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Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2004

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Communications publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Generalized selection combining based on the log-likelihood ratio

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 521 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a generalized selection combining (GSC) scheme for binary signaling in which a subset of diversity branches providing the largest magnitude of log-likelihood ratio (LLR) are selected and combined. It is shown that the bit-error probability with maximum ratio combining (MRC) or square-law combining of L branches is identical to that with LLR-based GSC of L/2 branches. We also propose a simple, but suboptimal, GSC based on a noncoherent envelope detection and discuss its potential advantages over the conventional signal-to-noise-ratio-based GSC and MRC. View full abstract»

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  • Mitigating error propagation in decision-feedback equalization for multiuser CDMA

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 525 - 529
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a robust decision-feedback equalization design that mitigates the error-propagation problem for multiuser direct-sequence code-division multiple-access systems under multipath fading. Explicit constraints for signal energy preservation are imposed on the filter weight vector to monitor and maintain the quality of the hard decisions in the nonlinear feedback loop. Such a measure protects the desired signal power against the detrimental effect of erroneous past decisions, thus providing the leverage to curb error propagation. View full abstract»

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  • Design of nonuniformly spaced tapped-delay-line equalizers for sparse multipath channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 530 - 535
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analytical expressions that explicitly indicate the tap values and tap positions of infinite-length, T-spaced tapped-delay-line (TDL) equalizers for sparse multipath channels are derived. Simple design rules for allocating taps to finite-length, minimum mean-square error, nonuniformly spaced TDL equalizers (NU-Es) are formulated based on the derived results. The design-rule-based methodology demonstrates a better tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency than existing tap-allocation schemes. The resultant NU-Es also achieve a lower overall computational complexity than conventional, uniformly spaced TDL equalizers (U-Es) of the same span for both directly adaptive and channel-estimate-based implementations. Moreover, a square-root raised cosine (SRRC) receive filter matched to a SRRC transmit filter is better than a matched filter when used to precede a NU-E. View full abstract»

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  • On the error probability of binary and M-ary signals in Nakagami-m fading channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 536 - 539
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we present new closed-form formulas for the exact average symbol-error rate (SER) of binary and M-ary signals over Nakagami-m fading channels with arbitrary fading index m. Using the well-known moment generating function-based analysis approach, we express the average SER in terms of the higher transcendental functions such as the Gauss hypergeometric function, Appell hypergeometric function, or Lauricella function. The results are generally applicable to arbitrary real-valued m. Furthermore, with the aid of reduction formulas of hypergeometric functions, we show previously published results for Rayleigh fading (m=1) as special cases of our expressions. View full abstract»

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  • Speed and accuracy comparison of techniques for multiuser detection in synchronous CDMA

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 540 - 545
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we compare the complexity and efficiency of several methods used for multiuser detection in a synchronous code-division multiple-access system. Various methods are discussed, including decision-feedback (DF) detection, group decision-feedback (GDF) detection, coordinate descent, quadratic programming with constraints, space-alternating generalized EM (SAGE) detection, Tabu search, a Boltzmann machine detector, semidefinite relaxation, probabilistic data association (PDA), branch and bound (BBD), and the sphere decoding (SD) method. The efficiencies of the algorithms, defined as the probability of group detection error divided by the number of floating point computations, are compared under various situations. Of particular interest is the appearance of an "efficient frontier" of algorithms, primarily composed of DF detector, GDF detector, PDA detector, the BBD optimal algorithm, and the SD method. The efficient frontier is the convex hull of algorithms as plotted on probability of error versus computational demands axes: algorithms not on this efficient frontier can be considered dominated by those that are. View full abstract»

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  • The impact of antenna diversity in packet data systems with scheduling

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 546 - 549
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been observed through simulations of some specific scheduling algorithms that multiuser diversity gains in packet data systems with channel-aware scheduling can be reduced in the presence of any form of link diversity, such as transmit antenna diversity or wideband multipath diversity. We establish that asymptotically, in the limit of large number of transmit antennas and users, the maximum throughput achieved by any optimal scheduling algorithm in the presence of transmit diversity under signal-to-noise-ratio-only feedback can be infinitely worse than that of a system with no diversity. Our results are general and are independent of any particular scheduling algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A simple expression for the optimization of spread-spectrum code acquisition detectors operating in the presence of carrier-frequency offset

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 550 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we present a simple expression for the optimization of the threshold detection performance for direct-sequence spread-spectrum code acquisition in the presence of carrier-frequency offset. The proposed scheme divides the total integration time into subintervals, and the results of the coherent integrations performed over these subintervals are noncoherently combined prior to detection. The proposed expression allows obtaining the optimum number of coherent-integration subintervals for a given total integration time. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission properties of conjugate-root pulses

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 553 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A family of pulses has recently been reported by Xia that are intersymbol interference-free with and without matched filtering. Reportedly, such pulses are important for systems where both matched filter and unmatched receivers are used. The transmission characteristics of these pulses are compared to the more commonly used raised-cosine pulse for three different receiver scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • A study of CDPD forward channel performance with coherent and differential detection

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 559 - 563
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The media access control (MAC)-layer performance of the cellular digital packet data (CDPD) forward channel is studied and a new technique to improve the performance is proposed. The study is based on a computer simulation model wherein a CDPD base station continuously transmits a sequence of packets to a CDPD mobile station. We consider a Rayleigh fading channel and demonstrate how the performance metrics are affected by the channel characteristics. At the reception stage, we consider both coherent and differential reception. We argue that the throughput at the MAC layer is affected not only by the error performance of the physical layer, but also by several design characteristics of the MAC layer, including the block length and the alignment between blocks and packets. We illustrate the block error rate, packet error rate, and throughput performance by simulation results, and we show how the receiver may discard data, which is correctly received but nevertheless useless. Our main conclusion is that the CDPD forward-channel performance could be significantly improved should the identified deficiencies are eliminated. For this purpose, we propose a new automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol that operates in the MAC layer to correct the erroneous blocks by means of retransmissions, and we study its performance. In addition, we discuss an adaptive scheme that maximizes the forward-channel performance by automatically enabling and disabling the ARQ protocol according to the channel conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Design of efficiently encodable moderate-length high-rate irregular LDPC codes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 564 - 571
    Cited by:  Papers (136)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new class of irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes of moderate length (103≤n≤104) and high rate (R≥3/4). Codes in this class admit low-complexity encoding and have lower error-rate floors than other irregular LDPC code-design approaches. It is also shown that this class of LDPC codes is equivalent to a class of systematic serial turbo codes and is an extension of irregular repeat-accumulate codes. A code design algorithm based on the combination of density evolution and differential evolution optimization with a modified cost function is presented. Moderate-length, high-rate codes with no error-rate floors down to a bit-error rate of 10-9 are presented. Although our focus is on moderate-length, high-rate codes, the proposed coding scheme is applicable to irregular LDPC codes with other lengths and rates. View full abstract»

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  • Robust OFDM receivers for dispersive time-varying channels: equalization and channel acquisition

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 572 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (76)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, time variations of a multipath channel lead to a loss of orthogonality between the subcarriers, and thereby limit the achievable throughput. This paper proposes a general framework for a controlled removal of intercarrier interference (ICI) and channel acquisition. The core idea behind our method is to use a finite power series expansion for the time-varying frequency response, along with the known statistical properties of mobile radio channels. Channel acquisition and ICI removal are accomplished in the frequency domain and allow for any desired tradeoff between the residual ICI level, the required training for channel acquisition, and processing complexity. The proposed approach enables a high spectral efficiency (64-quadrature amplitude modulation mode) of digital video broadcasting-terrestrial in highly mobile environments. View full abstract»

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  • A general SER formula for an OFDM system with MDPSK in frequency domain over Rayleigh fading channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 584 - 594
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A closed-form formula for symbol-error rate (SER) of an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system with M-ary differential phase-shift keying (MDPSK) in frequency domain over Rayleigh fading channels is obtained. It is found that, by MDPSK in frequency domain, identical SERs can be achieved on all subcarriers. However, both time and frequency dispersion in the channel will introduce error floors. A comparison between OFDM-MDPSK in frequency domain and that in time domain reveals that the former system offers superior SER performance in a fast fading environment, while the latter performs better if the channel is mainly frequency selective. Moreover, the former system has lower implementation complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Pilot-assisted channel estimation for the downlink of the UMTS-TDD component

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 595 - 604
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The time-division duplex (TDD) component of the universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) employs synchronous code-division multiple-access techniques with orthogonal spreading codes to provide protection against cochannel interference. In the presence of multipath propagation, however, the code orthogonality is lost and multiaccess interference is generated at the receiver. In such conditions, an estimate of the channel impulse response is required for reliable detection. In this paper, we propose and compare two pilot-assisted schemes for channel estimation in the downlink of the UMTS-TDD system. Both algorithms also provide estimates of the users' energies, which are needed to perform multiuser detection. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations are used to assess the channel estimation performance in terms of mean-squared errors and bit-error rate. It is shown that the accuracy of the proposed estimators attains the Cramer-Rao bound at intermediate/high signal-to-noise ratios. View full abstract»

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  • Reliable adaptive modulation aided by observations of another fading channel

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 605 - 611
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adaptive transmission techniques, such as adaptive modulation and coding, adaptive power control, adaptive transmitter antenna diversity, etc., generally require precise channel estimation and feedback of channel state information (CSI). For fast vehicle speeds, reliable adaptive transmission also requires long-range prediction of future CSI, since the channel conditions are rapidly time variant. In this paper, we propose using past channel observations of one carrier to predict future CSI and perform adaptive modulation without feedback for another correlated carrier. We derive the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) long-range channel prediction that uses the time- and frequency-domain correlation function of the Rayleigh fading channel. An adaptive MMSE prediction method is also proposed. A statistical model of the prediction error that depends on the frequency and time correlation is developed and is used in the design of reliable adaptive modulation methods. We use a standard stationary fading channel model (Jakes model) and a novel physical channel model to test our algorithm. Significant gains relative to nonadaptive techniques are demonstrated for sufficiently correlated channels and realistic prediction range. View full abstract»

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  • Subspace-based active user identification for a collision-free slotted ad hoc network

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 612 - 621
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel spreading code scheme, transmitter-receiver-based code, for wireless ad hoc networks. The design facilitates collision resolution using multiuser detection at each node, and is more bandwidth efficient than creating orthogonal channels in time or frequency. A subspace-based receiver structure is introduced, which identifies users of interest, or "active" users, with minimal prior information on the spreading code ensemble. A subspace-based blind multiuser detector can then be implemented to suppress multiaccess interference. The performance of the proposed active user identifier is studied by investigating its false alarm rate Pf and miss rate Pm. Tradeoffs between Pf and Pm are discussed, and a graphical method to determine the threshold value dth of the decision statistic used in discriminating between active and inactive channels is introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Constant modulus and reduced PAPR block differential encoding for frequency-selective channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 622 - 631
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Frequency-selective channels can be converted to a set of flat-fading subchannels by employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). Conventional differential encoding on each subchannel, however, suffers from loss of multipath diversity, and a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which causes undesirable nonlinear effects. To mitigate these effects, we design a block differential encoding scheme over the subchannels that preserves multipath diversity, and in addition, results in constant modulus transmitted symbols. This property is shown to ensure that the PAPR of the continuous-time transmitted waveform is reduced by a large factor. The maximum-likelihood decoder for the proposed scheme, conditioned on the current and previous received block, is shown to have linear complexity in the number of subcarriers. The constant modulus scheme will yield good bit-error rate performance with full rate only if short blocks are used. However, one may mitigate this problem by relaxing the constant modulus requirement. We show that in a practical OFDM system, we can group the subcarriers into shorter subblocks in a certain manner, and apply the constant modulus technique to each subblock. Thus, we improve diversity at a very low decoder complexity, and at the same time, we introduce an upper bound on the discrete-time PAPR, which, in turn, may lead to appreciable reduction in continuous-time PAPR, depending on the system parameters. Finally, in situations where we can sacrifice rate, additional complex field coding may be used to exploit the multipath diversity provided by channels longer than those the simple scheme can handle. View full abstract»

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  • Fast optimal and suboptimal any-time algorithms for CDMA multiuser detection based on branch and bound

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 632 - 642
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast optimal algorithm based on the branch-and-bound (BBD) method is proposed for the joint detection of binary symbols of K users in a synchronous code-division multiple-access channel with Gaussian noise. Relationships between the proposed algorithms (depth-first BBD and fast BBD) and both the decorrelating decision-feedback (DF) detector and sphere-decoding algorithm are clearly drawn. It turns out that decorrelating DF detector corresponds to a "one-pass" depth-first BBD; sphere decoding is, in fact, a type of depth-first BBD, but one that can be improved considerably via tight upper bounds and user ordering, as in the fast BBD. A fast "any-time" suboptimal algorithm is also available by simply picking the "current-best" solution in the BBD method. Theoretical results are given on the computational complexity and the performance of the "current-best" suboptimal solution. View full abstract»

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  • Trellis-coded multiple-pulse-position modulation for wireless infrared communications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 643 - 651
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present new trellis codes based on multiple-pulse-position modulation (MPPM) for wireless infrared communication. We assume that the receiver uses maximum-likelihood sequence detection to mitigate the effects of channel dispersion, which we model using a first-order lowpass filter. Compared to trellis codes based on PPM, the new codes are less sensitive to multipath dispersion and offer better power efficiency when the desired bit rate is large, compared with the channel bandwidth. For example, when the bit rate equals the bandwidth, trellis-coded (17 2)-MPPM requires 1.4 dB less optical power than trellis-coded 16-PPM having the same constraint length. View full abstract»

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  • Multiuser detections for optical CDMA networks based on expectation-maximization algorithm

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 652 - 660
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce new unblind and blind multiuser detectors for an optical code-division multiple-access system. The detectors have two soft and hard stages. In the soft stage, a soft estimation of the interference is obtained by solving an unconstrained maximum-likelihood problem via the iterative expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Then, the hard stage detects the user information bit by solving a one-dimensional Boolean constrained problem conditioned on knowing the interference. Our results reveal that the proposed detectors have very low complexity, and are robust against changes in parameters. Moreover, the numerical results illustrate that despite of their simplicities, our detectors substantially outperform other well-known suboptimum detectors, such as multistage and decorrelating detectors. View full abstract»

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  • Embedding carrier phase recovery into iterative decoding of turbo-coded linear modulations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 661 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce a low-complexity carrier phase estimation algorithm to be integrated into the data decoder of a turbo-coded modem employing a linear modulation. The estimator is based on a pseudo-maximum-likelihood approach and makes iterative use of soft decisions provided by the soft-in/soft-out decoders within the overall turbo-decoding scheme. In doing so, iterative decoding and carrier phase recovery go together iteration after iteration in a "soft decision-directed" mode. This allows performing reliable blind phase estimation and almost ideal coherent detection for values of the signal-to-noise ratio down to a few decibels only, and without the need to resort to narrowband phase-locked loops with large acquisition time. Performance in terms of mean estimated value, root mean-squared estimation error, and overall decoder bit-error rate as derived by simulation are also reported. View full abstract»

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  • Design of low-density parity-check codes for modulation and detection

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 670 - 678
    Cited by:  Papers (403)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A coding and modulation technique is studied where the coded bits of an irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are passed directly to a modulator. At the receiver, the variable nodes of the LDPC decoder graph are connected to detector nodes, and iterative decoding is accomplished by viewing the variable and detector nodes as one decoder. The code is optimized by performing a curve fitting on extrinsic information transfer charts. Design examples are given for additive white Gaussian noise channels, as well as multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) fading channels where the receiver, but not the transmitter, knows the channel. For the MIMO channels, the technique operates within 1.25 dB of capacity for various antenna configurations, and thereby outperforms a scheme employing a parallel concatenated (turbo) code by wide margins when there are more transmit than receive antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of Multicarrier CDMA With Successive Interference Cancellation in a Multipath Fading Channel

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 679
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  

    Performance of Multicarrier CDMA With Successive Interference Cancellation in a Multipath Fading Channel A high-capacity, low-complexity, and robust system design for a successive interference cancellation (SIC) system is developed and analyzed. Multicarrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA) is used to suppress multipath and to overcome the multipath channel estimation problem in single-carrier SIC systems. In addition, an optimal power control algorithm for MC-CDMA with SIC is derived, allowing analytical bit-error rate expressions to be found for an uncoded system. Low-rate forward error-correcting codes are then added to the system to achieve robustness. It is found that the capacity of the coded system approaches the additive white Gaussian noise capacity for SIC, even in a fading multipath channel with channel estimation error. This indicates that MC-CDMA is very attractive for systems employing SIC. View full abstract»

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  • Blind and Semiblind Detections of OFDM Signals in Fading Channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 679
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  

    This paper considers the problem of blind joint channel estimation and data detection for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in a fading environment. Employing a regression model for a time-varying channel, we convert the problem into one where finding the data sequence \bf x whose associated least-squares (LS) channel estimate \bf z(\bf x) is closest to the space of some regression curves (surfaces). We apply the branch-and-bound principle to solve the nonlinear integer programming problem associated with finding the curve that fits a subchannel in the LS sense. A recursive formula for fast metric update is obtained by exploiting the intrinsic characteristic of our objective function. The impacts of reordering the data sequence and selective detection are addressed. By employing a preferred order along with a selective detection method, we greatly reduce the detector complexity while giving up little performance loss. Both the complete and the reduced-complexity algorithms can be used for blind and semiblind detections of OFDM signals in a subchannel-by-subchannel manner. To further reduce the complexity and exploit the frequency-domain channel correlation, we suggest a two-stage approach that detects a few selected positions in some subchannels first, and then, treating the detected symbols as pilots, determines the remaining symbols within a properly chosen time-frequency block by a two-dimensional model-based pilot-assisted algorithm. The proposed methods do not require the information of the channel statistics, such as signal-to-noise ratio or channel correlation function. Performance of differential modulations like differential quaternary phase-shift keying and STARE 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation are provided. Both blind and semiblind schemes yield satisfactory performance. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Communications focuses on all telecommunications including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television by electromagnetic propagation.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Robert Schober
University of British Columbia