with ones obtained from other techniques in the series to determine the accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Arc-fault protection of branch circuits, cords, and connected equipment

    Page(s): 896 - 899
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In electrical power systems, the fault frequently involves arcing and burning of wiring exposed to mechanical damage and other insulation stresses including wiring not fixed and connected by flexible cords and cables. IEC Standard 60364 ends the design of electric power systems at the outlets of branch circuits or at the fixed equipment. A complete design should include the connections of portable equipment and of extension cords (as requested by NFPA 70) that are exposed to arc faults and may cause fire and/or electric shock hazards. Since cords supplying Class II equipment are without a grounding protection conductor, the failure of the double insulation, caused by external damage, is unlikely to be easily detected as a ground fault. Protection must be provided to prevent the fault from extinguishing itself without being detected and remaining energized, thus presenting an electric shock hazard by direct contact with a live part, rendered accessible after local insulation failure. The authors highlight this worst case and suggest the protection achieved by wiring the circuits, particularly extension cords, with special power cables. Ground-fault forced cables (GFFCs) convert a line-to-line fault into a line-to-ground fault, that will be detected and protected by ordinary ground-fault protective devices. By adopting the GFFC type of cables internally to Class II equipment, the disconnecting protection could also be extended to equipment. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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