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Potentials, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date April-May 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Using sensor networks for highway and traffic applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 13 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks have been used for a variety of applications. However, many highway and traffic applications have not been tapped, primarily sensor networks for highway and traffic algorithms that alleviate generic problems such as highway congestion. This is due to the fact that sensor network technology is a very recent development. Since sensor networks are relatively new, not many applications have been explored in depth. Utilizing the new generation of TinyOS micaboard mote sensors, miniaturized sensors that utilize TinyOS, an event-based operating environment written in code similar to stylized C, the article focuses on how to achieve the best possible data results from sensor network applications and setups for traffic/highway goals. How to use sensor-network graphs for optimal placement of sensors in a network so as to minimize work and to achieve the best possible, and most accurate, signal-strength localization measurements is also be a primary focus. Also discussed is a method that optimizes the tradeoff between energy and accuracy using a variety of activation policies. Finally, simulations and distancing experiments of indoor and outdoor data are provided to encourage similar sensor work. View full abstract»

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  • Using radio waves to study planetary atmospheres

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 39 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the field of electrical engineering, complex coding and signal processing techniques are the norm. Thus, it is refreshing to consider the amount of planetary science that can be done simply by using a high-quality radio. The radio, usually located on an exploring spacecraft, transmits a simple, single-frequency, sinusoidal tone that sweeps through a planet's atmosphere. After the electromagnetic energy passes through the atmosphere, it is received on the other side of the planet. Then, researchers analyze and detect the changes in the received signal energy caused by the interaction with the planet's atmosphere. The information from the received signal is used to determine the number density of particles, the temperature, and the pressure of the volume of atmosphere that the signal passed through. This method of remote sensing is known as radio occultation. The technique was first used in the summer of 1965 to measure the surface pressure on Mars. Since then, the atmospheres of all of the planets in the solar system (except for Pluto), and of some satellites, have been studied just by using a simple, sinusoidal radio signal. With continued application of the radio occultation method and with the development and implementation of higher-output multiple spacecraft constellations, the future promises to be even more productive. View full abstract»

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  • Arecibo Observatory 40th anniversary celebration

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 41 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), operated by Cornell University for the National Science Foundation, has its laboratory at Arecibo in Puerto Rico. The Observatory's main instrument is a radio/radar telescope that utilizes a giant reflector antenna 1,000 feet in diameter, the largest in the world by a considerable margin. A 40th anniversary celebration of the 1963 inauguration of this Observatory was held at the site in Puerto Rico on 1 November 2003. About 135 invited guests enjoyed the nearly daylong ceremony. The author describes how he has been associated with the Observatory since its inception and notes some of the major discoveries and accomplishments radio scientists have made using the Arecibo Observatory over the last 40 years. The structure of the telescope is described. An account is given of the events taking place during the celebrations. View full abstract»

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  • Practical issues in high speed PCB design

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 24 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current high-speed PCB (printed circuit board) designs need extra care due to the frequency of operation and reduced rise time signals. We present the main issues and parameters that a PCB designer has to consider and analyze before a board layout is created. First order approximation equations for various parameters are presented, based on the geometry of the PCB traces. Some useful design practices are also mentioned. As the speed of operation increases, the variables that are neglected in the lower frequency/higher rise time situation become more significant. Such parameters increase the complexity of the design. Three-dimensional analysis becomes a must to calculate and model interconnects accurately. This is where field solvers and the role of the signal integrity engineer come into play. View full abstract»

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  • The Rijndael algorithm

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 36 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Rijndael algorithm is the new advanced encryption standard (AES) approved by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). With this algorithm supporting significantly larger key sizes than DES (data encryption standard) supports, NIST believes that the AES has the potential of remaining secure for the next few decades. In overall performance, based on the speed of encryption and decryption and on key set-up time, the Rijndael algorithm has attained top scores in tests conducted by NIST. The belief is that almost all US government agencies will shift to the AES algorithm for their data security needs in the next few years. Also, that the algorithm will find its way in smart cards and other security-oriented applications used for safely storing private information about individuals. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalence checking for digital circuits

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 21 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrated circuit technology has made it possible to produce chips with several millions of transistors. However, the increasingly more complex digital circuit designs and limited time constraints only add to the pressure during the implementation process. Traditional functional verification based on simulation has, during the design creation phase, reached its limits. Thus alternatives to simulation are being used. The most important alternative is equivalence checking, known also as formal verification. With equivalence checking, the highly automated analysis of the different levels of digital circuit design is performed. A comprehensive formal verification solution at every stage in the design-flow is the main approach for today's digital circuit design. Equivalence checking uses mathematical proof algorithms, then verifies every node in the design. Thus, equivalence checking guarantees 100% verification coverage without the need for test vectors. This is the big advantage over the traditional practice of functional verification by simulation that is directed by a set of test vectors. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic detection of TV commercials

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 9 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    TV advertising commercials are a critical marketing tool for many companies. Their interspersion within regular broadcast television programming can be entertaining, informing, annoying or a sales gold mine depending on one's viewpoint. As a result, there are two major reasons for being able to detect commercial segments within television broadcasts. These two applications' goals - at least indirectly - are at odds with each other. One application seeks to identify and track when specific commercials are broadcast. Advertisers, in particular, like to verify that their contracts with broadcasters are fulfilled as promised. The other group wants to detect commercials for the purpose of eliminating them from their recordings. This group consists of viewers who want to watch their recorded television shows without the annoyance of commercials. Video database maintainers would also appreciate the ability to automatically edit out commercials in stored shows and thereby decrease storage requirements. Of course, advertisers are strongly opposed to such devices because that defeats the purpose of the commercials. The article discusses several algorithms that have been experimentally used to detect commercials, as well as devices that are currently available for this purpose. View full abstract»

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  • Product testing

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 17 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most organizations have some type of product test function. The process may be informal and accomplished by the product developers, or more formal with the implementation by an independent testing organization. The article does not cover the location and structure of the testing group. Rather, the function and approach to testing is emphasized: the role of the product tester, the responsibilities placed on the tester and the broad skill sets needed to be successful in this role. Testing is a challenging opportunity for those who wish and/or need to understand the product and its use and user environment, all in a single package. It is a career that is unique from this perspective. View full abstract»

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  • 12 questions to ask that IT vendor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 33 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Participating in selecting an information technology (IT) vendor can be a great way for newly hired engineers to learn about their organization, because it allows them to see how departments work/do not work together, to hear the varied interests and concerns of multiple stakeholders, and to observe the interaction between their organization and the possible IT product vendors. At a meeting with a vendor, the newcomer may wish to "listen and learn" from colleagues, but, for more active participation, the author suggests twelve questions to put to the vendor. Broadly speaking, these questions address three issues: 1) whether the vendor understand the buyer's objectives; 2) whether this vendor is offering the best solution; 3) what challenges are likely to be encountered if the vendor's recommendations are implemented. View full abstract»

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  • The way ahead

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3
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  • Patterns of engineering

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 4 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Both individuals and disciplines, as a whole, learn from experience. Patterns are a way to capture that experience which is often lost in traditional design literature. Patterns work with other patterns under human guidance to support a process for building systems that employ local adaptation and piecemeal growth. The pattern language design technique has roots in architecture and has close ties to broad engineering practices; many engineering artifacts (such as the article's suspension bridge and the push-pull amplifier examples) are typical patterns. Patterns are being widely used in object-oriented software development and have pushed into other areas of software engineering. However, they are a natural fit for a broad spectrum of current engineering design practices. Design can be defined as the process that takes one from a problem to a workable solution. Whether your design techniques help you create the reinforcements in a large dam, improve the speed or density of a VLSI circuit, or create the layout of a new neighborhood, they all have to do with creating structures that solve problems. Many of the solutions to the design problems set to students can be taught as engineering rules. Such rules are often the foundation for teaching an engineering discipline. View full abstract»

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  • 2004 Student Activities Committee e-mail addresses

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB)  
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  • Leakage current-based testing of CMOS ICs

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 28 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As semiconductor technology advances, testing integrated circuits (ICs) has become a challenging task. Semiconductor manufacturers use various methods, including the functional test, the structural test and the speed or delay test. One of the most popular test methods is the leakage current, or IDDQ, test. The article describes the advantages of IDDQ tests. As transistor geometries are scaled further, IDDQ values and variations are projected to increase. Thus, we need to understand the components of the variation in IDDQ to develop the most suitable screening method. IDDQ tests will continue to remain an important and integral component of a test suite. However, IDDQ measurements will need to be supported by rigorous statistical data analysis to reduce yield loss in the future. Manufacturers must he able to define their own statistical procedures to tune pass/fail criteria optimally. It may not be possible to bin the chips until the data from a lot of wafers are collected. The trends in lot-to-lot or wafer-to-wafer variations in IDDQ must be monitored and used in the analysis procedures. View full abstract»

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  • S-PAC at University of Connecticut

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 45 - 46
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  • IEEE Potentials - Executive Information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Potentials - April/May 2004

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 0_1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Potentials Magazine Information - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Gamesman Solutions / Gamesman problems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 47 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Finding your dream job - IEEE

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • What's new @ IEEE

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 49
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • GOLD - Graduates of the Last Decade - IEEE online

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 50
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Potentials is the magazine dedicated to undergraduate and graduate students and young professionals.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David Tian
Carnegie Mellon University
david.tian@ieee.org