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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 4 • Date May 2004

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial All-IP Wireless Networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 613 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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  • Serving radio network controller relocation for UMTS all-IP network

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 617 - 629
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To support real-time multimedia services in UMTS all-IP network, Third-Generation Partnership Project TR 25.936 proposed two approaches to support real-time serving radio network controller (SRNC) switching, which require packet duplication during SRNC relocation. These approaches significantly consume extra system resources. This paper proposes the fast SRNC relocation (FSR) approach that does not duplicate packets. In FSR, a packet buffering mechanism is implemented to avoid packet loss at the target RNC. We propose an analytic model to investigate the performance of FSR. The numerical results show that packet loss at the source RNC can be ignored. Furthermore, the expected number of packets buffered at the target RNC is small, which does not prolong packet delay. View full abstract»

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  • A network-layer soft handoff approach for mobile wireless IP-based systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 630 - 642
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Handoff is the process during which a mobile node (MN) needs to change its connectivity point to the wireless internetwork from one access node (AN) to another during an ongoing communication. If MNs are allowed to have two or more simultaneous connections to the internetwork through different ANs, then the handoff is said to be soft; otherwise, it is said to be hard. Traditionally, during forward-link soft handoff, multiple identical copies of each packet are simultaneously transmitted to the MN through the associated ANs. At the MN's physical-layer, the received signals are combined on a bit-by-bit basis resulting in improving the bit-error rate. However, this approach requires tight synchronization of the ANs involved in the soft handoff. In addition, as shown in the literature, the capacity often decreases due to the increase of the number of channels used by MNs during soft handoff. In this paper, we propose, analyze, simulate, and implement a soft handoff scheme called soft handoff over IP (SHIP) for forward-link that 1) overcomes the need for synchronization and 2) increases the capacity of the network. Through both analytic and simulation studies, we show that SHIP achieves significant performance improvements. We derive analytic expressions of the power-capacity relationship for two-dimensional (2-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) cell models. By comparing our scheme with the hard handoff, we empirically show that the capacity increases by about 30% and 20%, respectively, for the 2-D and 1-D cell models. Further, the simulation results show that SHIP saves up to 30% of the total power consumed by the ANs. View full abstract»

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  • Low-latency mobile IP handoff for infrastructure-mode wireless LANs

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 643 - 652
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The increasing popularity of IEEE 802.11-based wireless local area networks (LANs) lends them credibility as a viable alternative to third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Even though wireless LANs support much higher channel bandwidth than 3G networks, their network-layer handoff latency is still too high to be usable for interactive multimedia applications such as voice over IP or video streaming. Specifically, the peculiarities of commercially available IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN hardware prevent existing mobile Internet protocol (IP) implementations from achieving subsecond Mobile IP handoff latency when the wireless LANs are operating in the infrastructure mode, which is also the prevailing operating mode used in most deployed IEEE 802.11b LANs. In this paper, we propose a low-latency mobile IP handoff scheme that can reduce the handoff latency of infrastructure-mode wireless LANs to less than 100 ms, the fastest known handoff performance for such networks. The proposed scheme overcomes the inability of mobility software to sense the signal strengths of multiple-access points when operating in an infrastructure-mode wireless LAN. It expedites link-layer handoff detection and speeds up network-layer handoff by replaying cached foreign agent advertisements. The proposed scheme strictly adheres to the mobile IP standard specification, and does not require any modifications to existing mobile IP implementations. That is, the proposed mechanism is completely transparent to the existing mobile IP software installed on mobile nodes and wired nodes. As a demonstration of this technology, we show how this low-latency handoff scheme together with a wireless LAN bandwidth guarantee mechanism supports undisrupted playback of remote video streams on mobile stations that are traveling across wireless LAN segments. View full abstract»

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  • An end-to-end multipath smooth handoff scheme for stream media

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 653 - 663
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Supporting transmission of stream media over wireless mobile networks is often difficult because packets may be lost due to the rerouting of packets during handoff, and also because bursts of packet loss may occur during handoff due to the disparity in the amount of available bandwidth among different cells. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end multipath handoff scheme that provides smooth handoff for stream media in wireless networks with different amounts of available bandwidth from cell to cell. In the proposed scheme, multiple paths are established during handoff to reach a mobile destination node. The stream media sources are equipped with an adaptive multilayer encoder, and important layers in the encoded video stream are duplicated and transmitted over multiple paths during handoff. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath handoff scheme is verified and compared with existing schemes through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides higher throughput and better quality for stream media. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy for mobile IP networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 664 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the major challenges for the wireless network design is the efficient mobility management, which can be addressed globally (macromobility) and locally (micromobility). Mobile Internet protocol (IP) is a commonly accepted standard to address global mobility of mobile hosts (MHs). It requires the MHs to register with the home agents (HAs) whenever their care-of addresses change. However, such registrations may cause excessive signaling traffic and long service delay. To solve this problem, the hierarchical mobile IP (HMIP) protocol was proposed to employ the hierarchy of foreign agents (FAs) and the gateway FAs (GFAs) to localize registration operations. However, the system performance is critically affected by the selection of GFAs and their reliability. In this paper, we introduce a novel dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy for mobile IP networks, in which different hierarchies are dynamically set up for different users and the signaling burden is evenly distributed among the network. To justify the effectiveness of our proposed scheme, we develop an analytical model to evaluate the signaling cost. Our performance analysis shows that the proposed dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy can significantly reduce the system signaling cost under various scenarios and the system robustness is greatly enhanced. Our analysis also shows that the new scheme can outperform the Internet Engineering Task Force mobile IP hierarchical registration scheme in terms of the overall signaling cost. The more important contribution is the novel analytical approach in evaluating the performance of mobile IP networks. View full abstract»

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  • Multicast-based mobility: a novel architecture for efficient micromobility

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 677 - 690
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Handover performance is very important when evaluating IP mobility protocols. If not performed efficiently, handover delays, jitters, and packet loss directly impact application performance. We propose a new architecture for providing efficient handover, while being able to coexist with other protocols. We propose a paradigm for multicast-based micromobility (M&M), where a visiting mobile is assigned a multicast address to use while moving within a domain. The multicast address is obtained using algorithmic mapping, and handover is achieved using multicast join/prune mechanisms. This paper outlines a framework for the design and evaluation of micromobility protocols. We define a suite of protocols (called candidate access router set) to enable multiple-access routers to receive traffic for the mobile node. By changing the number of such routers, timing, and buffering parameters, the protocol may be fine-tuned for specific technologies (e.g., 802.11) and handover scenarios. Extensive NS-2 simulations are used to compare M&M with other micromobility schemes-cellular Internet protocol (CIP) and handoff-aware wireless access Internet infrastructure (HAWAII). For proactive handover scenarios, our results show that M&M and CIP show lower handover delay and packet reordering than HAWAII. M&M, however, handles multiple border routers in a domain, where CIP fails. Also, for scenarios of reactive handover and coverage gaps M&M clearly outperforms CIP and HAWAII. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture for mobility and QoS support in all-IP wireless networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 691 - 705
    Cited by:  Papers (58)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobility management and quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning are the important tasks on the future development of wireless networks. The high host mobility makes these tasks more challenging. In this paper, we propose an architecture which supports both mobility and QoS management in Internet protocol (IP)-based wireless networks. In mobility management, the fast handoff, which the packets are forwarded in advance to the neighboring locations where a mobile node (MN) may move to, is provided to reduce the service disruption. Also, the fast location lookup, which the routing information about a MN is replicated to some routers, is provided to avoid the triangular routing problem incurred by the protocol of mobile IP. In QoS provisioning, we enable the end-to-end QoS guarantee by using the resource reservation protocol (RSVP) signaling. In particular, the RSVP aggregation technique is used to avoid the scalability problem. Also, the technique of passive resource reservation is used to reduce the influence of host mobility on the resource reservation delay. We emphasize the integration of mobility and QoS management in the architecture design. A performance analysis is given to justify the benefits of our proposed architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Call admission control for voice/data integrated cellular networks: performance analysis and comparative study

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 706 - 718
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new call admission control scheme called dual threshold bandwidth reservation, or DTBR scheme. The main novelty is that it builds upon a complete sharing approach, in which the channels in each cell are shared among the different traffic types and multiple thresholds are used to meet the specific quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. We present a detailed comparative study based on mathematical and simulation models, and quantitatively demonstrate that the DTBR is capable of providing the QoS guarantee for each type of traffic, while at the same time leading to much better channel efficiency. We further show that the DTBR scheme with elastic data service can offer both service guarantee and service differentiation for voice and data services, and enhance the bandwidth utilization. View full abstract»

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  • A flow rejection algorithm for QoS maintenance in a variable bandwidth wireless IP environment

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 719 - 726
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A flow rejection algorithm for the dynamic resource reservation protocol (dRSVP) protocol is proposed. dRSVP is an enhanced version of RSVP, aiming at providing dynamic quality-of-service (QoS) support in a variable bandwidth environment (e.g., wireless) through guarantees of ranges of bandwidth instead of specific values. Flow rejection occurs when the channel quality decreases to a level that even the minimum bandwidth requirements per flow cannot be fulfilled. The proposed algorithm aims at improving the flow dropping probability of dRSVP, without affecting the bandwidth utilization. Its operation is based on setting priority classes and rejecting the minimum required number of flows per class, in order to guarantee QoS to the remaining. Both mathematical analysis and simulation results show that the overall flow dropping probability can be significantly reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Improving stream control transmission protocol performance over lossy links

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 727 - 736
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The current stream control transmission protocol (SCTP) does not work well over lossy links. To make SCTP congestion control algorithms robust in lossy networks, the paper first introduces a fine-tuned explicit congestion notification (ECN) mechanism for SCTP in such environment, and then discusses the ECN-D SCTP that can differentiate noncongestion losses from congestion losses. We identify the optimal value of the congestion window for an SCTP source in response to ECN messages in order to maximize the throughput and maintain relatively small end-to-end delay. A simple and practical method to achieve the optimal value is developed by carefully choosing the threshold of queues that support ECN. Because the total goodput performance of SCTP associations is not sensitive to window reduction policies when the network load is heavy, and because fine-tuning SCTP or transmission control protocols congestion window in response to congestion indications using complicated methods may not be worth the increase in complexity of the protocol, the simplified method becomes attractive in achieving the optimal congestion window. View full abstract»

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  • Unified transport layer support for data striping and host mobility

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 737 - 746
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Data striping across multiple network interfaces and its applications to mobile environments was recently investigated (Phatak and Goff, 2002). Therein, a network-layer Internet protocol (IP)-in-IP encapsulation mechanism was proposed to aggregate the bandwidth of multiple network paths by striping a single transport layer [transmission control protocol (TCP)] connection across them. The analysis and experimental results from that study demonstrated fundamental limitations to TCPs performance in such scenarios. In this paper, we therefore propose a method of overcoming these limitations by striping data at the transport layer. For a proof-of-concept demonstration we use a substantially enhanced version of the stream control transmission protocol (SCTP). Our analytical results and experimental data illustrate that there are significant advantages to using a transport protocol with native support for the simultaneous use of multiple network interfaces, as opposed to stretching TCP to a point where it is no longer effective. This work naturally leads to another fundamental issue of end-to-end support for host mobility at the transport layer. Our analysis and results demonstrate that transport layer support for multiple network (IP) interfaces, together with the capability to dynamically add or delete IP addresses can yield the following advantages: higher bandwidth, load balancing, and increased fairness, enhanced reliability, and end-to-end support for host mobility. This is independent of the underlying network-layer and, hence, is applicable to static/wired, as well as wireless/ad hoc environments. The proposed protocol offers a unified solution to both data striping across multiple networks interfaces, as well as end-to-end mobility support. View full abstract»

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  • TCP-Jersey for wireless IP communications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 747 - 756
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Improving the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in wireless Internet protocol (IP) communications has been an active research area. The performance degradation of TCP in wireless and wired-wireless hybrid networks is mainly due to its lack of the ability to differentiate the packet losses caused by network congestions from the losses caused by wireless link errors. In this paper, we propose a new TCP scheme, called TCP-Jersey, which is capable of distinguishing the wireless packet losses from the congestion packet losses, and reacting accordingly. TCP-Jersey consists of two key components, the available bandwidth estimation (ABE) algorithm and the congestion warning (CW) router configuration. ABE is a TCP sender side addition that continuously estimates the bandwidth available to the connection and guides the sender to adjust its transmission rate when the network becomes congested. CW is a configuration of network routers such that routers alert end stations by marking all packets when there is a sign of an incipient congestion. The marking of packets by the CW configured routers helps the sender of the TCP connection to effectively differentiate packet losses caused by network congestion from those caused by wireless link errors. This paper describes the design of TCP-Jersey, and presents results from experiments using the NS-2 network simulator. Results from simulations show that in a congestion free network with 1% of random wireless packet loss rate, TCP-Jersey achieves 17% and 85% improvements in goodput over TCP-Westwood and TCP-Reno, respectively; in a congested network where TCP flow competes with VoIP flows, with 1% of random wireless packet loss rate, TCP-Jersey achieves 9% and 76% improvements in goodput over TCP-Westwood and TCP-Reno, respectively. Our experiments of multiple TCP flows show that TCP-Jersey maintains the fair and friendly behavior with respect to other TCP flows. View full abstract»

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  • JTCP: jitter-based TCP for heterogeneous wireless networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 757 - 766
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission control protocol (TCP), a widely used transport protocol performs well over the traditional network which is constructed by purely wired links. As wireless access networks are growing rapidly, the wired/wireless mixed internetwork, a heterogeneous environment will get wide deployment in the next-generation ALL-IP wireless networks. TCP which detects the losses as congestion events could not suit the heterogeneous network in which the losses will be introduced by higher bit-error rates or handoffs. There exist some unsolved challenges for applying TCP over wireless links. End-to-end congestion control and fairness issues are two significant factors. To satisfy these two criteria, we propose a jitter-based scheme to adapt sending rates to the packet losses and jitter ratios. The experiment results show that our jitter-based TCP (JTCP) conducts good performance over the heterogeneous network. View full abstract»

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  • A multilayer IP security protocol for TCP performance enhancement in wireless networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 767 - 776
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) performance enhancement proxy (PEP) mechanisms have been proposed, and in some cases widely deployed, to improve TCP performance in all-Internet protocol (IP) wireless networks. However, this technique is conflicted with IP-security (IPsec)-a standard IP security protocol that will make inroad into wireless networks. This paper analyzes the fundamental problem behind this conflict and develops a solution called multilayer IP-security (ML-IPsec). The basic principle is to use a multilayer protection model and a fine grain access control to make IP security protocols compatible with TCP PEP. It allows wireless network operators or service providers to grant base stations or wireless routers limited and controllable access to the TCP headers for performance enhancement purposes. Through careful design, implementation, and evaluation, we show that we can easily add ML-IPsec to existing IPsec software and the overhead is low. We conclude that ML-IPsec can help wireless networks provide both security and performance. View full abstract»

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  • End-to-end TCP-friendly streaming protocol and bit allocation for scalable video over wireless Internet

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 777 - 790
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the convergence of wired-line Internet and mobile wireless networks, as well as the tremendous demand on video applications in mobile wireless Internet, it is essential to an design effective video streaming protocol and resource allocation scheme for video delivery over wireless Internet. Taking both network conditions in the Internet and wireless networks into account, in this paper, we first propose an end-to-end transmission control protocol (TCP)-friendly multimedia streaming protocol for wireless Internet, namely WMSTFP, where only the last hop is wireless. WMSTFP can effectively differentiate erroneous packet losses from congestive losses and filter out the abnormal round-trip time values caused by the highly varying wireless environment. As a result, WMSTFP can achieve higher throughput in wireless Internet and can perform rate adjustment in a smooth and TCP-friendly manner. Based upon WMSTFP, we then propose a novel loss pattern differentiated bit allocation scheme, while applying unequal loss protection for scalable video streaming over wireless Internet. Specifically, a rate-distortion-based bit allocation scheme which considers both the wired and the wireless network status is proposed to minimize the expected end-to-end distortion. The global optimal solution for the bit allocation scheme is obtained by a local search algorithm taking the characteristics of the progressive fine granularity scalable video into account. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Call for papers on wireless overlay networks based on mobile IPv6

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 791
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  • Call for papers on the next generation CDMA technologies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 792
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  • Call for papers on security in wireless ad-hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 793
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  • Call for papers 4G wireless systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 794
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  • Celebrating the vitality of technology the Proceedings of the IEEE [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 795
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 796
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  • IEEE Communications Society Information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT