Issue 2 • Date May 2004
Table of contentsPublication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1| | PDF (40 KB)
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part C: Applications and Reviews [publication information]Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2| | PDF (33 KB)
Introduction to the Special Issue on Human – Robot InteractionPublication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 101 - 102
Cited by: Papers (1)| | PDF (53 KB)
Cited by: Papers (20) | Patents (1)
As part of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/National Science Foundation study on human-robot interaction (HRI), over sixty representatives from academia, government, and industry participated in an interdisciplinary workshop, which allowed roboticists to interact with psychologists, sociologists, cognitive scientists, communication experts and human-computer interaction specialists to discuss common interests in the field of HRI, and to establish a dialogue across the disciplines for future collaborations. We include initial work that was done in preparation for the workshop, links to keynote and other presentations, and a summary of the findings, outcomes, and recommendations that were generated by the participants. Findings of the study include-the need for more extensive interdisciplinary interaction, identification of basic taxonomies and research issues, social informatics, establishment of a small number of common application domains, and field experience for members of the HRI community. An overall conclusion of the workshop was expressed as the following-HRI is a cross-disciplinary area, which poses barriers to meaningful research, synthesis, and technology transfer. The vocabularies, experiences, methodologies, and metrics of the communities are sufficiently different that cross-disciplinary research is unlikely to happen without sustained funding and an infrastructure to establish a new HRI community. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (14)
This paper describes the experiences from the iterative design of a fetch-and-carry-robot, to be used by motion-impaired people in an office environment. A user-centered approach was chosen, involving several steps of information elicitation to inform the design. We describe the main elements of the design process, the communication and interaction components of the final prototype system, and an evaluation of the system in the form of a longitudinal study. Results from this study confirmed that continuous testing with users is extremely important in the design process for service robots. The trials have also revealed that interaction design for robots should not focus only on the individual user, but that other members in the environment can be seen "secondary users" or "bystanders" who tend to relate to the robot actively in various ways. We conclude that these social and collaborative issues should be studied in future research. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (9)
A human-centered approach to computer systems design involves reframing analysis in terms of the people interacting with each other. The primary concern is not how people can interact with computers, but how work systems (facilities, tools, roles, and procedures) can be designed to help people pursue their personal projects, as they work independently and collaboratively. Two case studies provide empirical requirements. First, an analysis of astronaut interactions with CapCom on Earth during one traverse of Apollo 17 shows what kind of information was conveyed and what might be automated today. A variety of agent and robotic technologies are proposed that deal with recurrent problems in communication and coordination during the analyzed traverse. Second, an analysis of biologists and a geologist working at Haughton Crater in the High Canadian Arctic reveals how work interactions between people involve independent personal projects, sensitively coordinated for mutual benefit. In both cases, an agent or robotic system's role would be to assist people, rather than collaborating, because today's computer systems lack the identity and purpose that consciousness provides. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (97) | Patents (1)
Rescue robotics has been suggested by a recent DARPA/NSF study as an application domain for the research in human-robot integration (HRI). This paper provides a short tutorial on how robots are currently used in urban search and rescue (USAR) and discusses the HRI issues encountered over the past eight years. A domain theory of the search activity is formulated. The domain theory consists of two parts: 1) a workflow model identifying the major tasks, actions, and roles in robot-assisted search (e.g., a workflow model) and 2) a general information flow model of how data from the robot is fused by various team members into information and knowledge. The information flow model also captures the types of situation awareness needed by each agent in the rescue robot system. The article presents a synopsis of the major HRI issues in reducing the number of humans it takes to control a robot, maintaining performance with geographically distributed teams with intermittent communications, and encouraging acceptance within the existing social structure. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (33)
In conversation, people often use spatial relationships to describe their environment, e.g., "There is a desk in front of me and a doorway behind it," and to issue directives, e.g., "go around the desk and through the doorway." In our research, we have been investigating the use of spatial relationships to establish a natural communication mechanism between people and robots, in particular, for novice users. In this paper, the work on robot spatial relationships is combined with a multimodal robot interface. We show how linguistic spatial descriptions and other spatial information can be extracted from an evidence grid map and how this information can be used in a natural, human-robot dialog. Examples using spatial language are included for both robot-to-human feedback and also human-to-robot commands. We also discuss some linguistic consequences in the semantic representations of spatial and locative information based on this work. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (18)
MissionLab is a mission specification system that implements a hybrid deliberative and reactive control architecture for autonomous mobile robots. The user creates and executes the robot mission plans through its graphical user interface. As robot deployments become more common in highly stressful situations, such as in dealing with explosives or biohazards, the usability of their mission specification system becomes critical. To address this need, a mission-planning "wizard" has been recently integrated into MissionLab. By retrieving and adapting past successful mission plans stored in its database, this new feature is designed to simplify the user's planning process. The latest formal usability experiments, reported in this paper, testing for usability improvements in terms of speed of the mission planning process, accuracy of the produced mission plans, and ease of use is conducted. This paper introduces the mission-planning wizard, describes the usability experiments (including design), and discusses the results in detail. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (48)
This paper explores the topic of human-robot interaction (HRI) from the perspective of designing sociable autonomous robots-robots designed to interact with people in a human-like way. There are a growing number of applications for robots that people can engage as capable creatures or as partners rather than tools, yet little is understood about how to best design robots that interact with people in this way. The related field of human-computer interaction (HCI) offers important insights, however autonomous robots are a very different technology from desktop computers. In this paper, we look at the field of HRI from an HCI perspective, pointing out important similarities yet significant differences that may ultimately make HRI a distinct area of inquiry. One outcome of this discussion is that it is important to view the design and evaluation problem from the robot's perspective as well as that of the human. Taken as a whole, this paper provides a framework with which to design and evaluate sociable robots from a HRI perspective. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (31)
As robot designers, we tend to emphasize the cognitive aspect of intelligence when designing robot architectures while viewing the affective aspect with skepticism. However, scientific studies continue to reveal the deeply intertwined and complementary roles that cognition and emotion play in intelligent decision-making, planning, learning, attention, communication, social interaction, memory, and more. Such findings provide valuable insights and lessons for the design of autonomous robots that must operate in complex and uncertain environments and perform in cooperation with people. This paper presents a concrete implementation of how these insights have guided our work, focusing on the design of sociable autonomous robots that interact with people as capable partners. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (11)
The development of an autonomous social robot, Cherry, is occurring in tandem with studies gaining potential user preferences, likes, dislikes, and perceptions of her features. Thus far, results have indicated that individuals 1) believe that service robots with emotion and personality capabilities would make them more acceptable in everyday roles in human life, 2) prefer that robots communicate via both human-like facial expressions, voice, and text-based media, 3) become more positive about the idea of service and social robots after exposure to the technology, and 4) find the appearance and facial features of Cherry pleasing. The results of these studies provide the basis for future research efforts, which are discussed. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (33)
Developers of autonomous capabilities underestimate the need for coordination with human team members when their automata are deployed into complex operational settings. Automata are brittle as literal minded agents and there is a basic asymmetry in coordinative competencies between people and automata. The new capabilities of robotic systems raise new questions about how to support coordination. This paper presents a series of issues that demand innovation to achieve human-robot coordination (HRC). These include supporting people in their roles as problem holder and as robotic handler, overcoming ambiguities in remote perception, avoiding coordination surprises by better tools to see into future robotic activities and contingencies, and responsibility in human-robot teams. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (6)
A new neural-network-based approach to assess the preference of a decision-maker (DM) for the multiple objective decision making (MODM) problem is presented in this paper. A new neural network structure with a "twin-topology" is introduced in this approach. We call this neural network a decision neural network (DNN). The characteristics of the DNN are discussed, and the training algorithm for DNN is presented as well. The DNN enables the decision-maker to make pairwise comparisons between different alternatives, and these comparison results are used as learning samples to train the DNN. The DNN is applicable for both accurate and inaccurate comparisons (results are given in approximate values or interval scales). The performance of the DNN is evaluated with several typical forms of utility functions. Results show that DNN is an effective and efficient way for modeling the preference of a decision-maker. View full abstract»
Cited by: Papers (7)
In this paper, the design and development of a six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) reconfigurable gripper for implementation of robot based flexible fixtureless assembly (FFA) is described. FFA is a novel technique in which traditional fixtures used, for example, in automotive body assembly industries, are eliminated by the use of several robots, with multifinger grippers that are used to grasp and assemble parts. The objective of this work is to design, build, and test a reconfigurable gripper for the purpose of FFA. The gripper developed in this work is capable of precisely grasping parts of different geometries, rigidly holding the parts in space, and choosing different grasping points while allowing sufficient clearance for welding gun access. The overall design procedure, which is subdivided into the conceptual, configuration and parametric design, includes wrench system determination, kinematic and mechanism design. A novel three-finger gripper is developed. Each finger has two movable joints and two point-contacts with which to grasp the part. Finite element analysis is used to simulate deflections of the gripper components under load to determine critical design parameters. Finally, the workspace and the kinematic model of the reconfigurable gripper have been developed. The gripper was fabricated and tested in grasping experiments using several automotive body panels. The reconfigurable gripper is shown to achieve the objectives set out in this work. View full abstract»
IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS 2004)Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 236| | PDF (747 KB)
IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society InformationPublication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3| | PDF (25 KB)
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part C: Applications and Reviews Information for authorsPublication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c4| | PDF (33 KB)
Aims & Scope
Overview, tutorial and application papers concerning all areas of interest to the SMC Society: systems engineering, human factors and human machine systems, and cybernetics and computational intelligence.
Authors should submit human-machine systems papers to the IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.
Authors should submit systems engineering papers to the IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: Systems.
Authors should submit cybernetics papers to the IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics.
Authors should submit social system papers to the IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems.
Meet Our Editors
Dr. Vladimir Marik
(until 31 December 2012)