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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 6 • Date June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

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  • Table of contents

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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 878
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  • The long march to interoperable digital rights management

    Page(s): 883 - 897
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses interoperability of digital rights management (DRM) systems. We start by describing a basic reference model for DRM. The cause of interoperability is served by understanding and circumscribing what DRM is "in the whole." Then we outline and contrast three different approaches to achieving interoperability. One approach relies on flexible network services to provide functionality where it is needed, perhaps by bridging different systems. We describe an experimental service orchestration system (NEMO) that enables such an approach. View full abstract»

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  • Anonymous trust: digital rights management using broadcast encryption

    Page(s): 898 - 909
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Broadcast encryption is an active area of cryptographic research. Originally defined by Fiat and Naor, broadcast encryption refers to key management schemes that operate when the participating parties do not have a two-way communication path. We contrast that with public-key cryptography: all known public-key protocols require a handshake to establish a common key. We extend the use of broadcast encryption to solve problems that have been traditionally addressed by public-key cryptography: we discuss the xCP cluster protocol, a proposed digital rights management (DRM) system for the home entertainment network, and we illustrate a broadcast-encryption-based content distribution system, which can work without requiring any secrets in the DRM client. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient state updates for key management

    Page(s): 910 - 917
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    Encryption is widely used to enforce usage rules for digital content. In many scenarios content is encrypted using a group key which is known to a group of users that are allowed to use the content. When users leave or join the group, the group key must be changed. The logical key hierarchy (LKH) algorithm is a very common method of managing these key changes. In this algorithm every user keeps a personal key composed of log n keys (for a group of n users). A key update message consists of O(log n) keys. A major drawback of the LKH algorithm is that users must update their state whenever users join or leave the group. When such an event happens, a key update message is sent to all users. A user who is offline during t key updates, and who needs to learn the keys sent in these updates as well as update its personal key, should receive and process the t key update messages, of total length O(t log n) keys. In this paper, we show how to reduce this overhead to a message of O(log t) keys. We also note that one of the methods that are used in this work to reduce the size of the update message can be used in other scenarios as well. It enables one to generate n pseudorandom keys of length k bits each, such that any successive set of t keys can be represented by a string log(t)·k bits, without disclosing any information about the other keys. View full abstract»

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  • Video fingerprinting and encryption principles for digital rights management

    Page(s): 918 - 932
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a tutorial and survey of digital fingerprinting and video scrambling algorithms based on partial encryption. Necessary design tradeoffs for algorithm development are highlighted for multicast communication environments. We also propose a novel architecture for joint fingerprinting and decryption that holds promise for a better compromise between practicality and security for emerging digital rights management applications. View full abstract»

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  • New approaches to digital evidence

    Page(s): 933 - 947
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital evidence, such as digital signatures, is of crucial importance in the emerging digitally operating economy because it is easy to transmit, archive, search, and verify. Nevertheless, the initial promise of the usefulness of digital signatures was too optimistic. This calls for a systematic treatment of digital evidence. The paper provides a foundation for reasoning about digital evidence systems and legislation, thereby identifying the roles and limitations of digital evidence, in the apparently simple scenario where it should prove that an entity, A, agreed to a digital contract, d. Our approach is in sharp contrast to the current general views documented in the technical literature and in digital signature legislation. We propose an entirely new view of the concepts of certification, time stamping, revocation, and other trusted services, potentially leading to new, sounder business models for trusted services. Some of the, perhaps provocative, implications of our view are that certificates are generally irrelevant as evidence in a dispute, that it is generally irrelevant when a signature was generated, that a commitment to be liable for digital evidence cannot meaningfully be revoked, and that there is no need for mutually trusted authorities like certification authorities. We also propose a new type of digital evidence called digital declarations, based on a digital recording of a willful act indicating agreement to a document or contract. View full abstract»

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  • Biometric cryptosystems: issues and challenges

    Page(s): 948 - 960
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In traditional cryptosystems, user authentication is based on possession of secret keys; the method falls apart if the keys are not kept secret (i.e., shared with non-legitimate users). Further, keys can be forgotten, lost, or stolen and, thus, cannot provide non-repudiation. Current authentication systems based on physiological and behavioral characteristics of persons (known as biometrics), such as fingerprints, inherently provide solutions to many of these problems and may replace the authentication component of traditional cryptosystems. We present various methods that monolithically bind a cryptographic key with the biometric template of a user stored in the database in such a way that the key cannot be revealed without a successful biometric authentication. We assess the performance of one of these biometric key binding/generation algorithms using the fingerprint biometric. We illustrate the challenges involved in biometric key generation primarily due to drastic acquisition variations in the representation of a biometric identifier and the imperfect nature of biometric feature extraction and matching algorithms. We elaborate on the suitability of these algorithms for digital rights management systems. View full abstract»

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  • Music2Share - copyright-compliant music sharing in P2P systems

    Page(s): 961 - 970
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    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions of identification, tracking, and sharing of music with those of licensing, monitoring, and payment. This highly decentralized music-aware P2P protocol will allow access to large amounts of music of guaranteed quality; it merges in a natural way the policing functions for copyright protection and an efficient music-management infrastructure for the benefit of the user. View full abstract»

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  • Benchmarking of image watermarking algorithms for digital rights management

    Page(s): 971 - 984
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    We discuss the issues related to image watermarking benchmarking and scenarios based on digital rights management requirements. We show that improvements are needed in image quality evaluation, especially related to image geometrical deformation assessments, in risk evaluation related to specific delivery scenarios and in multidimensional criteria evaluation. Efficient benchmarking is still an open issue and we suggest the use of open-source Web-based evaluation systems for collective progress in this domain. View full abstract»

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  • The technical and legal dangers of code-based fair use enforcement

    Page(s): 985 - 996
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital rights management (DRM) mechanisms, built upon trusted computing platforms, promise to give content providers the ability to impose rules reliably and deterministically on end-user experiences with information resources ranging from literary works and scholarly publications to a vast array of entertainment content. DRM represents just the first wave of a class of technologies that aspire not only to implement copyright-protecting usage controls on computing devices, but increasingly to take on the enforcement of a broader set of organizational and public policies. The paper focuses on policy enforcement in the specific context of content use. It reviews the concepts and architecture of policy specification and enforcement, citing examples from the special case of DRM, and provides a detailed discussion of how usage control policies are evaluated in DRM systems. Since the expression and interpretation of policies is only one "layer" of the general problem of persistent policy enforcement, we consider the role that trusted computing systems can play in ensuring that computing agents interpret policies in reliable and deterministic ways. Finally, we consider the challenges inherent in the construction of technical mechanisms that mimic social policies. View full abstract»

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  • Legal policy and digital rights management

    Page(s): 997 - 1003
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    The paper, intended primarily to be a tutorial, informs readers of the important role that law and policy play in the development of new technologies. It also provides guidance with respect to the legal and policy issues that apply to digital rights management (DRM) techniques. The laws and policies that affect the development of DRM architectures are explained. The trends that affect the way international norms are developed are highlighted, focusing on the work of organizations such as the World Intellectual Property Organization. The paper concludes by providing insight on why the policy-making process is an important consideration the development of DRM systems and future progress in this area. View full abstract»

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  • Scanning our past from The Netherlands: early galactic radio astronomy at Kootwijk and some consequential developments

    Page(s): 1004 - 1006
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    During World War II, Prof. Dr J.H. Oort, the famous Dutch astronomer and discoverer of the origin of our comets, was living in the countryside of The Netherlands. At that time, it was an occupied country. He decided one day to ride his bicycle to visit the observatory at Leiden University, which in fact had been closed for some time. Halfway on this 120 km trip to Leiden, which is near the North Sea coast of The Netherlands, he got a flat tyre and was forced to interrupt his trip at the residence of one of his promising students. With this student, the future Prof. Dr. H.C. van de Hulst, he discussed potential new means, in addition to the well-known optical methods, to observe gaseous clouds in the galaxy. It was probably the first time that professional astronomers discussed the possibilities of radio astronomy. In the following postwar years, radio astronomy in Australia, England, and the United States led to many fascinating discoveries. The article outlines developments at Kootwijk, in the center of The Netherlands, and throughout the world. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Page(s): 1007 - 1008
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  • Celebrating the vitality of technology the Proceedings of the IEEE [advertisement]

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  • Proceedings of the IEEE check out our July issue

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University